Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to stanza

7. Anonymous Poems, Allra postula minnisvísur, 7 [Vol. 7, 861-2]

[6] krossfestr ‘crucified’: <K> erased, superscript ‘ro’ partly illegible. According to a tradition which can be traced as far back as Polycrates of Ephesus (C2nd), Philip is said to have died a peaceful death (cf. Beda, Martyrologium, col. 896C: apud Hierapolim dormivit in pace ‘At Hierapolis he fell to sleep in peace’); according to another tradition, he was crucified and stoned to death, see Brev. 4/5-7: Philippus ... in Hierapuli Frigiae provinciae crucifixus et lapidatus obiit ‘Philip ... died in Hierapolis of the province of Phrygia, after being crucified and stoned’; cf. IO 72; Cynewulf, Fates 37-41 (in Brooks 1961, 57): Philipus ... ece lif | þurh rode cwealm ricene gesohte, | syððan on galgan in Gearapolim | ahangen wæs hildecorðre ‘Phillip ... sought eternal life at once through death on the cross, when he was hanged on a gallows in Hierapolis by a troop of armed men’. This version of the Apostle’s martyrdom is repeated in many Icel. sources, cf. Holm perg 5 fol, 59vb (Foote 1976, 154); cf. Ph 737, AM 660 4°, 23v (Foote 1976, 153) and AM 764 4°, 16v. A long cross is one of Philip’s traditional iconographic attributes (see Braun 1943, 607-8; Kilström 1956, 175), and the Apostle is regularly represented as crucified on a tall cross (Roeder 1956, 23).


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