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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

III. 1. Haustlǫng (Haustl) - 20

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Haustlǫng — Þjóð HaustlIII

Margaret Clunies Ross 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 431.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 2. Haustlǫng (AI, 16-20, BI, 14-18)

SkP info: III, 459

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

18 — Þjóð Haustl 18III

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 18’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 459.

Fjǫrspillir lét falla
fjalfrs ólágra gjalfra
bǫlverðungar Belja
bolm á randar holmi.
Þar hné grundar gilja
gramr fyr skǫrpum hamri,
en berg-Dana bagði
brjótr við jǫrmunþrjóti.

{Fjǫrspillir {bǫlverðungar Belja}} lét {bolm {fjalfrs ólágra gjalfra}} falla á {holmi randar}. Þar hné {gramr {grundar gilja}} fyr skǫrpum hamri, en {brjótr {berg-Dana}} bagði við jǫrmunþrjóti.

{The life-destroyer {of the evil-causing troop of Beli <giant>}} [GIANTS > = Þórr] made {the bear {of the hiding-place of not low roaring waters}} [CAVE > GIANT = Hrungnir] fall on {the island of the shield-rim} [SHIELD]. There {the ruler {of the land of ravines}} [MOUNTAINS > GIANT = Hrungnir] sank down on account of the tough hammer, and {the breaker {of rock-Danes}} [GIANTS > = Þórr] caused injury to the mighty obstinate one.

Mss: R(24r), Tˣ(24v), W(51) (SnE)

Readings: [2] fjalfrs: ‘fialbrs’ all;    gjalfra: ‘gialbra’ all    [6] gramr: ‘gnir’ Tˣ, ‘gramm’ W    [8] jǫrmunþrjóti: so W, jǫrmun R, ‘jorman’ Tˣ

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 2. Haustlǫng 18: AI, 20, BI, 18, Skald I, 11, NN §§2504, 3040, 3203; SnE 1848-87, I, 282-3, III, 22-3, SnE 1931, 105, SnE 1998, I, 23.

Context: As for st. 14.

Notes: [All]: There is a partial discrepancy between this stanza’s statement that Þórr caused Hrungnir to fall on his shield (ll. 1-4) and the elaborate narrative of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 22), in which Þórr fell forward, hit in the forehead by a shaft from Hrungnir’s whetstone, while Hrungnir himself, hit by Mjǫllnir, fell forward over the prostrate Þórr so that one leg lay over the god’s neck. — [2, 4] bolm fjalfrs ólágra gjalfra ‘the bear of the hiding-place of not low roaring waters [CAVE > GIANT = Hrungnir]’: As often in giant-kennings, an animal base-word is employed (cf. Meissner 258-9). Here Hrungnir is compared to a bear, and his dwelling to a mountain cave, which is fjalfr ólágra gjalfra ‘the hiding-place of not low [i.e. high] roaring waters’. Ólágr lit. ‘un-low’ could be understood in two senses: high, in the sense of stormy, rising high (of roaring waters or seas), or high in the sense of high up in the mountains. The latter is probably the more likely here. — [3] Belja ‘of Beli <giant>’: The name of a giant killed by the god Freyr (SnE 2005, 31-2; Vsp 53/5). Beli’s troop are giants in general, and their destroyer is Þórr. — [7] berg-Dana ‘of rock-Danes’: A kenning for giants, which also appears in Hym 17/7. Other kennings whose base-words compare giants to Danes are Eil Þdr 13/6, 8 and VSt Erf 2/2, 4. Kock (Skald and NN §3203, following Lindquist 1929, 88-9) emends to berg-Agða ‘rock-people of Agder’ (a district of southern Norway) to achieve skothending in this line, though there is no ms. support for this. — [7] bagði ‘caused injury’: Cf. AEW: baga 2. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emended to bægði, from bægja ‘strive against, oppose’ (cf. LP: bægja).

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated