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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

III. 1. Haustlǫng (Haustl) - 20

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Haustlǫng — Þjóð HaustlIII

Margaret Clunies Ross 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 431.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 2. Haustlǫng (AI, 16-20, BI, 14-18)

SkP info: III, 455

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

15 — Þjóð Haustl 15III

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 15’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 455.

Knôttu ǫll, en Ullar,
endilôg, fyr mági
grund vas grápi hrundin,
ginnunga vé brinna,
þás hofregin hafrar
hógreiðar framm drógu
— seðr gekk Svǫlnis ekkja
sundr — at Hrungnis fundi.

{Ǫll endilôg vé ginnunga} knôttu brinna, en grund vas hrundin grápi fyr {mági Ullar}, þás hafrar drógu framm {hofregin hógreiðar} at fundi Hrungnis; {ekkja Svǫlnis} gekk seðr sundr.

{All sanctuaries of hawks, low from end to end} [SKIES/HEAVENS] were burning, and the ground was battered with hail in front of {the kinsman of Ullr <god>} [= Þórr], when the goats drew forward {the temple-deity of the comfortable chariot} [= Þórr] to a meeting with Hrungnir; {the widow of Svǫlnir <= Óðinn>} [= Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)] split asunder at once.

Mss: R(23v-24r), Tˣ(24v), W(51) (SnE)

Readings: [4] ginnunga: so all others, ‘ginnivnga’ R;    brinna: so W, ‘hrinna’ R, ‘brinra’ Tˣ    [5] hafrar: ‘hafrir’ R, hafði Tˣ, hǫfðu W    [6] ‑reiðar: reiðir Tˣ    [7] seðr: seiðr Tˣ, seið W

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 2. Haustlǫng 15: AI, 19, BI, 17, Skald I, 11, NN §§140, 1019, 1812, 2985D; SnE 1848-87, I, 278-81, III, 21, SnE 1931, 104, SnE 1998, I, 23.

Context: As for st. 14.

Notes: [All]: Taking up the theme of cosmic disturbance caused by Þórr’s journey through the skies (st. 14/6, 8) to Grjótún, st. 15 elaborates on it, and it is taken further in sts 16/2, 3, 4: all the skies are aflame and hail batters the ground before Þórr’s chariot, pulled by two goats (cf. Gylf, SnE 2005, 23). — [1, 2] fyr mági Ullar ‘in front of the kinsman of Ullr <god> [= Þórr]’: Ullr was Þórr’s stepson, being the son of his wife Sif by an unidentified partner. The same kenning appears in EVald Þórr 3/4; see Note there. — [2] endilôg ‘low from end to end’: This cpd hap. leg. adj. has been taken by most eds as f. nom. sg. to qualify grund ‘ground, earth’ (l. 3) and, while this is possible, it is also possible, and syntactically more natural (so Wood 1960b, 153-5), to take it as n. nom. pl. with vé ginnunga ‘sanctuaries of hawks’ in a sky-kenning, of the kind noted by Meissner 108 as belonging to the type ‘province of the bird’ (cf. Marold 1983, 170). — [5, 6] hofregin hógreiðar ‘the temple-deity of the comfortable chariot [= Þórr]’: In the hap. leg. cpd hofregin, the second element, m. nom. sg. reginn, is unusually encountered in the n. pl. regin ‘gods, divine powers’, though here, as in its occurrence in Glúmr Gráf 4/6I, it is sg. See also Note to st. 12/6 above. Skj B emends hofregin to hafregin, understanding the cpd to mean ‘raised, lifted deity’, assuming the first element haf- to derive from the verb hefja ‘raise’ (cf. LP: haf-reginn). There is no reason why Þórr could not be called a hofreginn ‘temple-deity’, however; beginning with Adam of Bremen’s account (Schmeidler 1917, 258) of the temple at Uppsala, which places an image of Þórr in the most prominent position, and including close associations recorded in saga literature between Þórr and high-seat pillars, which sometimes had the god’s image carved on them (cf. Clunies Ross 1998b, 142-4), there is good reason to associate Þórr with sacred places. — [7] seðr ‘at once’: An older form of the more common senn ‘at once, immediately’. — [7] ekkja Svǫlnis ‘the widow of Svǫlnir <= Óðinn> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The word ekkja ‘widow’ may be used here in the sense ‘abandoned or alternative wife’ (cf. SnE 1998, II, 264) or it may simply mean ‘woman’ or ‘wife’. The personified Earth (Jǫrð) was thought of as one of Óðinn’s many partners and the mother of Þórr.

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated