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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

III. 1. Haustlǫng (Haustl) - 20

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Haustlǫng — Þjóð HaustlIII

Margaret Clunies Ross 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 431.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 2. Haustlǫng (AI, 16-20, BI, 14-18)

SkP info: III, 432

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

1 — Þjóð Haustl 1III

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 432.

Hvé skalk gótt at gjǫldum
gunnveggjar brú leggja

raddkleif at Þórleifi.
Týframra sék tíva
trygglaust of far þriggja
á hreingǫru hlýri
Hildar fats ok Þjaza.

Hvé skalk leggja … gótt ... at gjǫldum {brú {gunnveggjar}} ... {raddkleif} at Þórleifi. Sék trygglaust of far þriggja týframra tíva ok Þjaza á {hreingǫru hlýri {fats Hildar}}.

How can I provide … good ... as recompense {for the bridge {of the battle-wall}} [SHIELD-WALL > SHIELD] ... {voice-cliff} [SHIELD] from Þorleifr. I see the insecure situation of three god-bold deities and Þjazi on {the brightly made surface {of the clothing of Hildr <valkyrie>}} [ARMOUR > SHIELD-FACE].

Mss: R(25v), Tˣ(26r), W(55) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Hvé skalk (‘Hue skal ec’): so Tˣ, ‘[…]’ R, hvé skal W;    gótt: ‘[…]’ R, ‘got’ Tˣ, ‘goðs’ W;    at: so all others, ‘[…]’ R;    gjǫldum: ‘[…]’ R, ‘gioldo’ Tˣ, ‘gjǫld[…]’ W    [2] ‑veggjar: ‑veigar Tˣ;    brú leggja: so all others, ‘[…]’ R    [3] …: ‘[…]’ R, om. Tˣ, space for one line left but not filled in W    [4] raddkleif: ‘[…]’ R, naddkleif Tˣ, ‘[…]addkleif’ W;    at Þórleifi: so all others, ‘[…]’ R;    at: so all others, ‘[…]’ R    [5] ‑framra: framma Tˣ;    tíva: so W, ‘tifa’ R, Tˣ    [6] of: ok all;    far: so W, ‘fia[…]’ R, fjár Tˣ;    þriggja: so all others, ‘[…]’ R    [7] á hreingǫru: so W, ‘[…]ro’ R, ‘hleingo᷎ro’ Tˣ    [8] Hildar: so all others, ‘hild[…]’ R;    fats: ‘vez’ all

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 2. Haustlǫng 1: AI, 16, BI, 14, Skald I, 9, NN §§157, 1809, 2985D, 3036, 3197A; SnE 1848-87, I, 306-7, III, 40, SnE 1931, 111, SnE 1998, I, 30.

Context: Stanzas 1-13 of Haustl are quoted as a block in three mss of SnE R, (minus st. 4) and W (minus sts 11/6-13/8) after a short section of Skm on names and periphrases for Norse goddesses. The stanzas come after the listing of kennings for the goddess Iðunn, and are introduced with the statement: Eptir þeiri sǫgu orti Þjóðólfr hinn hvinverski í Haustlǫng ‘Þjóðólfr from Kvinesdal (Hvinir) composed [verses] in Haustlǫng based on that story’.

Notes: [All]: Although the ms. transmission of this stanza is poor, it clearly forms an introduction to the drápa, in which Þjóðólfr exclaims at the task of repaying with a poem the generosity of his patron, Þorleifr, for the gift of a decorated shield, and begins to describe what he can see on its painted surface. — [1-4]: Lines 1-4 are largely illegible in R and missing words are supplied from and W. Finnur Jónsson (Skj A) was able to read ‘Hve skal æk gott gioldvm’ in l. 1, but these words are illegible now. Line 3 is lacking in all mss; it is omitted in and the scribe of W left a gap for it, but the gap was never filled. — [1] gótt … at gjǫldum ‘good … as recompense’: The line lacks skothending, but this is common in early skaldic verse (cf. Gade 1995a, 6). The prep. at in and W is required on grounds of sense and metre and may also have been present in R (so, tentatively Skj AI, 16 n. and Faulkes, SnE 1998, I, 139). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) adopts W’s góðs and renders the line as Hvé skalk góðs at gjǫldum, but does not provide a prose order or translation for ll. 1-4. Kock (Skald; cf. NN §3197A) emends gótt/góðs to gilds, for which there is no ms. justification. Faulkes (SnE 1998, I, 177) has proposed construing ll. 1-2 without at (l. 1) as ‘…’, but this must be rejected as hypometrical and syntactically dubious. — [2] brú gunnveggjar ‘for the bridge of the battle-wall [SHIELD-WALL > SHIELD]’: It is presumed that brú ‘bridge’ is dat. Gunnveggr ‘battle-wall’ (hap. leg.) refers to a defensive formation of overlapping shields presented to the enemy in battle. — [4] raddkleif ‘voice-cliff [SHIELD]’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj A) reported in a note that the initial <r> of this cpd was beskadiget ‘damaged’ in W, though he gives ‘raddkleif’ in the variant readings, while Faulkes (SnE 1998, I, 139) claimed it was illegible by the time he came to examine it, and it is illegible now. The shield-kenning is unusual, and may not be complete, assuming the rest of an inverted tvíkent kenning comprised the gen. of a word for ‘weapon’, whose voice is battle, and whose cliff is a shield (cf. SnE 1998, II, 372). Holtsmark (1949, 9) adopts ’s reading naddkleif ‘spear-point cliff [SHIELD]’. — [4] at Þórleifi ‘from Þorleifr’: Presumably the name of the poet’s patron, possibly (certainly LP: Þórleifr) to be identified with Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’, the son of Hǫrða-Kári, c. 900, or possibly later, if he is the same Þorleifr as the one who was involved in setting up the Icelandic alþingi in 930 (cf. ÍF 1, 7 and n., 313; cf. ÍF 26, 163 n.; SnE 1998, I, 169; Holtsmark 1949, 5). — [6] of: Emendation, as all mss read ok ‘and’. Of is a pleonastic particle used with pret. tenses and pret. participles of verbs and some nouns, found most often in early poetry, later replaced by um (cf. Kuhn 1929a; Fidjestøl 1989b). — [7-8] á hreingǫru hlýri fats Hildar ‘on the brightly-made surface of the clothing of Hildr <valkyrie> [ARMOUR > SHIELD-FACE]’: Þjóðólfr seems to have created this unusual tvíkent kenning to draw his audience’s attention to the brightly decorated shield-face upon which the scenes he was to describe were painted or carved. — [8] fats ‘of the clothing’: An emendation, first proposed by Konráð Gíslason (1876, 329 and see Skj AI, 16 n.), for all mss’ ‘vez’ or ‘uez’, which does not make sense. Skald (cf. NN §1809) emends to nets, giving the kenning nets Hildar ‘of the net of Hildr [SHIELD]’, but this emendation does not provide aðalhending. — [8] Þjaza ‘Þjazi’: Name of a giant, mentioned in a number of eddic and skaldic poems, as well as in Gylf (SnE 2005, 23-4) and Skm (SnE 1998, I, 1-2). Various etymologies of his name have been proposed; see AEW: Þjazi and Note to Þul Jǫtna I 1/4. He sought to abduct the goddess Iðunn by pressuring Loki into enticing her away from Ásgarðr, after he had first prevented Óðinn’s, Hœnir’s and Loki’s dinner (an ox) from cooking while they were away from home. After his death, his daughter Skaði sought compensation from the gods for her father’s killing.

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated