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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Snorri Sturluson (SnSt)

13th century; volume 3; ed. Kari Ellen Gade;

III. Háttatal (Ht) - 102

Skj info: Snorri Sturluson, Islandsk höfding og skjald, 1178-1241. (AII, 52-79, BII, 60-90).

Skj poems:
1. En drape om Skule jarl
2. Háttatal
3. Af et religiøst digt (?)
4. Lausavísur
4. Lausavísur

prose works

Háttatal — SnSt HtIII

Kari Ellen Gade 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Snorri Sturluson, Háttatal’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1094.

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Skj: Snorri Sturluson: 2. Háttatal, 1222-23 (AII, 52-77, BII, 61-88)

SkP info: III, 1134

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

28 — SnSt Ht 28III

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Snorri Sturluson, Háttatal 28’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1134.

Vandbaugs veitti sendir
vígrakkr, en gjǫf þakkak
skjaldbraks skylja mildum,
skipreiðu mér, heiða.
Fann næst fylkir unna
fǫl dýr at gjǫf stýri
stálhreins; styrjar deilis
stórlæti sák mæta.

{Vígrakkr sendir {vandbaugs}} veitti mér skipreiðu, en þakkak skylja, mildum {skjaldbraks}, heiða gjǫf. Næst fann fylkir {fǫl dýr unna} at gjǫf {stýri {stálhreins}}; sák mæta stórlæti {deilis styrjar}.

{The battle-brave sender {of the rod of the shield-boss}} [SWORD > WARRIOR = Hákon] provided me with a levy district, and I thank the lord, liberal {with shield-crash} [BATTLE], for the glorious gift. Next the leader selected {pale animals of the waves} [SHIPS] as a gift {for the steerer {of the stem-reindeer}} [SHIP > SEAFARER]; I saw the noble munificence {of the controller of strife} [WARRIOR].

Mss: R(48r), Tˣ(50r), W(143), U(47r) (l. 1), U(52r) (SnE); W(104), A(5r) (TGT, ll. 3-4)

Readings: [1] Vand‑: so W(143), Van‑ R, U(47r), Vann‑ Tˣ, U(52r);    veitti: veiti W(143), U(47r), U(52r)    [2] víg‑: veg‑ W(143)    [3] skjald‑: skjal Tˣ;    ‑braks: so Tˣ, W(143), W(104), A, ‑brags R, U(52r)    [4] ‑reiðu: so Tˣ, W(143), W(104), A, reiðum R, ‘‑reþi’ U(52r);    mér: menn U(52r)    [5] unna: vinna Tˣ    [6] fǫl dýr: so Tˣ, ‘favl dyrr’ R, fjǫldýr W(143), ‘falldvr’ U(52r);    at: af W(143);    stýri: stýris W(143), stýra U(52r)    [7] stál‑: so all others, ‘stol‑’ R;    styrjar: styrja W(143);    deilis: deili U(52r)    [8] sák (‘sa ec’): ‘faer’ U(52r)

Editions: Skj: Snorri Sturluson, 2. Háttatal 28: AII, 59-60, BII, 68, Skald II, 39; SnE 1848-87, I, 638-9, II, 371, 386, III, 117, SnE 1879-81, I, 4, 77, II, 14, SnE 1931, 228, SnE 2007, 16; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 18-19; SnE 1848-87, II, 122-3, 412, TGT 1884, 19, 79, 190, TGT 1927, 55, 97.

Context: The stanza illustrates tvískelft ‘twice-trembled’ (or ‘double-shaken’, SnE 2007, 156). This is a variant of dróttkvætt in which the odd lines have alliteration in positions 1 and 3 (Type A-lines) and position 2 is occupied by a long, heavy syllable (Type A2l) rather than by a short enclitic derivational or inflectional ending or by a proclitic formword. In Snorri’s variant the first internal rhyme in the odd lines falls in metrical position 1. In TGT ll. 3-4 are given as an example of Cacenphaton (ON þreskǫld ‘threshold’), when the final sound in one word is the same as the onset of the next word, here -braks skylja.

Notes: [All]: The headings are tvískelft .xxi. ‘twice-trembled, the twenty-first’ () and tvískelft (U(47r)). The term must refer to the metrically heavy onset of the odd lines (Sievers’s Type A2l), directly followed by the second alliterative stave in metrical position 3. See also RvHbreiðm Hl 81-2, as well as Hallv Knútdr and HSt RstI. This is the first stanza in the second category of dróttkvætt (sts 28-67), in which Snorri exemplifies variants of dróttkvætt in terms of alliteration, variations of hendingar and length of lines (see Introduction above). — [All]: Lines 3-4 are attributed to Snorri in TGT. — [1] vandbaugs ‘of the rod of the shield-boss [SWORD]’: So W. Van- has been altered in R to Vann- (R*), but neither word can be construed to make any sense. — [2] en ‘and’: In R ek ‘I’ has been added after this conj. (R*). — [4] skipreiðu (f. acc. sg.) ‘a levy district’: So W(143), W(104), . Skipreiðum (f. dat. pl.) ‘levy districts’ (R) is ungrammatical (the acc. case is required by the syntax). This refers to a coastal district whose population was responsible for equipping a warship. The district was likely the one given to Snorri by Hákon, which was mentioned in st. 27 above (see Note to st. 27/5, 7). — [6] fǫl (n. acc. pl.) ‘pale’: This adj. can also be the n. acc. pl. of falr ‘marketable, available’, but the meaning ‘pale’ has been adopted here in keeping with in bleika súð ‘the pale ship’ in st. 27/2 above. Hákon must have offered the ships to Snorri, but the ship on which he sailed back to Iceland in 1220 he had received from Skúli (Stu 1878, I, 244). — [6] at gjǫf ‘as a gift’: For this meaning of the prep. at, see Heggstad et al. 2008: at 11. See also sts 49/2 and 86/2. — [7] stálhreins ‘of the stem-reindeer [SHIP]’: So all other mss. In R ‘stolhreins’ has been altered to ‘stalhrein’ (R*). — [8] mæta (f. acc. sg.) ‘noble’: This adj. is grammatically difficult. Earlier eds connect it with stórlæti ‘generosity’; stórlæti is n., not f., however. Following Konráð Gíslason (1895-7), Faulkes (SnE 2007, 151) does indeed give it as a f. noun, and we would then have to assume an unattested f. in-stem variant. Mæta could also be a weak n. acc. sg., but that is unlikely from a grammatical point of view (see NS §50).

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