Runic Dictionary

login: password: stay logged in: help

Sigvatr Þórðarson (Sigv)

11th century; volume 1; ed. Judith Jesch;

7. Flokkr about Erlingr Skjálgsson (Erlfl) - 10

Sigvatr or Sighvatr Þórðarson (Sigv) is said (ÍF 27, 54) to have been the son of Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’, an Icelander who served, in succession, Sigvaldi jarl Strút-Haraldsson, leader of the Jómsvíkingar, his brother Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’, who campaigned in England, and Óláfr Haraldsson, later king of Norway (r. c. 1015-30) and saint. Þórðr is listed as one of Sigvaldi’s skalds in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 259, 268), but none of his poetry survives. The family tradition of poetry can also be traced in Óttarr svarti ‘the Black’, said to have been Sigvatr’s sister’s son (ÍF 27, 144; ÓH 1941, I, 203). Sigvatr was brought up by a certain Þorkell, at Apavatn in south-west Iceland. When nearly fully grown he sailed to what is now Trondheim, where he met up with his father and joined King Óláfr’s retinue. According to Snorri (ÍF 27, 54-6; ÓH 1941, I, 81-3), Sigvatr recited Lv 2-3 at this time, and he interceded with the king on behalf of Icelandic merchants forced to pay a heavy tax in Norway (cf. Sigv Lv 4). It is also likely that this is when Þórðr provided Sigvatr with the material for Víkv (see Introduction to Sigv Víkv), which may be the poem referred to in the prose introduction to Sigv Lv 2 (Fidjestøl 1982, 118). There is no evidence that Sigvatr ever returned to Iceland, and according to the anecdote in which Sigv Lv 11 is preserved, he died on the island of Selja in north-western Norway and was buried at Kristskirkja (Kristkirken) in Trondheim. His poetry records his various journeys to Sweden, England and the Continent, as well as incidents in Norway. We know nothing of Sigvatr’s private life, except that he had a daughter called Tófa, who had King Óláfr himself as her godfather (Sigv Lv 19).

Sigvatr’s surviving poetic oeuvre is both large and remarkably diverse, encompassing different kinds of encomia not only on King Óláfr (Sigv Víkv, Sigv Nesv, Sigv Óldr, Sigv ErfÓl), but also on King Knútr of Denmark (Sigv Knútdr) and the Norwegian nobleman Erlingr Skjálgsson (Sigv Erl, Sigv Erlfl). Sigvatr was godfather to King Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and composed some avuncular words of advice to the boy-king (Sigv BervII). All of these patrons are recognised in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 252-4, 258, 260-2, 269), where Sigvatr is also credited with having composed for the Swedish king Ǫnundr Óláfsson (although no such poetry survives, cf. Sigv Knútdr 4/6) and the Norwegian chieftain Ívarr inn hvíti ‘the White’ (cf. Context to Sigv Lv 8). Sigvatr also composed a poem on the Norwegian pretender Tryggvi Óláfsson (Sigv Tryggfl) and is unique in having composed in dróttkvætt in praise of a woman, Óláfr Haraldsson’s widow Ástríðr Óláfsdóttir (Sigv Ást). Several of Sigvatr’s poems are more or less loosely connected sequences of stanzas rather than more formal compositions, and encompass both travelogue (Sigv Austv) and political commentary (Sigv Vestv, Sigv BervII). The latter genre is also well represented in his lausavísur, which also include some remarkably personal stanzas expressing his grief at the death of King Óláfr (Sigv Lv 22-4). Sigvatr’s status as a hǫfuðskáld ‘chief skald’ was recognised in the twelfth century (cf. Esk Geisl 12/8VII). His versatility as a poet has clearly inspired a number of anecdotes focusing on the composition of poetry, mostly of doubtful authenticity (cf. Contexts to Sigv Lv 1, 8, 11, 27; also Introduction to Ótt Hfl). Apart from two fragments preserved in SnE (Sigv Frag 1-2III), Sigvatr’s poetry is transmitted in a wide range of texts within the tradition of the kings’ sagas and is therefore edited in this volume or (in the case of the late Sigv Berv) in SkP II. For general studies of Sigvatr’s life and works, see Paasche (1917), Hollander (1940) and Petersen (1946).

Flokkr about Erlingr Skjálgsson — Sigv ErlflI

Judith Jesch 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Sigvatr Þórðarson, Flokkr about Erlingr Skjálgsson’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 629.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10 

Skj: Sigvatr Þórðarson: 7. Flokkr om Erlingr Skjalgsson, 1028-29 (AI, 244-7, BI, 228-31)

SkP info: I, 639

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

7 — Sigv Erlfl 7I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Flokkr about Erlingr Skjálgsson 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 639.

Áslákr hefr aukit
(es vǫrðr drepinn Hǫrða)
(fáir skyldu svá) (foldar)
frændsekju (styr vekja).
Ættvígi má eigi
(á líti þeir) níta
— frændr skyli bræði bindask
bornir — (môl in fornu).

Áslákr hefr aukit frændsekju; {vǫrðr {foldar Hǫrða}} es drepinn; fáir skyldu vekja styr svá. Ættvígi má eigi níta; bornir frændr skyli bindask bræði; líti þeir á in fornu môl.

Áslákr has increased crime against kindred; {the guardian {of the land of the Hǫrðar}} [= Hordaland > = Erlingr] has been killed; few should cause conflict in such a way. Kin-killing cannot be denied; those born as kinsmen should refrain from violence; let them look to the old sayings.

Mss: (433r) (Hkr); Holm2(58r), 321ˣ(219), 73aˣ(179v), 68(57v), Holm4(55vb), 61(116vb), 75c(39r) (ll. 2-8), 325V(69ra-b), 325VII(32r), Bb(189rb), Flat(119rb), Tóm(146v-147r), 325XI 2 b(1ra) (ÓH)

Readings: [2] es vǫrðr drepinn Hǫrða: ‘[…]þa’ 75c;    es (‘er’): ætt 68, 325V;    vǫrðr: norðr 73aˣ, 61;    drepinn: drepi 325V    [3] fáir skyldu: fá er skild Flat;    foldar: ‘f[…]ldar’ 325XI 2 b    [5] ‑vígi: víga 321ˣ, 73aˣ, ‑vígum 61, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, 325XI 2 b, ‑vígjum 75c, ‑víg Tóm    [6] á líti þeir: um bítask þar 61, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, 325XI 2 b;    líti: lítit 321ˣ, 73aˣ;    þeir: því at 73aˣ;    níta: víta 73aˣ    [7] frændr: ‘frœdr’ 321ˣ, ‘[…]ndr’ 325XI 2 b;    skyli: ‘m(unu)’(?) 61, ‘[…]yli’ 325XI 2 b;    bræði: bæði 321ˣ, bǫls of 73aˣ, om. 68, bræðr Flat    [8] bornir: bornir bænir 68;    fornu: ‘fo[…]nu’ 325XI 2 b

Editions: Skj: Sigvatr Þórðarson, 7. Flokkr om Erlingr Skjalgsson 7: AI, 246-7, BI, 230, Skald I, 119Hkr 1893-1901, II, 408, IV, 157, ÍF 27, 318-19, Hkr 1991, II, 485 (ÓHHkr ch. 176); ÓH 1941, I, 486 (ch. 172), Flat 1860-8, II, 311; Jón Skaptason 1983, 119, 265-6.

Context: The stanza’s condemnation of Áslákr’s action is noted.

Notes: [1-4]: The helmingr unusually interweaves three clauses, with the third starting before either of the first two is complete. — [2, 3] vǫrðr foldar Hǫrða ‘the guardian of the land of the Hǫrðar [= Hordaland > = Erlingr]’: According to Snorri (ÍF 27, 192), Erlingr ruled western Norway from Sognefjorden to Lindesnes, an area more extensive than, but including, modern Hordaland. — [4] frændsekju ‘crime against kindred’: Lit. ‘kinsman-guilt’. — [7, 8] bornir frændr ‘those born as kinsmen’: Lit., ‘born kinsmen’. Skjálgr, father of Erlingr, and Áskell, father of Áslákr Fitjaskalli ‘Fitjar-Baldhead’, were paternal cousins. Snorri (ÍF 27, 192-3) relates that the conflict between their sons arose when King Óláfr gave Áslákr some authority in Sunn-Hǫrðaland (Sunnhordaland) to counter Erlingr’s power, though an uneasy truce, apparently to Erlingr’s advantage, was achieved. — [8] in fornu môl ‘the old sayings’: Despite the suggestion of Jón Skaptason (1983) that môl could mean ‘laws’, the sentiments of this stanza are proverbial, rather than legal. Neither frændsekja ‘crime against kindred’ (l. 4) nor ættvígi ‘kin-killing’ (l. 5) appears as a technical term in either the Norwegian or the Icelandic laws.

© 2008-