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Runic Dictionary

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Sigvatr Þórðarson (Sigv)

11th century; volume 1; ed. Judith Jesch;

11. Erfidrápa Óláfs helga (ErfÓl) - 28

Sigvatr or Sighvatr Þórðarson (Sigv) is said (ÍF 27, 54) to have been the son of Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’, an Icelander who served, in succession, Sigvaldi jarl Strút-Haraldsson, leader of the Jómsvíkingar, his brother Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’, who campaigned in England, and Óláfr Haraldsson, later king of Norway (r. c. 1015-30) and saint. Þórðr is listed as one of Sigvaldi’s skalds in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 259, 268), but none of his poetry survives. The family tradition of poetry can also be traced in Óttarr svarti ‘the Black’, said to have been Sigvatr’s sister’s son (ÍF 27, 144; ÓH 1941, I, 203). Sigvatr was brought up by a certain Þorkell, at Apavatn in south-west Iceland. When nearly fully grown he sailed to what is now Trondheim, where he met up with his father and joined King Óláfr’s retinue. According to Snorri (ÍF 27, 54-6; ÓH 1941, I, 81-3), Sigvatr recited Lv 2-3 at this time, and he interceded with the king on behalf of Icelandic merchants forced to pay a heavy tax in Norway (cf. Sigv Lv 4). It is also likely that this is when Þórðr provided Sigvatr with the material for Víkv (see Introduction to Sigv Víkv), which may be the poem referred to in the prose introduction to Sigv Lv 2 (Fidjestøl 1982, 118). There is no evidence that Sigvatr ever returned to Iceland, and according to the anecdote in which Sigv Lv 11 is preserved, he died on the island of Selja in north-western Norway and was buried at Kristskirkja (Kristkirken) in Trondheim. His poetry records his various journeys to Sweden, England and the Continent, as well as incidents in Norway. We know nothing of Sigvatr’s private life, except that he had a daughter called Tófa, who had King Óláfr himself as her godfather (Sigv Lv 19).

Sigvatr’s surviving poetic oeuvre is both large and remarkably diverse, encompassing different kinds of encomia not only on King Óláfr (Sigv Víkv, Sigv Nesv, Sigv Óldr, Sigv ErfÓl), but also on King Knútr of Denmark (Sigv Knútdr) and the Norwegian nobleman Erlingr Skjálgsson (Sigv Erl, Sigv Erlfl). Sigvatr was godfather to King Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and composed some avuncular words of advice to the boy-king (Sigv BervII). All of these patrons are recognised in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 252-4, 258, 260-2, 269), where Sigvatr is also credited with having composed for the Swedish king Ǫnundr Óláfsson (although no such poetry survives, cf. Sigv Knútdr 4/6) and the Norwegian chieftain Ívarr inn hvíti ‘the White’ (cf. Context to Sigv Lv 8). Sigvatr also composed a poem on the Norwegian pretender Tryggvi Óláfsson (Sigv Tryggfl) and is unique in having composed in dróttkvætt in praise of a woman, Óláfr Haraldsson’s widow Ástríðr Óláfsdóttir (Sigv Ást). Several of Sigvatr’s poems are more or less loosely connected sequences of stanzas rather than more formal compositions, and encompass both travelogue (Sigv Austv) and political commentary (Sigv Vestv, Sigv BervII). The latter genre is also well represented in his lausavísur, which also include some remarkably personal stanzas expressing his grief at the death of King Óláfr (Sigv Lv 22-4). Sigvatr’s status as a hǫfuðskáld ‘chief skald’ was recognised in the twelfth century (cf. Esk Geisl 12/8VII). His versatility as a poet has clearly inspired a number of anecdotes focusing on the composition of poetry, mostly of doubtful authenticity (cf. Contexts to Sigv Lv 1, 8, 11, 27; also Introduction to Ótt Hfl). Apart from two fragments preserved in SnE (Sigv Frag 1-2III), Sigvatr’s poetry is transmitted in a wide range of texts within the tradition of the kings’ sagas and is therefore edited in this volume or (in the case of the late Sigv Berv) in SkP II. For general studies of Sigvatr’s life and works, see Paasche (1917), Hollander (1940) and Petersen (1946).

Erfidrápa Óláfs helga (‘Memorial drápa for Óláfr inn helgi (S. Óláfr)’) — Sigv ErfÓlI

Judith Jesch 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 663.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28 

Skj: Sigvatr Þórðarson: 12. Erfidrápa Óláfs helga, o. 1040 (AI, 257-65, BI, 239-45)

SkP info: I, 671

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

5 — Sigv ErfÓl 5I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 671.

Fœddi mest, sás meiddi,
margdýrr konungr varga,
hvinna ætt ok hlenna;
hann stýfði svá þýfðir.
Þýðr lét þermlask bæði
þjóf hvern konungr ernan
(friðr bœttisk svá) fóta
(fylkis lands) ok handa.

Margdýrr konungr, sás meiddi ætt hvinna ok hlenna, fœddi mest varga; hann stýfði svá þýfðir. Þýðr konungr lét hvern ernan þjóf þermlask bæði fóta ok handa; svá bœttisk friðr lands fylkis.

The very glorious king, who maimed the race of pilferers and thieves, fed wolves the most; he cut down thefts in this way. The kind king caused each swift thief to lack both feet and hands; in this way the peace of the prince’s land was improved.

Mss: (439r) (Hkr); Holm2(59v), 321ˣ(225-226), 73aˣ(183r), 68(59r), Holm4(57vb), 61(118ra), 325V(71rb-va), 325VII(33r), Bb(191ra), Flat(119vb), Tóm(148r), 325XI 2 g(4vb) (ÓH)

Readings: [1] Fœddi: leiddi 61, Flat, Tóm, ‘Heddi’ Bb;    sás (‘sa er’): þar er 321ˣ, 73aˣ, sá Bb;    meiddi: mœddi 73aˣ    [2] marg‑: mǫrg Flat;    ‑dýrr: ‑byr Bb;    varga: vǫrgum 61, Bb, Flat, Tóm    [3] hvinna: hinna 61, vinna 325VII, himna Flat, Tóm;    ok: at 61, Bb, Flat, Tóm;    hlenna: hlanna 61, Tóm, ‘hlęna’ Bb, hlamma Flat    [4] hann: herr 68, 325VII, 325XI 2 g;    stýfði: skýfði 73aˣ, Bb, stýfði þá 325V;    þýfðir: þýfða 61, Flat, Tóm, stýfða Bb    [5] Þýðr: ‘þvðr’ 325V;    lét: om. 325XI 2 g;    þermlask: þornask 321ˣ, þarnask 73aˣ, 68, ‘þerflaz’ Holm4, 61, ‘þerblaz’ 325V, ‘þerfazt’ Bb, þrífask Tóm    [6] ernan: erna Holm2, 73aˣ, enna 321ˣ, ‘ernin’ 325V    [7] friðr bœttisk: frið bœtti hann 61, Bb, Flat, Tóm    [8] fylkis: ‘fykir’ 61, fylkir Bb, Flat, fylki Tóm;    lands: ríki(?) Tóm;    handa: lýða 73aˣ

Editions: Skj: Sigvatr Þórðarson, 12. Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 5: AI, 258, BI, 240, Skald I, 124, NN §659; Hkr 1893-1901, II, 421, IV, 159, ÍF 27, 329-30, Hkr 1991, II, 493 (ÓHHkr ch. 181); ÓH 1941, I, 502 (ch. 177), Flat 1860-8, II, 316; Jón Skaptason 1983, 160, 303.

Context: See Context for st. 4, which this stanza follows without interruption.

Notes: [1] fœddi; meiddi ‘fed; maimed’: (a) In these lines the main topic of the stanza, Óláfr’s punishment of malefactors, is expressed in the rel. clause sás meiddi ‘who maimed’, while the subsidiary topic, his feeding of wolves (by slaying the enemy) is in the main clause. (b) This situation is reversed by Kock (NN §659), who argues that the line originally read Meiddi … fœddi (and duly emends in Skald), but as his only evidence for this is the reading Leiddi (for initial Meiddi) in three inferior mss, it seems unlikely. (c) Jón Skaptason (1983) does not emend, but adopts Kock’s suggestion that the rel. clause is sás fœddi varga ‘who fed wolves’. However, this reading assumes very convoluted syntax, in which the rel. sás is separated from its verb fœddi.

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