Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigvatr Þórðarson (Sigv)

11th century; volume 1; ed. Judith Jesch;

II. Bersǫglisvísur (Berv) - 18

Skj info: Sigvatr Þórðarson, Islandsk skjald, o. 995-o. 1045 (AI, 223-75, BI, 213-54).

Skj poems:
1. Víkingarvísur
2. Nesjavísur
3. Austrfararvísur
4. En drape om kong Olaf
5. Vestrfararvísur
6. Et kvad om Erlingr Skjalgsson
7. Flokkr om Erlingr Skjalgsson
8. Tryggvaflokkr
9. Et digt om dronning Astrid
10. Knútsdrápa
11. Bersǫglisvísur
12. Erfidrápa Óláfs helga
13. Lausavísur
14. Et par halvvers af ubestemmelige digte

Sigvatr or Sighvatr Þórðarson (Sigv) is said (ÍF 27, 54) to have been the son of Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’, an Icelander who served, in succession, Sigvaldi jarl Strút-Haraldsson, leader of the Jómsvíkingar, his brother Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’, who campaigned in England, and Óláfr Haraldsson, later king of Norway (r. c. 1015-30) and saint. Þórðr is listed as one of Sigvaldi’s skalds in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 259, 268), but none of his poetry survives. The family tradition of poetry can also be traced in Óttarr svarti ‘the Black’, said to have been Sigvatr’s sister’s son (ÍF 27, 144; ÓH 1941, I, 203). Sigvatr was brought up by a certain Þorkell, at Apavatn in south-west Iceland. When nearly fully grown he sailed to what is now Trondheim, where he met up with his father and joined King Óláfr’s retinue. According to Snorri (ÍF 27, 54-6; ÓH 1941, I, 81-3), Sigvatr recited Lv 2-3 at this time, and he interceded with the king on behalf of Icelandic merchants forced to pay a heavy tax in Norway (cf. Sigv Lv 4). It is also likely that this is when Þórðr provided Sigvatr with the material for Víkv (see Introduction to Sigv Víkv), which may be the poem referred to in the prose introduction to Sigv Lv 2 (Fidjestøl 1982, 118). There is no evidence that Sigvatr ever returned to Iceland, and according to the anecdote in which Sigv Lv 11 is preserved, he died on the island of Selja in north-western Norway and was buried at Kristskirkja (Kristkirken) in Trondheim. His poetry records his various journeys to Sweden, England and the Continent, as well as incidents in Norway. We know nothing of Sigvatr’s private life, except that he had a daughter called Tófa, who had King Óláfr himself as her godfather (Sigv Lv 19).

Sigvatr’s surviving poetic oeuvre is both large and remarkably diverse, encompassing different kinds of encomia not only on King Óláfr (Sigv Víkv, Sigv Nesv, Sigv Óldr, Sigv ErfÓl), but also on King Knútr of Denmark (Sigv Knútdr) and the Norwegian nobleman Erlingr Skjálgsson (Sigv Erl, Sigv Erlfl). Sigvatr was godfather to King Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and composed some avuncular words of advice to the boy-king (Sigv BervII). All of these patrons are recognised in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 252-4, 258, 260-2, 269), where Sigvatr is also credited with having composed for the Swedish king Ǫnundr Óláfsson (although no such poetry survives, cf. Sigv Knútdr 4/6) and the Norwegian chieftain Ívarr inn hvíti ‘the White’ (cf. Context to Sigv Lv 8). Sigvatr also composed a poem on the Norwegian pretender Tryggvi Óláfsson (Sigv Tryggfl) and is unique in having composed in dróttkvætt in praise of a woman, Óláfr Haraldsson’s widow Ástríðr Óláfsdóttir (Sigv Ást). Several of Sigvatr’s poems are more or less loosely connected sequences of stanzas rather than more formal compositions, and encompass both travelogue (Sigv Austv) and political commentary (Sigv Vestv, Sigv BervII). The latter genre is also well represented in his lausavísur, which also include some remarkably personal stanzas expressing his grief at the death of King Óláfr (Sigv Lv 22-4). Sigvatr’s status as a hǫfuðskáld ‘chief skald’ was recognised in the twelfth century (cf. Esk Geisl 12/8VII). His versatility as a poet has clearly inspired a number of anecdotes focusing on the composition of poetry, mostly of doubtful authenticity (cf. Contexts to Sigv Lv 1, 8, 11, 27; also Introduction to Ótt Hfl). Apart from two fragments preserved in SnE (Sigv Frag 1-2III), Sigvatr’s poetry is transmitted in a wide range of texts within the tradition of the kings’ sagas and is therefore edited in this volume or (in the case of the late Sigv Berv) in SkP II. For general studies of Sigvatr’s life and works, see Paasche (1917), Hollander (1940) and Petersen (1946).

Bersǫglisvísur (‘Plain-speaking Vísur’) — Sigv BervII

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Sigvatr Þórðarson, Bersǫglisvísur’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 11-30.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18 

Skj: Sigvatr Þórðarson: 11. Bersǫglisvísur, o. 1038 (AI, 251-6, BI, 234-9); stanzas (if different): 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 13 | 15 | 18

SkP info: II, 23-4

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

12 — Sigv Berv 12II

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Bersǫglisvísur 12’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 23-4.

Hætts, þats allir ætla
— áðr skal við því ráða —
hárir menn, es heyrik,
hót, skjǫldungi at móti.
Greypts, þats hǫfðum hneppta,
heldr, ok niðr í feldi
— slegit hefr þǫgn á þegna —
þingmenn nǫsum stinga.

 

The threat is dangerous when all grey-haired men, as I hear, intend [to revolt] against the ruler; that must be prevented in advance. It’s rather grim when assembly members hang their heads and stick their noses into their cloaks; silence has descended on your followers.

context: In TGT, ll. 1-4 are given as an example of anastrophus ‘anastrophe’, i.e. inversion of w. o., in which the prep. at móti ‘against’ is placed after the noun it qualifies (skjǫldungi ‘ruler’).

texts: Ágr 4, Flat 984, Fsk 172, H-Hr 20, MGóð 32 (III 32), MH 15, ÓH 211 (206), SnE, TGT 112 [1-4], Gramm 114, Hkr 411 (III 32)

editions: Skj Sigvatr Þórðarson: 11. Bersǫglisvísur 12 (AI, 254-5; BI, 237); Skald I, 123, NN §§1868, 1982; ÍF 28, 30 (Mgóð ch. 16), E 1916, 18; ÓH 1941, I, 626 (ch. 261); ÍF 29, 33 (ch. 34), Ágr 1995, 46-9 (ch. 35); ÍF 29, 214-15 (ch. 48); Fms 6, 43 (Mgóð ch. 22); Louis-Jensen 1970b, 149, Flat 1860-8, III, 269, Mork 1928-32, 29, Andersson and Gade 107, 467 (MH); Jón Skaptason 1983, 149, 294-5; SnE 1848-87, II, 176-7, 424, TGT 1884, 30, 112, TGT 1927, 84, 107.

sources

AM 63 folx (Kx) 505r, 15 - 505r, 22 (Hkr)  image  
AM 39 fol (39) 14vb, 8 - 14vb, 8 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  
AM 47 fol (E) 5v, 29 - 5v, 30 (Hkr)  image  
AM 38 folx (J2x) 246r, 15 - 246r, 22 (Hkr)  image  
Holm perg 2 4° (Holm2) 74v, 2 - 74v, 4 (ÓH)  image  
Thott 972 folx (972x*) 585va, 23 - 585va, 30 (ÓH)  image  image  
Thott 972 folx (972x*) 585vb - 585vb (ÓH)  image  image  
AM 325 VI 4° (325VI) 42rb, 28 - 42rb, 32 (ÓH)  image  
AM 321 4°x (321x) 283, 13 - 283, 16 (ÓH)  transcr.  image  
AM 73 a folx (73ax) 216v, 33 - 217r (ÓH)  image  
AM 325 VII 4° (325VII) 41v, 30 - 41v, 32 (ÓH)  transcr.  image  image  
AM 325 V 4° (325V) 89vb, 17 - 89vb, 22 (ÓH)  image  
AM 61 fol (61) 130va, 13 - 130va, 16 (ÓH)  image  image  
GKS 1008 fol (Tóm) 161v, 6 - 161v, 6 (ÓH)  image  
Holm perg 1 fol (Bb) 206rb - 206rb (ÓH)  image  
AM 325 II 4° (Ágr) 14va, 16 - 14va, 24 (Ágr)  transcr.  image  image  
AM 303 4°x (FskAx) 209, 8 - 209, 15 (Fsk)  image  
AM 66 fol (H) 4v, 18 - 4v, 18 (H-Hr)  image  image  image  image  
GKS 1010 fol (Hr) 6rb, 5 - 6rb, 5 (H-Hr)  image  
AM 325 XI 3 4° (325XI 3) 1v - 1v (Flat)  image  image  
GKS 1005 fol (Flat) 190ra, 52 - 190ra, 55 (Flat)  image  image  
AM 748 I b 4° (A) 7v, 21 - 7v, 22 (TGT)  transcr.  image  image  
AM 242 fol (W) 110, 2 - 110, 3 [1-4] (TGT)  transcr.  image  image  image  
AM 301 4°x (301x) 76v, 14 - 76v, 18 (Fsk)  
AM 761 b 4°x (761bx) 331r, 5 - 331r, 8 [1-4]  image  
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