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Runic Dictionary

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Anonymous Poems (Anon)

VIII. Krákumál (Krm) - 29

Krákumál — Anon KrmVIII (Ragn)

Rory McTurk 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Krákumál’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 706. <> (accessed 29 November 2021)

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29 

Skj: Anonyme digte og vers [XII]: H. Krákumál, et islandsk digt fra 12. årh. (AI, 641-9, BI, 649-56)

SkP info: VIII, 730

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

7 — Anon Krm 7VIII

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Rory McTurk (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Poems, Krákumál 7’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 730.

Hjuggu vér með hjörvi.
Hátt grenjuðu rottar,
áðr en á Ullarakri
Eysteinn konungr felli.
Gengum gulli fáðir
grundar vals af bröndum
— rækyndill smaug rauðar
rítr — at hjálma móti.
Svíra virtr ór sárum
sveif of hjarna kleifar.

Hjuggu vér með hjörvi. Rottar grenjuðu hátt, áðr en Eysteinn konungr felli á Ullarakri. Gengum, fáðir gulli af {bröndum {grundar vals}}, at {móti hjálma}; {rækyndill} smaug rauðar rítr. {Virtr svíra} sveif ór sárum of {kleifar hjarna}.

We hewed with the sword. Swords roared loudly before King Eysteinn fell at Ullarakr. We proceeded to {a meeting of helmets} [BATTLE], decked with gold from {the flames {of the landing place of the falcon}} [ARM > GOLD RINGS]; {the corpse-candle} [SWORD] penetrated red shields. {The wort of the neck} [BLOOD] flowed from wounds over {the cliffs of the brain} [SHOULDERS].

Mss: 1824b(79v), 147(108r), 6ˣ(87r-v) (Ragn); R702ˣ(29v), LR(205), R693ˣ(8r)

Readings: [1] Hjuggu vér með hjörvi: abbrev. as ‘H ̇̇iu v ṁ́ h᷎.’ 1824b, abbrev. as ‘H(’) v[...]’(?) 147, Hjuggum vér með hjörvi 6ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, abbrev. as ‘H. v. med h.’ R702ˣ    [2] Hátt: ‘(ha)[…]’(?) 147, ‘hett’ LR, ‘hát’ R693ˣ;    grenjuðu: so all others, ‘greínudv’ 1824b;    rottar (‘hrottar’): ‘(h)ro[…]ar’(?) 147    [3] en: om. 6ˣ, R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ;    Ullarakri: ‘[...]ll[…]ri’ 147    [4] Eysteinn konungr felli: ‘[…] konungur f[...]ll[...]’ 147    [5] Gengum: so 147, R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, gengu 1824b, 6ˣ;    gulli: ‘gull(i)’(?) 147;    fáðir: ‘faedur’ LR    [6] grundar vals: ‘grundar (uals)’(?) 147;    af: at all;    bröndum: so R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, ‘bryndum’ 1824b, 6ˣ, ‘(b)[…]’(?) 147    [7] kyndill (‘rrekyndil’): ‘[…]dill’ 147, ‘Rakindil’ with ‘Rækindil’ in margin 6ˣ, ‘hrækindill’ R702ˣ, R693ˣ, ‘hraekindil’ LR;    smaug: ‘[…]’ 147, ‘smaug’ with ‘sneid’ in margin 6ˣ, sneið (‘snejd’) R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ;    rauðar: ‘rrandar’ 1824b, ‘[…] uda’ 147, randar 6ˣ, ‘Randa’ R702ˣ, R693ˣ, randa LR    [8] rítr at hjálma: ‘[...] at hialma’ 147;    móti: so 6ˣ, R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, ‘[...] tí’ 1824b, ‘[…]’ 147    [9] Svíra: ‘(sui[…]a)’(?) 147;    virtr: so R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ, vín 1824b, ‘[…]’ 147, vín with ‘virtur al. virt’ in margin 6ˣ;    ór sárum: ‘[…]um’ 147    [10] sveif: ‘sueif’ or ‘sueit’ R693ˣ;    of hjarna: ‘[…]rna’ 147;    kleifar: ‘[…](ífar)’(?) 147, kleifa R702ˣ, LR, R693ˣ

Editions: Skj: Anonyme digte og vers [XII], H. Krákumál 7: AI, 643, BI, 650, Skald I, 317, NN §1275; Rafn 1826, 6-7, 107-10, Pfeiffer 1860, 124, CPB II, 341, Wisén 1886-9, I, 63, Krm 1891, 226, Finnur Jónsson 1893b, 87, 165 Finnur Jónsson 1905, 153-4, Ragn 1906-8, 187.

Notes: [All]: In R702ˣ, LR and R693ˣ the present stanza and st. 8 appear in reverse order. — [1]: In most of the stanzas in which the refrain can be discerned in 147 it is clear that it is abbreviated in ways differing slightly from stanza to stanza. The state of 147’s preservation nevertheless makes it impossible to identify with precision the indication of abbreviation in each case. Each instance of abbreviation in the refrains as preserved in 147 is accordingly signalled in the Readings of the present edn by an apostrophe comma enclosed in round brackets, the latter indicating, as elsewhere in the Readings, that the ms. reading is unclear. The relevant stanzas are 7, 8, 13-15, 17, 19-27. — [2] rottar ‘swords’: The intitial <h> in hrottar ‘swords’ has been omitted here to avoid double alliteration in an even line. — [3] áðr en ‘before’: All previous eds from Wisén (1886-9) onwards omit the particle en here following áðr, presumably for metrical reasons. Cf. Note to st. 5/2, 3 above. — [3] á Ullarakri ‘at Ullarakr’: Ullarakr, lit. ‘field of wool’ seems to correspond to the campum, qui Latialiter Laneus dicitur ‘the field which in Latin is called Wool’, at which, according to Saxo (Saxo 2015, I, ix. 4. 9-11, pp. 636-9), Regnerus Lothbrog, while married to Thora, his second wife in Saxo’s account, defeated the Scanian supporters of Haraldus (Klakk-Haraldr), a rival claimant to his sovereignty, with the help of his first wife Lathgertha. This would indicate that Ullarakr was in Skåne, now the southernmost province of Sweden. For an alternative possibility, however, see the next Note. — [4] Eysteinn konungr ‘King Eysteinn’: This Eysteinn, here stated to have died at Ullarakr, may well be identical with the Eysteinn who, in RagnSon (Hb 1892-6, 459-62) and Ragn (Ragn 1906-8, 132-50), is stated to have ruled in Uppsala, Sweden, to have caused the deaths of Eiríkr and Agnarr, Ragnarr’s sons by his first wife Þóra, and to have been defeated and slain in his own kingdom by an avenging army led by the sons of Ragnarr’s second marriage and their mother Áslaug. If so, then the Ullarakr mentioned here as the scene of Eysteinn’s death is perhaps the place of that name close to Uppsala that is mentioned in ÓHHkr chs 78 and 94 (ÍF 27, 111-12, 155), rather than somewhere in Skåne, cf. the previous Note. Clearly to be identified with the Eysteinn of RagnSon and Ragn is Ostenus, upon whom, later in Saxo’s account (Saxo 2015, I, ix. 5. 6, pp. 666-7), Agnerus (= Agnarr), son of Regnerus Lothbrog by his second wife Thora, seeks to avenge the death of his half-brother Ericus (= Eiríkr), son of Regnerus by his third wife Suanlogha, in Sweden. — [5-8]: Finnur Jónsson (1905), followed here in Skj B and in Skald, is the first of previous eds to mark off rækyndill smó rauðar rítr ‘the corpse-torch [SWORD] penetrated red shields’ as an intercalary clause. The punctuation of earlier eds indicates that they take the couplets ll. 5-6 and 7-8 as each constituting a separate syntactic unit. As for ll. 7-8, all eds up to and including Finnur Jónsson (1893b), take these lines also as a separate syntactic unit, and appear to understand them as meaning: ‘the corpse-candle [SWORD] penetrated red shields at the meeting of helmets [BATTLE]’. — [6] af bröndum ‘from the flames’: Finnur Jónsson (1893b; 1905; Skj B; followed in Skald), emends the mss’ at ‘towards’ to af ‘from’. — [7] rækyndill ‘the corpse-candle [SWORD]’: On the spelling ræ- (as opposed to hræ-), see first Note to st. 2/10, above. The kenning is paralleled in RvHbreiðm Hl 68/1III, where hjaldrkyndill ‘battle-torch [SWORD]’ occurs, cf. de Vries (1938, 722 n. 78); cf. also hrækerti ‘corpse-candle [SWORD]’ (HjǪ 7/3). — [9] virtr svíra ‘the wort of the neck [BLOOD]’: Finnur Jónsson (1893b, 87, 165; 1905; Skj B; followed by Skald) adopts the reading virtr ‘wort, new beer not fully fermented’ here in place of 1824b’s and ’s vín ‘wine’ adopted by all previous eds. The phrase í víni oc virtri ‘in wine and wort’ occurs in Sigdr 17/3 (NK 193). — [10] kleifar hjarna ‘the cliffs of the brain [SHOULDERS]’: This kenning, which Meissner 127 classifies as a head-kenning, is paralleled in RvHbreiðm Hl 40/3III háturnar hjarna ‘high towers of the brain [HEADS]’; cf. de Vries (1938, 722 n. 78). In the present context, the meaning ‘shoulders’ is more likely than ‘heads’, as blood is said to be flowing over the objects.

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