Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Óttarr svarti (Ótt)

11th century; volume 1; ed. Matthew Townend;

2. Knútsdrápa (Knútdr) - 11

Skj info: Óttarr svarti, Islandsk skjald, 11. årh. (AI, 289-99, BI, 267-75).

Skj poems:
Lausavísur
1. Óláfsdrápa sœnska
2. Hǫfuðlausn
3. Knútsdrápa

The Icelandic poet Óttarr svarti ‘the Black’ (Ótt) was remembered in the twelfth century (ESk Geisl 12) as one of the hǫfuðskǫld ‘chief skalds’ of the late Viking Age. His nickname would seem to locate him within the tradition of poets being ‘dark’ in either appearance or temperament (see Clunies Ross 1978b; Finlay 2000). According to Styrmir Kárason (ÓH 1941, II, 688), the poet Sigvatr Þórðarson (Sigv) was a mikill vinr ‘great friend’ of Óttarr, and indeed Óttarr’s Hǫfuðlausn (Ótt Hfl) is greatly indebted to Sigvatr’s Víkingarvísur (Sigv Víkv, see Introduction to Hfl). Snorri Sturluson (ÍF 27, 144; ÓH 1941, I, 203) further describes Óttarr as Sigvatr’s maternal nephew, and if this is correct he would have been the grandson of Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’ (see Biography of Sigvatr Þórðarson). Óttarr features in the various sagas of Óláfr Haraldsson, but the only major anecdote about him is the story surrounding his Hfl (see Introduction).

Skáldatal, in one or both of its recensions (SnE 1848-87, III, 252, 253, 258, 260, 261, 267, 269), lists Óttarr as having composed for six patrons: the Danes Sveinn tjúguskegg ‘Fork-beard’ Haraldsson and his son Knútr inn ríki Sveinsson (Cnut the Great); Óláfr sœnski ‘the Swede’ Eiríksson and his son Ǫnundr Óláfsson; and the Norwegian King Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson (S. Óláfr), and the Norwegian magnate Dala-Guðbrandr (‘Guðbrandr of the Dales’, on whom, see ÍF 27, 183-90; ÓH 1941, I, 271-82). For Sveinn and Dala-Guðbrandr, Óttarr is the only poet listed in Skáldatal. Panegyric poetry by Óttarr is certainly extant for three of these patrons: Óláfsdrápa (ÓldrIII) for Óláfr Eiríksson (preserved only in SnE and therefore edited in SkP III), Hfl for Óláfr Haraldsson, and Knútsdrápa (Knútdr) and Lv 2 for Knútr. It has, moreover, been suggested that one stanza in Knútdr may have been misplaced from an earlier poem for Sveinn (see Note to st. 9 [All]). No poetry survives for Ǫnundr or Dala-Guðbrandr. From all the evidence, it is likely that Óttarr visited, and composed, for, his patrons in this order: Sveinn until his death in 1014; Óláfr Eiríksson until his death c. 1021 (though ÓHLeg 1982, 130-1, has Óttarr, a young man fresh from Iceland, approaching him as his first patron), then his son Ǫnundr; Óláfr Haraldsson in the early 1020s, and Dala-Guðbrandr in the same period; Knútr by c. 1027 for an unknown period (Knútr died in 1035). For previous discussions of Óttarr’s career, see SnE 1848-87, III, 326-33, LH I, 574-7 and Poole (1993b).

Knútsdrápa (‘Drápa about Knútr’) — Ótt KnútdrI

Matthew Townend 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Óttarr svarti, Knútsdrápa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 767.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11 

Skj: Óttarr svarti: 3. Knútsdrápa, 1026 (AI, 296-8, BI, 272-5); stanzas (if different): 8 | 10

SkP info: I, 781

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

11 — Ótt Knútdr 11I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Óttarr svarti, Knútsdrápa 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 781.

Svíum hnekkðir þú, søkkva
siklingr ǫrr, en mikla
ylgr, þars Ô in helga,
ulfs beitu fekk, heitir.
Helt, þars hrafn né svalta,
(hvatráðr est þú) láði,
ógnar stafr, fyr jǫfrum,
ýgr, tveimr (við kyn beima).

Siklingr ǫrr søkkva, þú hnekkðir Svíum, en ylgr fekk {mikla beitu ulfs}, þars heitir Ô in helga. {Ýgr stafr ógnar}, helt láði fyr tveimr jǫfrum, þars hrafn né svalta; þú est hvatráðr við kyn beima.

Sovereign generous with treasures, you checked the Swedes, and the she-wolf received {much wolf’s food} [CORPSES], at the place which is called Helgeå. {Fierce staff of battle} [WARRIOR], you held the territory against two princes, where the raven did not at all go hungry; you are bold-minded against the race of men.

Mss: Holm4(46vb), 61(112rb), 75c(31v), 325V(59ra), 325VII(30r), Bb(182ra), Flat(115rb), Tóm(138v), Holm2(52v), 321ˣ(186), 73aˣ(160v-161r), 68(50r) (ÓH); K(1r), J2ˣ(197v), 325IX 2(4vb), 325XI 1(4rb) (Hkr); DG8(92v) (ÓHLeg); FskAˣ(173) (Fsk, ll. 1-4); R(33v) (ll. 5-8), R(37r) (ll. 5-8), Tˣ(35r) (ll. 5-8), Tˣ(38v) (ll. 5-8), W(77) (ll. 5-8), U(32r-v) (ll. 5-8), A(10v) (ll. 5-8), A(13r) (ll. 5-6), C(5r) (ll. 5-7), C(6r) (ll. 5-8) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Svíum: snǫrum 325V, ‘Suíium’ Tóm, Svía 321ˣ, 73aˣ, ‘Syium’ DG8;    hnekkðir: ‘hinckir’ Bb, hnekkir 321ˣ, 73aˣ, 68, ‘næygðir’ DG8, vægðir FskAˣ;    søkkva: ‘savcka’ 325V, ‘sæckva’ 325VII, sókna Flat, FskAˣ, søkkvir 73aˣ, ‘sœkna’ DG8    [2] siklingr: siklinga 75c;    ǫrr: ‘or’ Bb, ‘órr’ Flat, ‘aur’ Tóm, DG8, fór 73aˣ, ‘orr’ FskAˣ;    en: inn 61, Bb, Flat, 321ˣ, 325IX 2, in 75c, enn 325V, Tóm, Holm2, 68, K, J2ˣ, DG8, FskAˣ, om. 73aˣ;    mikla: mikli 321ˣ, J2ˣ, 325IX 2, 325XI 1    [3] ylgr: ulfr 75c, 325V, Flat;    þars (‘þar er’): þá Tóm, þar FskAˣ;    Ô in (‘ain’): ‘æyren’ DG8, ‘oon’ FskAˣ    [4] beitu: ‘beit(ꜹ)’(?) 325V, beita Bb;    heitir: heitit 61, heiti 73aˣ, 68, ‘[…]’ 325XI 1, ‘næitír’ DG8, heita FskAˣ    [5] þars (‘þar er’): om. Tóm;    hrafn né: hrafni 75c, Bb, 68, hrafnar 325VII, R(33v), R(37r), né hrafnar Tóm, hrafn J2ˣ, frán né DG8, ‘hrafnin næ’ or ‘hrafmn næ’ A(13r), hrafn of C(5r);    svalta: svelta 61, 75c, Bb, 68, 325XI 1, U, sveltat 325V, W, sultut 325VII, J2ˣ, svaltat Flat, 325IX 2, DG8, A(10v), A(13r), C(5r), sultu Tóm, sveltir 321ˣ, sveltut 73aˣ, ‘sualtar’ Tˣ(38v), ‘svalt[...]’ C(6r)    [6] hvatráðr: hvatráð Holm2, hvatr DG8, ‘hatraadr’ C(5r);    láði: ‘laþ[…]’ U    [7] ógnar: om. R(33v), Tˣ(35r), added in a later hand W;    stafr: stafs 61, staf 75c, Flat, starf Bb, Tóm, 68, ‘stefr’ 321ˣ, æfr J2ˣ, 325XI 1, om. R(33v), Tˣ(35r), stafr added in a later hand W;    fyr jǫfrum: om. C(5r);    jǫfrum: ‘iꜹfr(e)’(?) 325VII, ‘jof(ar)m’(?) Bb, ‘jefrum’ 321ˣ    [7, 8] jǫfrum ýgr tveimr við kyn beima: abbrev. as ‘i. v t við k b’ C(6r)    [8] ýgr: uggr 75c, Bb, Flat, ungr Tóm, yggr Holm2, J2ˣ, 325XI 1, yggir DG8;    tveimr: ‘tvein’ 325V, ‘tvemr’ Bb, R(33v), ‘[…]’ 325XI 1, tveir Tˣ(38v);    beima: ‘bæinia’ DG8

Editions: Skj: Óttarr svarti, 3. Knútsdrápa 11: AI, 298, BI, 275, Skald I, 141, NN §§620, 1783; ÓH 1941, I, 438 (ch. 140), Flat 1860-8, II, 281; Hkr 1893-1901, II, 365, IV, 146, ÍF 27, 280-1 (ÓHHkr ch. 150); ÓHLeg 1922, 61, ÓHLeg 1982, 146-7; Fsk 1902-3, 165 (ch. 27), ÍF 29, 186 (ch. 32); SnE 1848-87, I, 416-7, 474, II, 326, 437, 449, 586, 593, SnE 1931, 148, SnE 1998, I, 66, 193.

Context: In ÓH and Hkr, the stanza is quoted after Snorri’s lengthy account of the battle of Á in helga (Helgeå), and in ÓHLeg and Fsk the context is the same battle. In SnE, ll. 5-8 are quoted first to exemplify the use of stafr ‘staff, stave’ in man-kennings and then to illustrate láð as a heiti for ‘earth, land’.

Notes: [All]: The stanza is introduced in ÓH and Hkr (ÍF 27, 280), Óttarr svarti rœðir um fund þenna í þeiri drápu, er hann orti um Knút inn ríkaÓttarr svarti tells of this encounter in the drápa which he composed about Cnut the Great’. In ÓHLeg (1982, 146), it is introduced with Þessar orrostu mintizt Ottar, er hann orte um Knut konong ‘Óttarr commemorated this battle, when he composed about King Knútr’; virtually identical wording occurs in Fsk. There are thus no grounds for doubting that the stanza is from a poem by Óttarr in honour of Knútr (see further Townend 2001, 159-61), yet there must be some uncertainty as to whether it belongs with the rest of the poem. Unlike sts 1-10, this stanza is not preserved in Knýtl, but rather in ÓH and Hkr, ÓHLeg, Fsk (ll. 1-4 only), and SnE (ll. 5-8), and such a wide distribution may indicate a substantially different transmission from sts 1-10. Its subject matter is markedly different too, though the phrase þrøngvir Svía ‘oppressor of the Swedes’ in st. 5/8 suggests that the other stanzas were also composed post-1026, and so the observed difference in subject matter might disappear if we possessed other stanzas from the poem. In addition, it is notable that the syntax of the stanza does not observe the ‘couplet’ form found in many of the preceding stanzas. — [1-4]: In terms of syntax, Skj B gives the first helmingr as hnekkðir … þars … ‘checked … at the place which’, while Kock (NN §620; Skald) prefers fekk … þars ... ‘received … at the place which’. But it may be that one does not have to choose: the two activities (hnekkðir and fekk) are occurring in the same place. — [1] hnekkðir ‘checked’: Hnekkja has a sense of ‘to stop, restrain’, rather than ‘to destroy’. Again, Óttarr is giving Knútr as much praise as possible without committing a positive untruth (see Notes to st. 8/3, 4 knôttut verða and l. 3 below). — [1] søkkva ‘with treasures’: Kock, following the majority reading of the mss, interprets søkkva as gen. pl. of søkk n. ‘jewel, treasure, gold’ (see NN §1783), which is rare and even of uncertain existence (see Note to Eyv Hál 1/10); this is followed in ÍF 27, and here. Skj B emends to sóknar, hence ǫrr sóknar ‘generous in/with attack’, a form recorded in no ms. ÍF 29 preserves sókna (gen. pl.) ‘of attacks, war’, the reading of FskAx (and Flat). LP: søkkvi suggests instead that this is the noun søkkvi ‘enemy’, in error for sóknar . — [2]: The best mss of ÓH read f. acc. sg. mikla ‘much, great’, agreeing with beitu ‘food, bait’, and this lectio difficilior is thus presumably the original reading and is retained here. This line, however, clearly prompted a number of scribes or other transmitters of the poem to re-interpretation (see Readings). Some of the variants may have arisen from the instinctive temptation to read the whole line as a single, nom.-case noun phrase *siklingr ǫrr inn mikli ‘the generous great king’, which also produces a division of the first helmingr into two couplets.  — [3] Ô in helga ‘Helgeå’: The battle here took place in (probably) 1026, when the Swedish and Norwegian forces of Ǫnundr Óláfsson and Óláfr Haraldsson launched an attack on Knútr’s Denmark. The site of the battle has traditionally been identified as Helgeå, in the eastern part of Skåne, but a site in Uppland has also been suggested (Gräslund 1986). The outcome of the battle is also somewhat unclear. From one point of view, since the attack on Denmark was unsuccessful, Knútr was clearly the ‘victor’; but the battle itself may well have been inconclusive, and the ASC (‘E’) s. a. 1025 even reports a Swedish victory. See further Moberg (1941, 148-78); Moberg (1987); Moberg (1989); Lawson (1993, 96-100); P. Sawyer (1994, 18-19). — [5] hrafn né svalta ‘the raven did not at all go hungry’: A number of mss read hrafni and omit , suggesting confusion in transmission (from hrafn né to ‘hrafne’, i.e. normalised dat. sg. hrafni). Similarly a number of mss, including those of Hkr, omit before svalta, presumably because it is not needed for sense; and -a (-at in some mss) supply a double, emphatic negative. — [7] stafr ógnar ‘staff of battle [WARRIOR]’: The words ógnar stafr were lacking from W and have been added in a later hand. They have also been supplied from an unknown source in LaufE (1979, 374, and see 173), whose text of the remainder of ll. 5-8 is copied from W and not of independent value.  — [7, 8] tveimr jǫfrum ‘two princes’: The reference is no doubt to Ǫnundr Óláfsson and Óláfr Haraldsson, though it is clear from the reference in the ASC (‘E’) s. a. 1025 to a certain Ulf and Eglaf (Eilífr, or perhaps an error for Óláfr) that an assortment of Swedish and Norwegian nobles opposed Knútr at the battle.

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