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Jórunn skáldmær (Jór)

10th century; volume 1; ed. Judith Jesch;

Sendibítr (Send) - 5

Nothing is known of Jórunn skáldmær ‘Poet-maiden’ (Jór): who she was, when or where she lived, or when or why she composed the poem Sendibítr (Send) attributed to her. Her nickname indicates a young, unmarried woman who composed poetry. Jórunn is the only female poet among the sixty-seven skalds named in Skm (SnE 1998, I, lv-lix). Mss C(9r) and (41v) have the masculine name Jǫrundr instead, but this is unlikely to be significant, as no poet by the name of Jǫrundr is otherwise known – it is an understandable mistake given how rare named women poets were. Jórunn is often assumed to have been a tenth-century Norwegian, contemporary with Kings Haraldr and Hálfdan, but the dating of Send, and therefore of her lifetime, is uncertain (see Introduction below).

Sendibítr (‘Biting message’) — Jór SendI

Judith Jesch 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Jórunn skáldmær, Sendibítr’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 143.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5 

Skj: Jórunn skáldmær: Sendibítr, om Harald hårfagre (AI, 60-1, BI, 53-4)

SkP info: I, 145

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

1 — Jór Send 1I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Jórunn skáldmær, Sendibítr 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 145.

Bragningr réð í blóði
— beið herr konungs reiði —
— hús lutu opt fyr eisum —
óþjóðar slǫg rjóða.

 

The ruler reddened weapons in the blood of evil people; the army suffered the king’s anger; houses often collapsed because of fires.

context: The helmingr is cited in the Skm section of SnE for its use of the word bragningr ‘ruler’, one example of the honorific titles (tignarnǫfn) derived from the names given to the descendants of the sons of the legendary king Hálfdan gamli ‘the Old’, in this case Bragi.

notes: The C18th copy 744ˣ has been used in the Readings above where B is not legible. — Although the helmingr refers to burning of buildings and the anger of a king, it does not clearly match the prose narrative with which Send is associated (see Introduction), but rather seems to be a generic battle description. Kreutzer (1972, 93-4) takes it to be the first half of st. 3.

texts: Skm 407, SnE 409

editions: Skj Jórunn skáldmær: Sendibítr 1 (AI, 60; BI, 53); Skald I, 33, NN §§247, 303B; SnE 1848-87, I, 524, II, 344, 541, 608, SnE 1931, 184, SnE 1998, I, 103-4, 222.

sources

GKS 2367 4° (R) 40r, 10 - 40r, 11 (SnE)  transcr.  image  image  image  
Traj 1374x (Tx) 41v, 22 - 41v, 23 (SnE)  image  
DG 11 (U) 37v, 15 - 37v, 17 (SnE)  image  
AM 748 I b 4° (A) 15r, 31 - 15r, 32 (SnE)  transcr.  image  image  
AM 757 a 4° (B) 6v, 23 - 6v, 24 (SnE)  image  image  image  image  
AM 744 4°x (744x) 42v, 9 - 42v, 12 (SnE)  image  
AM 748 II 4° (C) 9r, 29 - 9r, 30 (SnE)  image  image  
AM 761 b 4°x (761bx) 218r, 2 - 218r, 5  image  
Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated