Runic Dictionary

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Guthormr sindri (Gsind)

10th century; volume 1; ed. Russell Poole;

Hákonardrápa (Hákdr) - 8

Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 273) lists Guthormr (Gsind) among the skalds serving the following kings: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’; Hálfdan svarti ‘the Black’ Haraldsson (no other skalds listed; omitted in the U text of Skáldatal); and Hákon góði ‘the Good’. Of the poems he may have composed for these rulers, only eight stanzas are extant, all apparently from Hákonardrápa (Hákdr).

Little is otherwise known about Guthormr’s identity, life and career. His place of origin is unknown, but Icelandic birth is hardly likely at this early date, and the name was always much commoner in Norway than in Iceland (Lind 1905-15, 397); equally unknown are his patronymic or matronymic. On the basis of internal evidence in Hákdr, he must have survived the battle at Rastarkálfr on the island of Fræði (Frei) c. 955; he is not mentioned after the death of King Hákon (c. 961), by which time, if he indeed composed for Haraldr hárfagri, he would have been an old man. The sole anecdote about Guthormr, transmitted in Hkr (HHárf, ÍF 26, 141-2) and ÓT (1958-2000, I, 12-13), tells that he was a good skald and a member of the following of Hálfdan svarti. He had earlier been in the entourage of Hálfdan’s father Haraldr hárfagri, was a friend of both men, and had composed a poem about each of them, for which he declined any reward, asking instead that the two men grant a special request from him on some future occasion. When Haraldr and Hálfdan subsequently fell out, his request was that they reconcile with one another, which they did. Credence is lent to this story by the Sendibítr of Jórunn skáldmær (Jór Send), which makes allusion to Guthormr and his stratagem with evident approval, though the details remain obscure (Kreutzer 1972; Jesch 1987, 6-10).

The spelling of the skald’s given name varies (Lind 1905-15, 397) and it is often abbreviated in references to him. The variation may reflect dual origins, in compounds of goð ‘god’ with either þormr ‘protector’ or ormr ‘snake’; alternatively the ‑ormr variant may derive from ‑þormr (AEW: Guðþormr). The name is mentioned in Jór Send 5/3 (see below) but the internal rhyming there provides no means of determining whether the first syllable terminated in ‑t or ‑ð. The standard spelling for the name when used in reference to this individual in the kings’ sagas was apparently Guthormr (Finnur Jónsson, LH I, 442), and that has been adopted in this edition. His nickname is vouched for in Jór Send 4/8. It may mean ‘Spark’ but its exact significance remains unclear. The name Sindri appears in SnE ms. R (added in a later hand) in reference to a dwarf craftsman (SnE 1998, I, 141) and is etymologically related to sindr n. ‘slag, dross’ (CVC: sindr; cf. LH I, 442 n. 4) and sindra ‘to sparkle’ (Lind 1920-1, 308). The nickname may therefore relate to smithing and crafts, perhaps meaning ‘metal-worker’, though the sense ‘shining’ is also possible, given that a mythical hall made of gold is said to be either owned by Sindri’s kin (Vsp 37/3-4) or named Sindri (SnE 2005, 53).

Hákonardrápa (‘Drápa about Hákon’) — Gsind HákdrI

Russell Poole 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 156.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8 

Skj: Goþþormr sindri: Hákonardrápa (AI, 61-3, BI, 55-6)

SkP info: I, 168

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

8 — Gsind Hákdr 8I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 168.

Hræddr fór hjǫrva raddar
herr fyr malma þverri;
rógeisu gekk ræsir
ráðsterkr framar merkjum.
Gerra gramr í snerru
geirvífa sér hlífa,
hinns yfrinn gat, jǫfra,
óls kvánar byr mána.

Herr fór hræddr {raddar hjǫrva} fyr {þverri malma}; {ræsir {rógeisu}} gekk ráðsterkr framar merkjum. {Gramr jǫfra} gerra hlífa sér í {snerru {geirvífa}}, hinns gat {yfrinn byr {kvánar {óls mána}}}.

The army went in dread {of the voice of swords} [BATTLE] before {the diminisher of metal weapons} [WARRIOR = Hákon]; {the impeller {of the strife-fire}} [SWORD > WARRIOR = Hákon] advanced, strong in counsel, ahead of the standards. {The king of princes} [= Hákon] does not protect himself in {the onslaught {of spear-women}} [VALKYRIES > BATTLE], he who attained {an outstanding fair wind {of the wife {of the affliction of the moon}}} [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND].

texts: Flat 196 (14), HákGóð 12 (I 71), ÓT 14, Hkr 81 (I 71)

editions: Skj Goþþormr sindri: Hákonardrápa 8 (AI, 63; BI, 56);

Skald I, 35, NN §252; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 206, IV, 51-2, ÍF 26, 180-1, Hkr 1991, I, 115-16 (HákGóð ch. 26), F 1871, 79; Fms 1, 40, Fms 12, 28, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 39 (ch. 25), Flat 1860-8, I, 59



AM 35 folx (Kx) 99v, 9 - 99v, 16 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  image  
AM 39 fol (39) 2vb, 12 - 2vb, 17 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  -
AM 45 fol (F) 17va, 15 - 17va, 18 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  image  image  image  
AM 37 folx (J1x) 60r, 23 - 60v, 2 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  
AM 38 folx (J2x) 56r, 24 - 56v, 1 (Hkr)  image  
AM 61 fol (61) 5va, 36 - 5vb, 1 (ÓT)  transcr.  image  image  
AM 53 fol (53) 4vb, 6 - 4vb, 9 (ÓT)  transcr.  image  -
AM 325 IX 1 a 4° (325IX 1 a) 2rb, 3 - 2rb, 7 (ÓT)  transcr.  image  
Holm perg 1 fol (Bb) 7rb, 31 - 7rb, 35 (ÓT)  transcr.  image  
GKS 1005 fol (Flat) 8ra, 25 - 8ra, 27 (ÓT)  transcr.  image  image  image  
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