Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Guthormr sindri (Gsind)

10th century; volume 1; ed. Russell Poole;

Hákonardrápa (Hákdr) - 8

Skj info: Goþþormr sindri, Norsk. Det 10. årh. (AI, 61-63, BI, 55-56).

Skj poems:
Hákonardrápa

Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 273) lists Guthormr (Gsind) among the skalds serving the following kings: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’; Hálfdan svarti ‘the Black’ Haraldsson (no other skalds listed; omitted in the U text of Skáldatal); and Hákon góði ‘the Good’. Of the poems he may have composed for these rulers, only eight stanzas are extant, all apparently from Hákonardrápa (Hákdr).

Little is otherwise known about Guthormr’s identity, life and career. His place of origin is unknown, but Icelandic birth is hardly likely at this early date, and the name was always much commoner in Norway than in Iceland (Lind 1905-15, 397); equally unknown are his patronymic or matronymic. On the basis of internal evidence in Hákdr, he must have survived the battle at Rastarkálfr on the island of Fræði (Frei) c. 955; he is not mentioned after the death of King Hákon (c. 961), by which time, if he indeed composed for Haraldr hárfagri, he would have been an old man. The sole anecdote about Guthormr, transmitted in Hkr (HHárf, ÍF 26, 141-2) and ÓT (1958-2000, I, 12-13), tells that he was a good skald and a member of the following of Hálfdan svarti. He had earlier been in the entourage of Hálfdan’s father Haraldr hárfagri, was a friend of both men, and had composed a poem about each of them, for which he declined any reward, asking instead that the two men grant a special request from him on some future occasion. When Haraldr and Hálfdan subsequently fell out, his request was that they reconcile with one another, which they did. Credence is lent to this story by the Sendibítr of Jórunn skáldmær (Jór Send), which makes allusion to Guthormr and his stratagem with evident approval, though the details remain obscure (Kreutzer 1972; Jesch 1987, 6-10).

The spelling of the skald’s given name varies (Lind 1905-15, 397) and it is often abbreviated in references to him. The variation may reflect dual origins, in compounds of goð ‘god’ with either þormr ‘protector’ or ormr ‘snake’; alternatively the ‑ormr variant may derive from ‑þormr (AEW: Guðþormr). The name is mentioned in Jór Send 5/3 (see below) but the internal rhyming there provides no means of determining whether the first syllable terminated in ‑t or ‑ð. The standard spelling for the name when used in reference to this individual in the kings’ sagas was apparently Guthormr (Finnur Jónsson, LH I, 442), and that has been adopted in this edition. His nickname is vouched for in Jór Send 4/8. It may mean ‘Spark’ but its exact significance remains unclear. The name Sindri appears in SnE ms. R (added in a later hand) in reference to a dwarf craftsman (SnE 1998, I, 141) and is etymologically related to sindr n. ‘slag, dross’ (CVC: sindr; cf. LH I, 442 n. 4) and sindra ‘to sparkle’ (Lind 1920-1, 308). The nickname may therefore relate to smithing and crafts, perhaps meaning ‘metal-worker’, though the sense ‘shining’ is also possible, given that a mythical hall made of gold is said to be either owned by Sindri’s kin (Vsp 37/3-4) or named Sindri (SnE 2005, 53).

Hákonardrápa (‘Drápa about Hákon’) — Gsind HákdrI

Russell Poole 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 156.

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Skj: Goþþormr sindri: Hákonardrápa (AI, 61-3, BI, 55-6)

SkP info: I, 168

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

8 — Gsind Hákdr 8I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Note: The following transcriptions have been entered to aid the editing process. These may not have been fully reviewed and checked and may therefore not be reliable. You may wish to consult the manuscript images. Any corrections can be notified to the database editor.

 Kx Hræddr for hiarta (hio᷎rva) raddar | hen (hverr) fra málma þverri | rogeiso gecc ræsir | raðsterkr framaʀ merkiom | gerʀa gramr i sneʀo | geir vífa[28] ser hlífa | hiɴ er yfriɴ gat jǫfra | oskvánar[29] byr mána |   [VEÞ]  edit 
 39 Hræddr for [...]arta rað | ar heʀ fyrir malma þverri rog [...]isa gecc | ræsir rað stercr framaʀ merkiom . | geʀa gramr isneʀo gæirvifa ser [...]ifa . | hinn er vfirrinn gat iofra os kvanar | byr mana .   [VEÞ]  edit 
 F Hrø̨ddr for | híarta raddar herr fyrir malma þverri · rog eiso geck rø̨sir | rað stercr framar merkiom · geyʀa gramr i sneʀo geirvifa ser | hlífa híɴ er yfriɴ gat iofra osk kvanar byr mána ·   [VEÞ]  edit 
 J1x Hræddr for hiorfa raddar herr fyrir malma þuerʀe rog | eisu gek ræsir radsterkr framar merkiom gerʀa gramr i snerro || geirfifa ser hlifa hinn er yfrin gatt iófra ols kuanar b | yr mana ·   [VEÞ]  edit 
 61 Hreddr f⸌or⸍ | hio᷎rua raddar herr fyrir malma þuerri . rog eisu gekk rœsir . | rað sterkr framarr merkium . gerra gramr isnerro geiruifa ser || hlifa . hinn er yfriɴ gat iofra oðs kuanar byr mana .   [VEÞ]  edit 
 53 Hrœddr | for hiorfa raddar . herr fyrir malma þverrdi . rog ei | sv geck rœsir [...] sterkr framarr merkium geira gramr | j snerru . geiruífa ser hlifa . hinn er yfrinn gat iofra | odskuanar byr mana .   [VEÞ]  edit 
 325IX 1 a Hrœddr for hiorva r[...] | ddar · herr fyrir malma [...] geisu rœsir · rad | sterkr framarr merkín · gei[...] gramr [...]erru · geiru | ifa ser hlifua · hinn er yfrinn gat iofra odskuanar byr | mana ·   [VEÞ]  edit 
 Bb Hrædr for hior | va raddar . herr fyrir malma þuerrí rogeiso geck ræ | sir rad sterkr framar merkíum . geíra gramr j snæro | geírvífa ser hlifa . hínn er yfrin gatt jofra ods | kuanar byr mana .   [VEÞ]  edit 
 Flat Hrœddr f⸌or⸍ híorua raddar herr fyrir malma þuerri ʀog | œisu gek ʀœsir rad sterkr framar merkium gerra gramr j snerru geíríma ser hlífa | hínn er yfir gat íofra oskuœnan byr mana ·   [VEÞ]  edit 

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