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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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documentation

 

1. Skaldic Project Editors' Manual

2. Manuals and Guidelines

3. Newsletters

4. Abbreviations and technical terms

5. The Skaldic Database

8. Web interface help

10. Reference material

11. Subscriber terms and conditions

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Vol. I. Poetry for Scandinavian Rulers 1: From Mythological Times to c. 1035

Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300

Vol. III. Poetry from Treatises on Poetics

Vol. VII. Poetry on Christian Subjects

Vol. VIII. Poetry in the fornaldarsǫgur

 

(subheadings only)

 
1. Formatting text

In editing fields where formatting is required, there are two ways of entering the formatted text, depending on what your browser supports.

type 1: WYSIWYG formatting

On some browsers, when you click in the text box it will change the formatting code into formatted text. This should happen in Internet Explorer for Windows, versions later than 5.5; and in recent Mozilla-based browsers (Netscape 6, Firebird, Mozilla, etc.).

If this occurs, you can use keyboard commands to add and remove formatting, as you would in a word processor. Common commands are:

[ctrl]-iitalics
[ctrl]-bbold
[ctrl]-sstrike-through
[ctrl]-uunderline
[ctrl]-4(heading)

Note that the commands use the [ctrl] (control) key in both Windows and on Macs (rather than the usual Apple key for commands on Macs).

You should not normally require any other formatting, apart from paragraphs, which will automatically be added when you press enter (as in a word processor). Headings for the fields themselves (such as 'prose context' or 'introduction') will be added automatically. You should only add sub-headings if required by the context (e.g. sometimes this is necessary in poem and saga introductions). Some fields, such as skald biographies and prose context information, should only be one paragraph.

type 2: html tagging

This less-friendly way of adding formatting is required if your browser does not support the above method. Consider upgrading to the latest version of Netscape (in Mac or Windows) or Internet Explorer (in Windows) to take advantage of the above features.

When you click in the text box, if the html tags (such as '<span>' or '<i>') remain, you will have to edit them yourself. For italics, you must place the html italics start tag (<i>) where the italics start and the end tag (</i>) where the italics end. You must include the end tag, even if the italics continue to the end of the text. So, the following text: 'the opening verse in Hkr' should be entered as 'the opening verse in <i>Hkr<i>'.

Other tags are as follows:

<i>...</i>italics
<b>...</b>bold
<s>...</s>strike-through
<u>...</u>underline
<h4>...</h4>(heading)

As with the WYSIWYG interface, you should not normally require any other formatting.

 
2. Filtering Word documents

Material produced in Word can be copied and pasted with formatting in some browsers. The filters below allow you to convert Word files into the appropriate format - instructions are included with these links:

 
3. Preparing database text for publication

The following should be checked and done before exporting the edition for publication:

  • Check for en-dashes in various parts of the edition - in most cases they should be hyphens
  • Check for dodgy app notes (see below)
  • Check for repeated app entries (same word(s), same ms. ref)

These are older and might need some revision:

  • Remove dodgy app notes (i.e. ones containing <i> or ‘’).
  • Standardise [lit. blah] etc. [done]
  • Fix metrical annotation - ´ | ` etc. [?]
  • Fix Greek and other non-ReykholtTimes characters.
  • Fix page/note references: s/(\d+),?\s*n\.\s*(\d)+/$1 n. $2/ or equivalent. [mostly done]
  • check for upper case note lemmata
  • Also check anm. references. [done]
  • Fix ReykholtTimes styles by applying the following:
UPDATE notes
SET note=LEFT(SUBSTRING(note,43),LENGTH(note)-49)
WHERE note LIKE '<span style="font-family: ReykholtTimes;">%'
AND note LIKE '%</span>'

UPDATE skalds
SET biography=LEFT(SUBSTRING(biography,43),LENGTH(biography)-49)
WHERE biography LIKE '<span style="font-family: ReykholtTimes;">%'
AND biography LIKE '%</span>'

UPDATE verses
SET intro=LEFT(SUBSTRING(intro,43),LENGTH(intro)-49)
WHERE intro LIKE '<span style="font-family: ReykholtTimes;">%'
AND intro LIKE '%</span>'

UPDATE verses
SET editions=LEFT(SUBSTRING(editions,43),LENGTH(editions)-49)
WHERE editions LIKE '<span style="font-family: ReykholtTimes;">%'
AND editions LIKE '%</span>'

UPDATE verses
SET context=LEFT(SUBSTRING(context,43),LENGTH(context)-49)
WHERE context LIKE '<span style="font-family: ReykholtTimes;">%'
AND context LIKE '%</span>'

 
4. Exporting to Word for book version

NOTE: problems:

  • Office 2008 for Mac replaces style spacing information with Before: 0.1pt, After: 0.1pt
  • Also, add border-collapse:collapse, cellpadding="0" to table definition (in filter) to help import into Word.
  • Kenning referents should use Word small caps formatting or that of the font

To produce a version of the edition suitable for printing in book form:

  1. Open the link for export: verse, poem, skald (by volume) in the verse view page; or to export the contents of the entire volume, use the link under volumes. The export page should open in a new window in black and white.
  2. Save the exported HTML file to the Desktop or another convenient location.
  3. Open the document template in Microsoft Word (it can be downloaded here); you must also have the font GaramondProSkaldic2 installed. [see note 1]
  4. Open the file you have saved to the Desktop in Word, by dragging the file's icon onto the Word program icon. This is important - you may not be able to open the file in Word by other means.
  5. Word will complain that a file is missing - just click OK.
  6. Select the whole document, or the part of it you wish to import and copy it to the clipboard (see under Edit menu; otherwise use cmd/ctrl-A to select and cmd/ctrl-C to copy).
  7. Click on the CurrentBookTemplate.dot file (or whatever latest version) and paste the selection into the new document (cmd/ctrl-V). It should format the text automatically so that it appears with the correct characters in the  Garamond font.
  8. You will need to make some adjustments before printing, including:
    • Go to Edit > Replace... and type in '    ' (four spaces) in the find box (without quotation marks) and '    ' (4 spaces) in the replace box, then Replace All. Do the same again with three spaces in each box. This fixes the variant apparatus so that it aligns with the right margin.
    • If there are tables, you will need to remove padding. Right-click in table > Table Properties... > Options... (button) > uncheck 'Allow spacing between cells' and reduce top and bottom cell margins to '0cm'
    • Check that Greek, Hebrew and any other non-standard scripts appear correctly; other possibilities include metrical notation and the yogh letter
    • [If exporting the whole volume, see also note 2]
  9. Save As... for file in a new location
  10. Create PDF by using Print... > PDF > Save as PDF

Notes

  1. This is tested for Microsoft Word 2004 for Mac only. Using other versions of Word require a slightly different method because of the way in which template files are handled.
  2. If you are producing the whole volume:
    • Go to Edit > Replace... and type in '#page break^p' in the find box (without quotation marks) and '^m' in the replace box, then click Replace All. This will insert page breaks where appropriate. You may need to delete a superfluous page break at the end of the document.Paste poem or other title into right-hand header (or similar, depending on volume).
    • Insert the correct page number where the volume is exported in parts: go to View > Header and Footer and click on the 'format page number' button (the third or fourth button in the header/footer toolbar); insert the correct starting page number next to 'Start At'. If using a single document, you will need to create section breaks between each part with a new header.

1. Exporting to Word for book version (Vol 7 version)
2. Exporting to Word for book version (Vol 2 version)

 
5. Book version layout and styles

Layout (mm)

Page size: (A4 297 x 210)
> 160 x 240

Margins: top: 58.5, bottom: 57.5, inside: 45, outside: 45, gutter: 0, header: 48.5

Text size: 120 x 180

Verse text tables cell widths: 8mm (number), 56, 56 for each helmingr (or 112 for eddic metres)

Styles

  • ‘normal’: 10/12pt, justified, no spacing, 0,6cm tabs, font: 'Adobe Garamond Pro Skaldic'

Edition section

  • text (verse text): 11/13pt, 12pt spacing at top
  • prose (prose order): 9/11pt, 6pt spacing before
  • trans (translation): 10/12pt, 6pt spacing before
  • textapp (mss and readings): same as prose
  • edns (editions): same as prose
  • notes (context and notes): normal + 6pt spacing at top
  • runhead
  • runrdghead
  • runrdg

Text spans

  • kenref (kenning referents): 8pt font

Other styles

  • Volume introduction and front matter: 10.5/12.5pt
  • bibl (bibliography): normal + 0,6cm hanging indent
  • Normal padding: normal + 6pt top spacing

 
6. Fonts

Installing fonts

Windows: Open the Control Panel and click on the fonts folder. You should be able to drag the four font files into the folder, which will install them. Alternatively, click on the menu File > Install New Font... and add the fonts this way.

Mac: Open the folder Libarary > Fonts and drag the fonts into the folder. This installs the fonts.

Fonts will be available the next time you open a program (close and reopen any running programs if you want to use the fonts). If you are having difficulty, try rebooting the system.

Using Unicode characters in Windows

Use the 'Character Map' to select, copy and paste characters.

Using Unicode characters on a Mac

Solution 1

On a Mac, open System Preferences > Language & Text > Input Sources (tab); mark the checkbox next to Keyboard & Character Viewer (at the top). This is a useful tool which shows you all the characters available in all the fonts. You launch the character viewer in the keyboard menu at the top of the screen. There will be a little flag depending on your keyboard set up - under that there is 'Character Viewer'.

The Character Viewer organises the 100,000-odd characters now in Unicode in various ways. The easiest is to change View: to 'Code Tables'. You can then scroll down to the relevant section, e.g. F708 is under 0000E000 Private Use Area, then scroll down in the lower box to F700, and then your character will appear under 8. The Private Use Area is tricky, because the characters are not standardised. In most cases the character will just appear as a square, but when you click on it, you'll get the character under the 'Font Variation' section.

Click on 'Insert' at the bottom and it will appear in the active program.

Solution 2

Alternatively, there is a keyboard 'Unicode Hex Input' under System Preferences > Language & Text > Input Sources (tab); Select this 'keyboard' from under the keyboard menu. You can then enter any Unicode character by holding down the [alt] key and pressing the four-digit hexadecimal code: in the above case [alt]+F708.

You will need to switch between keyboard layouts if you use this method, so often the first method is preferable as it gives a visual way of navigating all the characters and without the different keyboard layout problems.

1. ReykholtTimes
2. Adobe Garamond Pro
3. GaramondProSkaldic2

 
7. Icelandic character order

Collation chart for utf8_icelandic_ci (MySQL 6.0.4)

From http://www.collation-charts.org/mysql60/mysql604.utf8_icelandic_ci.html

A
41
0041
a
61
0061
Á
C381
00C1
á
C3A1
00E1
B
42
0042
b
62
0062
C
43
0043
c
63
0063
D
44
0044
d
64
0064
Ð
C390
00D0
ð
C3B0
00F0
E
45
0045
e
65
0065
Ë
C38B
00CB
ë
C3AB
00EB
É
C389
00C9
é
C3A9
00E9
F
46
0046
f
66
0066
G
47
0047
g
67
0067
H
48
0048
h
68
0068
I
49
0049
i
69
0069
Í
C38D
00CD
í
C3AD
00ED
J
4A
004A
j
6A
006A
K
4B
004B
k
6B
006B
L
4C
004C
l
6C
006C
M
4D
004D
m
6D
006D
N
4E
004E
n
6E
006E
O
4F
004F
o
6F
006F
Ó
C393
00D3
ó
C3B3
00F3
P
50
0050
p
70
0070
Q
51
0051
q
71
0071
R
52
0052
r
72
0072
S
53
0053
s
73
0073
T
54
0054
t
74
0074
U
55
0055
u
75
0075
Ü
C39C
00DC
ü
C3BC
00FC
Ú
C39A
00DA
ú
C3BA
00FA
V
56
0056
v
76
0076
W
57
0057
w
77
0077
X
58
0058
x
78
0078
Y
59
0059
y
79
0079
Ý
C39D
00DD
ý
C3BD
00FD
Z
5A
005A
z
7A
007A
Þ
C39E
00DE
þ
C3BE
00FE
Ä
C384
00C4
Æ
C386
00C6
ä
C3A4
00E4
æ
C3A6
00E6
Ø
C398
00D8
ø
C3B8
00F8
Å
C385
00C5
å
C3A5
00E5
© Skaldic Project Academic Body, unless otherwise noted. Database structure and interface developed by Tarrin Wills. All users of material on this database are reminded that its content may be either subject to copyright restrictions or is the property of the custodians of linked databases that have given permission for members of the skaldic project to use their material for research purposes. Those users who have been given access to as yet unpublished material are further reminded that they may not use, publish or otherwise manipulate such material except with the express permission of the individual editor of the material in question and the General Editor of the volume in which the material is to be published. Applications for permission to use such material should be made in the first instance to the General Editor of the volume in question. All information that appears in the published volumes has been thoroughly reviewed. If you believe some information here is incorrect please contact Tarrin Wills with full details.