Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

login: password: stay logged in: help

Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson (Eyv)

10th century; volume 1; ed. Russell Poole;

3. Lausavísur (Lv) - 14

Skj info: Eyvindr Finnsson skáldaspillir, Norsk skjald, 10. årh. (d. omkr. 990). (AI, 64-74, BI, 57-65).

Skj poems:
1. Hákonarmál
2. Háleygjatal
3. Lausavísur

Eyvindr (Eyv, c. 915-990) has been called the last important Norwegian skald (Genzmer 1920, 159; also Boyer 1990a, 201). He is listed in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 256, 261, 265-6) among the poets of Hákon góði ‘the Good’ Haraldsson and Hákon jarl Sigurðarson. His maternal grandmother was a daughter of Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’, and he seems to have been close to Haraldr’s son Hákon góði from early on, serving at his court as one of a group of brilliant skalds. After Hákon’s death he resided at the court of Haraldr gráfeldr ‘Grey-cloak’, but relations with Haraldr seem to have soured quickly, as evidenced by his lausavísur. Eyvindr spent the last part of his life with the powerful Hákon jarl Sigurðarson of Hlaðir (Lade), whose family had supported Hákon góði against the sons of Eiríkr blóðøx ‘Blood-axe’. According to Hkr (ÍF 26, 221), in addition to Háleygjatal (Hál), Hákonarmál (Hák) and the lausavísur, Eyvindr composed a poem Íslendingadrápa, but this has not come down to us. The epithet skáldaspillir is usually interpreted to mean ‘Plagiarist’, literally ‘Destroyer (or Despoiler?) of Poets’ in reference to his habit of drawing inspiration from and alluding to earlier compositions, specifically Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) for Hál and Eiríksmál (Anon Eirm), along with several eddic poems, for Hák (see Introductions to Hál and Hák). The alternative interpretation ‘Poem-reciter’ proposed by Wadstein (1895a, 88) is unconvincing; see further Olsen (1962a, 28), and Beck (1994a). For further biographical information, see LH I, 447-9, Holm-Olsen (1953) and Marold (1993a).

Lausavísur — Eyv LvI

Russell Poole 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Lausavísur’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 213.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14 

Skj: Eyvindr Finnsson skáldaspillir: 3. Lausavísur (AI, 71-4, BI, 62-5)

SkP info: I, 226

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

8 — Eyv Lv 8I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Lausavísur 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 226.

Bôrum, Ullr, of alla,
ímunlauks, á hauka
fjǫllum Fýrisvalla
fræ Hôkunar ævi.
Nú hefr folkstríðir Fróða
fáglýjaðra þýja
meldr í móður holdi
mellu dolgs of folginn.

Bôrum {fræ Fýrisvalla} á {fjǫllum hauka} of alla ævi Hôkunar, {Ullr {ímunlauks}}. Nú hefr {folkstríðir} of folginn {meldr {fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða}} í holdi {móður {dolgs mellu}}.

We bore {the seed of Fýrisvellir} [GOLD] on {the mountains of hawks} [HANDS] during the whole of Hákon’s lifetime, {Ullr <god> {of the battle-leek}} [SWORD > WARRIOR]. Now {the afflicter of the people} [= Haraldr] has hidden {the flour {of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king>}} [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD] in the flesh {of the mother {of the enemy of the giantess}} [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)].

Mss: (108v), F(19ra), J1ˣ(65r), J2ˣ(62r-v) (Hkr); 61(6va), Bb(8vb) (ÓT); FskBˣ(14r), FskAˣ(62-63) (Fsk); R(32v), Tˣ(34r), W(75), U(31r), U(43v-44r), C(3v) (SnE, ll. 1-4); A(4r), W(102), B(2v) (TGT, ll. 1-2)

Readings: [1] of (‘vm’): á U(31r);    alla: allan R, C    [2] ímun‑: ‘imum’ Bb;    ‑lauks: ‘letvrs’ R, ‘l[…]ks’ U(31r), ‑leiks C;    á: so all others, ok Kˣ;    hauka: hauga FskBˣ    [3] fjǫllum: ‘fioll[…]’ U(31r);    ‑valla: vallar F, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, U(43v)    [5] hefr: ‘hofir’ Bb;    folkstríðir: full hríð Bb    [6] fá‑: fjǫl J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb, FskAˣ;    ‑glýjaðra: ‘gyliadra’ Bb, ‘glyara’ FskBˣ;    þýja: þylja Bb    [7] meldr: meld FskBˣ, moldar FskAˣ    [8] mellu: moldu Bb;    folginn: folgit 61, Bb

Editions: Skj: Eyvindr Finnsson skáldaspillir, 3. Lausavísur 8: AI, 73, BI, 64, Skald I, 39-40; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 226, IV, 62-3, ÍF 26, 201-2, Hkr 1991, I, 133 (HGráf ch. 1), F 1871, 86; Fms 1, 50, Fms 12, 30-1, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 49 (ch. 31); Fsk 1902-3, 54 (ch. 13), ÍF 29, 99 (ch. 14); SnE 1848-87, I, 398-9, II, 321, 362, 580-1, SnE 1931, 142, SnE 1998, I, 59; SnE 1848-87, II, 108-9, TGT 1884, 16, 71, TGT 1927, 48, TGT 1998, 124-5; Krause 1990, 243-9.

Context:

Fsk places Lv 8 and 9 after Lv 12, with the comment that the sons of Eiríkr have become grasping and pay no heed to the laws of the land; they bury their treasure in the ground like peasants and fail to pay their entourage. The explanation in Hkr is similar. In SnE, the first helmingr is used to exemplify the ‘seed of Hrólfr kraki’ pattern of gold-kenning (see Note to ll. 3-4). In TGT ll. 1-2 are cited by Óláfr Þórðarson to illustrate his Latin source’s account of a poetic blemish (vitium) termed collisio, where the consonant [m] stands between two vowels (see Note to l. 1).

Notes: [All]: The ideology underlying the kennings in this lausavísa is discussed in detail by Frank (1978, 57-60). Lv 8 and 9 are remarkable for their recurrent hendingar using the sounds [ll] or [l], along with other close imitative effects, both phonological and lexical. — [1] bôrum, Ullr ‘we bore, Ullr <god>’: The diagnosis of collisio applies to the final [m] in bôrum, which is preceded and followed by a vowel. Such placement would certainly be a blemish in Latin verse, but not in Old Norse. — [1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2). — [1, 4] of alla ævi Hôkunar ‘during the whole of Hákon’s lifetime’: Cf. the closely similar phrasing in Lv 9/3, 4.  — [3-4] fræ Fýrisvalla ‘the seed of Fýrisvellir [GOLD]’: The legendary Hrólfr kraki, king of Denmark, is said to have scattered gold rings and treasure on the plains of Fýrisvellir in order to distract the Swedish king Aðils (cf. Þjóð Yt 16/2) and his army, and delay their pursuit of him (SnE 1998, I, 59; Yng, ÍF 26, 57; Hrólfs saga kraka, Hrólf 1960, 105). For this reason he is spoken of as ‘sowing gold’. See Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this legend. Concomitantly, the base-word ‘seed’ may hint at an underlying theme of the fertility of the land and at the traditional connection of fertility with good rule. The theme of the land is maintained by the choice of the (contrasting) kenning base-words in l. 3: valla, from vellir ‘plains’, and fjǫllum, from fjǫll ‘mountains’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). — [5] folkstríðir ‘the afflicter of the people [= Haraldr]’: Haraldr gráfeldr, who, in reality, may have enjoyed greater popular support than this invective would suggest (cf. Bagge 2004, 194). — [5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion. — [7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

© Skaldic Project Academic Body, unless otherwise noted. Database structure and interface developed by Tarrin Wills. All users of material on this database are reminded that its content may be either subject to copyright restrictions or is the property of the custodians of linked databases that have given permission for members of the skaldic project to use their material for research purposes. Those users who have been given access to as yet unpublished material are further reminded that they may not use, publish or otherwise manipulate such material except with the express permission of the individual editor of the material in question and the General Editor of the volume in which the material is to be published. Applications for permission to use such material should be made in the first instance to the General Editor of the volume in question. All information that appears in the published volumes has been thoroughly reviewed. If you believe some information here is incorrect please contact Tarrin Wills with full details.