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Anonymous Poems (Anon)

VII. Lilja (Lil) - 100

Lilja (‘Lily’) — Anon LilVII

Martin Chase 2007, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Lilja’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 544-677.

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Skj: Eysteinn Ásgrímsson: Lilja (AII, 363-95, BII, 390-416)

SkP info: VII, 619-20

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49 — Anon Lil 49VII

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Cite as: Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 49’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 619-20.

Fúsir hlupu og fundu Jésúm;
fundinn hröktu, lömdu og bundu;
bundinn leiddu; hæðnir hæddu;
hæddan, rægðan, slógu klæddan
fjandans börnin; þraungum þyrni
þessir spenna um blessað ennið;
þessir negldu Krist á krossinn;
keyra járn, svá að stökk um dreyrinn.

Fúsir hlupu og fundu Jésúm; fundinn hröktu, lömdu og bundu; bundinn leiddu; hæðnir hæddu; hæddan, rægðan, klæddan slógu {börnin fjandans}; þessir spenna þraungum þyrni um blessað ennið; þessir negldu Krist á krossinn; keyra járn, svá að dreyrinn stökk um.

Frenzied men ran and found Jesus; having found him, they abused him, struck him, and bound him; when he had been bound, they led him; those fond of mocking mocked him; when he had been mocked, reviled, and clothed {the offspring of the fiend} [= Jews] struck him; they wind a tight [crown of] thorn around the blessed forehead; they nailed Christ to the cross; they drive iron [nails] so that the blood spurted around [them].

Mss: Bb(115ra), 99a(10r-v), 622(31-32), 713(10), Vb(251), 41 8°ˣ(121), 705ˣ(13r), 4892(32v)

Readings: [1] hlupu: hlaupa 622    [3] leiddu: leiddu en 99a;    hæðnir: heiðir 99a, heimskir 713, 4892    [4] rægðan: om. 713, 4892, rægðu Vb, 41 8°ˣ;    slógu: slógu og 622, slógu og af 713, slóu Vb, 41 8°ˣ, slóu og af 4892;    klæddan: afklæddan 99a, Vb, 705ˣ, klæddu 622, 713, 4892    [5] fjandans: fjanda Vb, 41 8°ˣ;    börnin: börn gjöra Vb, 41 8°ˣ, barn gjöra 4892;    þraungum: þraungvan 713, 41 8°ˣ, þraungan Vb, þraungva 4892    [6] þessir: þessum 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, þess 4892;    um: om. Vb;    ennið: enni 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892    [7] negldu: negla 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892;    Krist: so 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, trist Bb    [8] keyra: og keyra 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ;    að: om. 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892;    stökk: stökkr 622;    um: út 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892;    dreyrinn: dreyri 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

Editions: Skj: Eysteinn Ásgrímsson, Lilja 49: AII, 379, BII, 403, Skald II, 220, NN §§1526, 1527.

Notes: [1-4]: In skaldic poetics, the repetition of the last word of a l. at the beginning of the following l. is called dunhent ‘echoing rhymed’. See SnSt Ht sts 24, 47, and 48III (SnE 1999, 15, 22-3) and RvHbreiðm Hl sts 57, 58, 65, and 66III (Jón Helgason and Holtsmark 1941, 127-9), but, as Rudolf Meissner says (1922, 52), ‘What a difference between these school-examples and the stanzas of Lilja!’. In Lat. rhetoric, which may be the closer model here, the figure is called anadiplosis or reduplicatio (Lausberg 1998, §619; cf. e.g. the definition given by the Venerable Bede [Hurst 1975, 146] and the brief discussion in TGT 1884-6, I, 94). The ll. also exhibit climax or gradatio: the repeated word occurs first in the pret., and then as perf. participles (Lausberg 1998, §623; cf. e.g. the definitions in the Rhetorica ad Herennium [Marx 1923, 4.25.34] and Augustine’s De Doctrina Christiana [Martin 1962, 123]) and polyptoton, the repetition of a word in various grammatical forms (Lausberg 1998, §§640-8; cf. e.g. the Venerable Bede [Hurst 1975, 150]. See also Laugesen 1966, 297-8, and cf. Lil 55 and 66). — [2] hröktu ‘abused’: The basic meaning of hrekja is to mishandle or physically abuse an animal or a person, but it can also refer to verbal abuse (see Fritzner: hrekja). — [4] klæddan ‘clothed’: Some form of klæða ‘clothe’ is preferable to afklæða ‘unclothe’: the allusion is to John XIX.2-3: et milites plectentes coronam de spinis inposuerunt capiti eius et veste purpurea circumdederunt eum et veniebant ad eum et dicebant have rex Iudaeorum et dabant ei alapas ‘and the soldiers platting a crown of thorns, put it upon his head; and they put on him a purple garment. And they came to him and said: Hail, king of the Jews; and they gave him blows’. The reading of Bb, slógu klæddan ‘they struck the one they had clothed’ is acceptable; Kock points out that the reading hæddan rægðu, slógu ok klæddu ‘they reviled him who had been mocked, they struck and clothed [him]’ chimes with l. 2: fundinn hröktu, lömdu og bundu ‘they shook him who was found, they struck and bound [him]’ (NN §1526).

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated