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Einarr Skúlason (ESk)

12th century; volume 2; ed. Kari Ellen Gade;

9. Ingadrápa (Ingdr) - 4

We know very little about the life of Einarr Skúlason (ESk). He is called prestr ‘priest’ and is mentioned in a catalogue (c. 1220) of priests of noble birth who were alive in western Iceland in 1143 (Stu 1878, II, 502). It is likely that he came from Borg, belonged to the Mýrar family and was a direct descendant of Þorsteinn Egilsson and a brother of Snorri Sturluson’s maternal grandfather (LH 1894-1901, II, 62-3; ÍF 3, 51 n. 3). He was probably born c. 1090. In 1153, he recited the poem Geisli ‘Light-beam’ (ESk GeislVII) in Kristkirken in Trondheim. He was marshal (stallari) at King Eysteinn Magnússon’s court, and he composed poetry in praise of the Norw. kings Sigurðr jórsalafari ‘Jerusalem-farer’ and Eysteinn Magnússon, Haraldr gilli(-kristr) ‘Servant (of Christ)’, Magnús inn blindi ‘the Blind’ Sigurðarson, Haraldr gilli’s sons, Ingi, Sigurðr munnr ‘Mouth’, and Eysteinn, and about the Norw. chieftain Grégóríus Dagsson (see SnE 1848-87, III, 254-5, 263-4, 269, 276-7, 286). According to Skáldatal, he also honoured the Norw. magnate Eindriði ungi ‘the Young’ Jónsson as well as Sørkvir Kolsson and Jón jarl Sørkvisson of Sweden and King Sveinn Eiríksson of Denmark (SnE 1848-87, III, 252, 258, 260, 268-9, 272, 283, 286). About the latter he recited a poem for which he received no reward (see ESk Lv 3; ÍF 35, 275). The extant portion of his poetic oeuvre consists of the following poems (excluding lvv.): Sigurðardrápa I (Sigdr I, five extant sts about Sigurðr jórsalafari); Haraldsdrápa I (Hardr I, two extant sts about Haraldr gilli); Haraldsdrápa II (Hardr II, five extant sts about Haraldr gilli); Haraldssonakvæði (Harsonkv, two extant sts about the sons of Haraldr gilli); Sigurðardrápa II (Sigdr II, one extant st. about Sigurðr munnr Haraldsson); Runhenda (Run, ten extant sts about Eysteinn Haraldsson); Eysteinsdrápa (Eystdr, two extant sts about Eysteinn Haraldsson); Ingadrápa (Ingdr, four extant sts about Ingi Haraldsson); Elfarvísur (Elfv, two extant sts about Grégóríus Dagsson); Geisli (GeislVII, seventy-one sts about S. Óláfr); Øxarflokkr (ØxflIII, ten extant sts about the gift of an axe).

It must be emphasised that, although the poetry included in the royal panegyrics below clearly belongs to poems of that genre, with two exceptions (Hardr II and Elfv), all the names of the poems are modern constructs (notably by Jón Sigurðsson and Finnur Jónsson). That also holds true for the assignment of sts to the individual poems. In some cases, sts were assigned to a particular poem for metrical reasons (so Run), in other cases because of the content or the named recipients of the praise. For the sake of convenience, the names of the poems and the sts assigned to them as found in Skj have been retained in the present edn. In addition to the royal encomia, a number of fragments and lvv. attributed to Einarr are preserved in SnE, TGT and LaufE (see ESk Frag 1-18III; ESk Lv 7-15III). These have been edited separately in SkP III. Six lvv. are transmitted in the kings’ sagas and edited below.

Ingadrápa (‘Drápa about Ingi’) — ESk IngdrII

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Einarr Skúlason, Ingadrápa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 561-5.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4 

Skj: Einarr Skúlason: 9. Ingadrápa (AI, 476, BI, 448)

SkP info: II, 564-5

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

3 — ESk Ingdr 3II

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance

 

Cite as: Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Ingadrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 564-5.

Út lét stǫng á Stræti
sterkr dýrligra merkja
— dúðusk dǫrr — af reiði
Dags sonr bera fagra.
Hnigu menn í gný Gunnar
gagls fyr strengjar hagli;
brœðr hafa barzk í miðri
Bjǫrgyn fyr ósynju.

{Sterkr sonr Dags} lét bera fagra stǫng dýrligra merkja út á Stræti af reiði; dǫrr dúðusk. Menn hnigu fyr {hagli strengjar} í {gný {gagls Gunnar}}; brœðr hafa barzk í miðri Bjǫrgyn fyr ósynju.

{The strong son of Dagr} [= Grégóríus] let the fair pole of the precious standard be carried out onto Stræti (‘the Street’) with wrath; spears shook. Men sank down before {the hail of the bowstring} [ARROWS] in {the din {of Gunnr’s <valkyrie’s> gosling}} [RAVEN/EAGLE > BATTLE]; brothers have fought in the middle of Bergen without cause.

Mss: Mork(37v) (Mork); FskAˣ(384) (Fsk)

Readings: [2] sterkr: sterk FskAˣ    [4] sonr: so FskAˣ, son Mork    [7] brœðr: brœðir FskAˣ;    í miðri: á víðri Mork, miðri FskAˣ    [8] ‑yn: ‑vin FskAˣ

Editions: Skj: Einarr Skúlason, 9. Ingadrápa 3: AI, 476, BI, 448, Skald I, 221, NN §§2538, 2990B; Mork 1867, 235, Mork 1928-32, 458, Andersson and Gade 2000, 401, 495 (Hsona); ÍF 29, 337 (ch. 99).

Context: As st. 2 above.

Notes: [1] á Stræti ‘onto Stræti (“the Street”)’: Stræti (lit. ‘street’) was the ON name of the street (now Øvregaten) stretching from Mariekirken (Máríukirkja, the Church of S. Mary) to Olavskirken (Óláfskirkja, the Church of S. Óláfr) in Bergen (see map in ÍF 30). The p. n. is also given in the prose of Mork (Mork 1928-32, 547: af stretino) and in Hkr (ÍF 28, 340: af strætinu), but not in Fsk. — [2, 4] sterkr sonr Dags ‘the strong son of Dagr [= Grégóríus]’: For Grégóríus Dagsson, see ‘Biographies of Other Dignitaries’ in Introduction to this vol. and ESk Elfv. — [2] sterkr (m. nom. sg.) ‘strong’: If the FskAˣ variant is adopted, sterk (n. acc. pl.) would qualify dǫrr (n. acc. pl.) ‘spears’ (l. 3). For dǫrr ‘spears’, see Note to Gísl Magnkv 12/8. — [2] dýrligra merkja ‘of the precious standard’: Lit. ‘of the precious standards’. Pl. used with a sg. meaning. — [5-6] gný gagls Gunnar ‘the din of Gunnr’s <valkyrie’s> gosling [RAVEN/EAGLE > BATTLE]’: Gný Gunnar ‘the din of Gunnr’ is in itself a kenning for ‘battle’. Kock (NN §§2538, 2990B) takes the prepositional phrase í gný Gunnar gagls in its literal meaning (‘in the screeching of Gunnr’s gosling’, i.e. ‘in the screeching of the raven/eagle’), an interpretation which seems rather strained. — [7-8] í miðri Bjǫrgyn ‘in the middle of Bergen’: The FskAˣ variant (miðri ‘middle’) violates the metre since it requires an additional syllable. The Mork reading (á víðri Bjǫrgyn ‘at/in spacious Bergen’) appears to be a lectio facilior, because that adj. occurs very frequently in combinations with place names (see LP: víðr). The battle did take place in the middle of Bergen, and Sigurðr and his men were attacked while they were drinking in a hall owned by the woman Sigríðr sæta ‘Grass Widow’. See also Note to l. 1 above.

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated