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Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson (Þjsk)

10th century; volume 1; ed. Kate Heslop;

I. 1. Poem about Hákon (Hák) - 2

Þorleifr jarlsskáld ‘Jarl’s poet’ (Þjsk), son of Ásgeirr rauðfeldr ‘Red-cloak’, was born at Brekka in Svarfaðardalur in northern Iceland in the mid to late tenth century, and must have been alive c. 970-c. 995. It is impossible to be more definite about his dates as neither Svarfdœla saga nor Þorleifs þáttr jarlaskálds (ÞorlJ) in Flat, the only narrative sources, has a consistent chronology (ÍF 9, xcii, xcvii). Many sources mention Þorleifr as a skald: Ldn (ÍF 1, 254), both versions of Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 256, 266), Sneglu-Halla þáttr (ÍF 9, 285-6), ÓTOdd (ÍF 25, 191), and HaukrV Ísldr 18IV. Some stanzas are attributed to Þorleifr in Hkr, ÓT, TGT and FoGT, but the bulk of the poetry attributed to him and almost all the biographical information about him is preserved only in ÞorlJ (ÍF 9, 312-29).

According to ÞorlJ, Þorleifr flees Iceland for Norway as a young man, but soon leaves for Denmark after a dispute over trading rights ends with Hákon jarl Sigurðarson burning his ship and executing his crew (Lv 5). He is said to have composed a forty-stanza encomium for King Sveinn tjúguskegg ‘Fork-beard’ of Denmark (Drápa about Sveinn tjúguskegg; Sveindr), but only the stef ‘refrain’ is extant. While staying with Sveinn, he visits Norway and gets his revenge on Hákon by performing a níð poem (Jarlsníð; Jarl) which causes the jarl’s hair to fall out; one stanza is cited in ÞorlJ. After this Sveinn gives Þorleifr his byname, jarlaskáld ‘Jarls’ poet’ and speaks a stanza about the níð (Svtjúg Lv). However, the þáttr’s use of the genitive plural jarla ‘of jarls’ may be incorrect, for TGT calls him jarlsskáld ‘Jarl’s poet’, Skáldatal lists him as a skald of Hákon but not Eiríkr (and the U version calls him ‘Hákonarskáld’), and Þorleifr is not known to have composed poetry about any other jarl (Nj 1875-8, II, 283-4; ÍF 9, xcvii n. 1; see Almqvist 1965-74, I, 197 for a contrary view). The names of poet and þáttr therefore appear with alternation of jarls- and jarla- in printed sources, and the present edition uses jarls- for the poet and jarla- for the þáttr. Þorleifr subsequently returns to Iceland and settles at Höfðabrekka in Myrdalur in the south of the country. He is, according to ÞorlJ, assassinated at the Alþingi by an enchanted wooden golem, a trémaðr with a man’s heart which Hákon has created with the help of his tutelary goddesses, Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr and Irpa (cf. Lv 6). Þorleifr’s burial mound at Þingvellir is said to have still been visible at the time the þáttr was composed, probably in the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century (Harris 1993, 672). Much of this narrative is clearly fictional, and there is reason to suspect the genuineness of most of the stanzas attributed to Þorleifr in ÞorlJ (see Notes to Sveindr and Lv 5 and 6). However, widespread references in reliable sources put Þorleifr’s activity as a skald, his association with Hákon, and his composition of níð about the jarl beyond doubt.

Poem about Hákon — Þjsk HákI

Kate Heslop 2012, ‘ Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson, Poem about Hákon’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 369. <> (accessed 29 January 2022)

stanzas:  1   2 

Skj: Þórleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson: 1. Hákonardrápa, o. 986 (AI, 141, BI, 132)

in texts: Flat, FoGT, Gramm, Hkr, ÓT, ÓTC, TGT

SkP info: I, 369

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files


Note: The following transcriptions have been entered to aid the editing process. These may not have been fully reviewed and checked and may therefore not be reliable. You may wish to consult the manuscript images. Any corrections can be notified to the database editor.

1. Kx - 171r/15-171r/22 (KSH)
Hacon vitom hvergi | hafiz hefir ruɴr af guɴi | fremra jarl und ferli | fólc ránar þer mána | þu hefir ꜹðlinga oðni | etr hrafn af ná getnom | vera máttu af þvi vísi | víðlendr ix senda |
F - 29ra/15-29ra/18 (VEÞ)
Hakon vítom hvergi hafiz hefir rvɴr | af ɢvɴi fremra Jarl vnd felli folk ránar þer mána · þv hefir | oðlínnga oðní · etr hrafn af ná getnvm vera matto af þvi visi | við lendr ·ix· senda.
J1x - 102v/24-103r/4 (KSH)
hakon. || vitum hvergi hafiz hefir runr af gunni fren | iarl vnd ferli folk ranar þr mana. þu hefir ꜹð[...] | da oðni etr hrafn af na getnum vera mattu[...] | þi visi viðlendr nío senda.
J2x - 95v/4-95v/11 (KSH)
Hacon vitom hvergi | hafiz hefir runnr af gunni | fremra jarl und ferli | folc ranar þer mana | þu hefir ꜹðlinga oðni | etr hrafn af na getnum | vera mattu af þvi visi | viðlendr ix senda |
61 - 24va/36-24va/37 (KSH)
hakon vítum huergi hafiz hefir runn af | gunni. fremra jarl und ferli. folk ranar þer mána.
53 - 22ra/2-22ra/3 (KSH)
Hakoni vitum hvergi. hafiz hefir runn | af gunni. fremra j. vnd ferli. fólk ránar þer mána.
54 - 22va/16-22va/18 (KSH)
Hakoni vitum huergi. hafiz | hefir runn af gunni. fremra íarl vnd ferli. folkranar | þar mána.
Flat - 31vb/3-31vb/4 (KSH)
hakoní vítum ver huergi hafizst hefir runnr af gunni fer | mra jall und ferlli folk rannar þer manna ∙
2. A - 4v/11-4v/11 (VEÞ)
Hǫfðv ver i þær hacon ær at hiǫrrógi drogvmz þv rꜹtt skǫglar skyia skoð forystv goða |
W - 103/6-103/7 (TW)
Hofðvm ver þa er hakon er að | hio᷎r rogi drogvm. þu ravðt skoglar skyia skoð forustv goða.
W - 111/19-111/20 (KSH)
Hǫfdv ver i þer hakon er at hiǫrþingi gengum þu rauðt skǫglar sky | ia skǫð forvstv góða.
Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated