Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (ÞjóðA)

11th century; volume 2; ed. Diana Whaley;

4. Sexstefja (Sex) - 32

Skj info: Þjóðolfr Arnórsson, Islandsk skjald, d. 1066. (AI, 361-83, BI, 332-53).

Skj poems:
[untitled]
1. Magnúsflokkr
2. Runhent digt om Harald hårdråde
3. Sexstefja
4. Lausavísur

Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (ÞjóðA) is listed in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 254, 262) among the poets of Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and Haraldr harðráði ‘Hard-rule’ Sigurðarson, and virtually all his extant poetry seems to have been composed in honour of them, or in association with them; hence it dates from the period 1035-1066. The text of Skáldatal in AM 761 a 4°ˣ (SnE 1848-87, III, 259) also credits Þjóðólfr with poetry for Haraldr Þorkelsson, son of Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’ and one of the Dan. magnates present in Norway during the reign of Sveinn Álfífuson (1030-35). No identifiable fragments of this remain, but if true the tradition would suggest that Þjóðólfr was born not much later than 1010. Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar (Hem) has him die at the battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, and there is no record of him after that date, though Lv 11 has the air of being composed after the battle. Þjóðólfr was, according to Skáldatal and Fsk (ÍF 29, 245), the brother of another skald, Bǫlverkr Arnórsson (Bǫlv), and according to Sneglu-Halla þáttr (Snegl) in Flat (1860-8, III, 415), was from an undistinguished family in Svarfaðardalur, northern Iceland. The same þáttr (p. 421) names his father not as Arnórr but as Þorljótr, in the context of a scurrilous anecdote told against Þjóðólfr by Sneglu-Halli (SnH), who also taunts him with having composed the otherwise unknown Sorptrogsvísur ‘Dustbin Vísur’. The þáttr nevertheless describes him as accomplished (menntr vel) and courteous (kurteis maðr), highly favoured by King Haraldr and chief of his poets (haufutskꜳlld sitt, p. 415). Þjóðólfr’s poetry, rich in allusion and imagery, has continued to be widely admired, and it gains colour and vigour from the fact that he participated in many of the campaigns he depicts. It undoubtedly also reflects the fact that he was one of an exceptional circle of poets patronised by Haraldr (see Turville-Petre 1968), and much of his poetry shares topics and imagery with that of his contemporary Arnórr jarlaskáld (Arn), though there is no account of the dealings between these two. Þjóðólfr figures in several anecdotes centring on poetic composition: see Contexts to Lv 2-6, though we have no way of knowing whether he was so touchy about his reputation as the Context to Lv 4, and Snegl, would suggest; he also features as a go-between figure in Brands þáttr ǫrva, which cites no poetry. For brief biographies of Þjóðólfr see, e.g. SnE 1848-87, III, 578-9; LH 1894-1901, I, 627-32; Hollander 1945, 189-96.

In addition to the works edited here as Þjóðólfr’s, there have been further attributions to him. Þfagr Sveinn 7 is attributed to Þjóðólfr in Mork (1928-32, 165-6) and Flat (1860-8, III, 341), but to Þorleikr fagri in other sources; ÞKolb Eirdr 17I is attributed to Þjóðólfr in the U ms. alone, and Þfisk Lv 3 is attributed to him in F. Further, Flat, by citing Okík Magn 1 after ÞjóðA Magnfl 18 without announcing a change of skald implicitly assigns the latter to Þjóðólfr. We might perhaps also imagine Þjóðólfr having a hand in Anon (HSig) 2, the st. collaboratively composed by Haraldr’s men. A further set of six sts presented are anonymous in the medieval sources but are presented in this edn as Halli XI Fl (for reasons explained in Halli Biography below). These are printed among Þjóðólfr’s works in CPB II, 210-11 and listed under his name in SnE 1848-87, III, 583-4; Poole also finds ‘the ascription to Þjóðólfr Arnórsson … tempting, on stylistic grounds’ (1991, 75).

Preserved mainly in the kings’ sagas, above all in Hkr, Þjóðólfr’s oeuvre presents exceptional problems of reconstruction, which are discussed at some length in the Introductions to the individual poems or sets of sts. The chief problem is that Þjóðólfr certainly composed a major dróttkvætt poem for each of his patrons Magnús (Magnússflokkr, Magnfl) and Haraldr (Sexstefja, Sex), but that in each case there is also a set of sts that may or may not belong in the main encomium. The decision has been taken here to print them separately: fourteen sts depicting the aftermaths of Magnús’s major battles at Århus (Áróss) and Helgenæs (Helganes) are presented as ‘Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi’ (Magn), and seven describing the launch of Haraldr’s great levied fleet from Nidelven (the river Nið) as ‘Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr’ (Har). As a reference aid, the arrangement of Þjóðólfr’s oeuvre in SkP and Skj is shown here.

Magnússflokkr (ÞjóðA Magnfl)
SkP Skj
1-141-14
15Náði jarl at eyða 19
16Rǫnn lézt, ræsir Þrœnda,20
17Hizig laut, es heitir 21
18Flýði jarl af auðu, 22
19Háðisk heilli góðu25
Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi (ÞjóðA Magn)
SkPSkj
1Hrauð leifs mǫgr áðan Magnfl 15
2Misst hafa Sveins at sýnu, Magnfl 16
3Gær sák grjóti stóru Lv 1
4Spurði einu orði Magnfl 17
5Saurstokkinn bar svíra Magnfl 18
6Hrindr af hrókalandi Lv 2
7Menn eigu þess minnask, Lv 3
8Skjǫld bark heim frá hjaldri Magnfl 23
9Bauð leifs sonr áðan Magnfl 24
10Nú taka Norðmenn knýja,Lv 4
11Brum jǫrn at œrnuLv 5
12Svíðr of seggja búðirLv 6
13Fjǫrð lét fylkir verðaLv 7
14Ek hef ekki at drekkaLv 8
Runhent poem about Haraldr (ÞjóðA Run)
SkPSkj
1-41-4
Sexstefja (ÞjóðA Sex)
SkPSkj
1-51-5
6Þjóð veit, at hefr háðar7
7Stólþengils lét stinga6
8Ok hertoga hneykir25
9Reist eikikjǫlr austan8
10Vatn lézt, vísi, slitna,9
11Gegn skyli herr, sem hugnar10
12Frn hefr sveit við Sveini11
13Lét vingjafa veitir12
14Fast bað fylking hrausta13
15Alm dró upplenzkr hilmir14
16Flest vas hirð, sús hraustum15
17Sogns kvðu gram gegnan16
18Sveinn át sigr at launa17
19Nús of verk, þaus vísi,18
20Létu lystir sleitu19
21Tók Holmbúa hneykir20
22Gagn brann greypra þegna; 21
23Fœrði fylkir Hǫrða,22
24Áræðis naut eyðir23
25Refsir reyndan ofsa24
26Mǫrk lét veitt fyr verka26
27Ǫrð sær Yrsu burðar27
28Lét hræteina hveiti32
29Blóðorra lætr barri30a
30Geirs oddum lætr greddir30b
31Gera vas gisting byrjuð29
32Hár skyli hirðar stjóri35
Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr (ÞjóðA Har)
SkPSkj
1Skeið sák framm at flœði, Lv 18
2Slyngr laugardag lǫngu Lv 19
3Rétt kann rœði slíta Lv 20
4Sorgar veit, áðr slíti Lv 21
5Eigu skjól und skógi Lv 22
6Hléseyjar lemr hvan Lv 23
7Haraldr þeysti nú hraustla Lv 24
Fragments (ÞjóðA Frag )
SkPSkj
1 Nús valmeiðum víðisLv 9
2Jarl/Ǫrr lætr, odda skúrar Sex 28
3Ganga él of Yngva Sex 31
4Snart við sæþráð kyrtat Sex 33
5Útan bindr við enda Sex 34
Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Lausavísur (ÞjóðA Lv)
SkPSkj
1Leiða langar dauða Lv 10
2Sumar annat skal sunnar Lv 11
3[Logit hefr Baldr at Baldri]
brynþings fetilstingar
Lv 12
4Mildingr rauð í móðu Lv 13
5Varp ór þrætu þorpi Lv 14
6Sigurðr eggjaði sleggju Lv 15
7Haddan skall, en Halli Lv 16
8Út stendr undan báti Lv 17
9Ǫld es, sús jarli skyldi Lv 25
10Skalka frá, þótt fylkir Lv 26
11Ǫld hefr afráð goldit Lv 27

Reconstructions of the Þjóðólfr corpus are offered by Finnur Jónsson in SnE 1848-87, III, 579-90, which is the basis (almost unchanged) for Skj (AI, 361-83, BI, 332-53), and the Skj ordering is retained in Skald (I, 168-77); other major contributions are by Guðbrandur Vigfússon in CPB (II, 198-212) and by Fidjestøl (1982, 133-43, 172).

The principal eds consulted in the course of re-editing Þjóðólfr’s poetry for SkP are listed for each st., and are of two main types: eds of the skaldic corpus (Finnur Jónsson’s in Skj AI, 361-83; BI, 332-53 and Ernst Albin Kock’s in Skald I, 168-77, supported by numerous NN) and eds of the various prose works in which the poetry is preserved. Extracts are also included in anthologies, articles and other works including (with ten or more sts): CPB II, 198-212; Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 57-60; Hollander 1945,190-6 (annotated translations only), Poole 1991, 59-63; and (with seven sts) Turville-Petre 1976, 97-102. Such works as these, together with others containing comment on the poetry, are cited as appropriate in the Notes.

notes

Sexstefja — ÞjóðA SexII

Diana Whaley 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 108-47.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32 

Skj: Þjóðolfr Arnórsson: 3. Sexstefja, o. 1065 (AI, 369-77, BI, 339-46); stanzas (if different): 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 28 | 29 | 30/1-4 | 30/5-8 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35

in texts: Flat, Fsk, Gramm, H-Hr, H-Hr, , Hkr, HSig, LaufE, LaufE, MH, Mork, ÓH, Skm, SnE, TGT

SkP info: II, 108-47

notes: Reallocated - only 10 short stanzas in SnE

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-vitjuðr (noun m.) ‘[frequenter, seeker]...’vitjaðar 11/2

(non-lexical) (unclassified)í 21/7

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 19/2

Afríkr (noun m.) ‘African person...’Afríka 3/5

akr (noun m.) [°akrs, dat. akri; akrar] ‘field...’ — 27/4

aldyggr (adj.) ‘very excellent...’ — 24/2

allr (adj.) ‘all...’alla 15/2, allir 9/4, ǫll 11/8, ǫll 16/6

allvaldr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘mighty ruler...’ — 7/5

almr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘bow, elm-bow...’Alm 15/1

and- ((prefix)) ‘enemy-...’and 20/8

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’aðra 14/8, annan 25/6

arfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(Frost— 215¹²); -ar] ‘inheritance...’arf 32/3

1ari (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘eagle...’ara 29/2, ara 30/4

2armr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘wretched...’arma 21/8

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 21/5, 23/4, 28/3

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 6/1, 10/7, 19/6, 25/3

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 3/7, 16/4, 18/1, 19/3, 21/7, 31/3

1auðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-] ‘wealth...’auð 4/8

3auðr (adj.) ‘empty, barren...’auðan 19/3

auga (noun n.) [°auga; augu/augun, gen. augna] ‘eye...’augu 7/3, augu 8/4

2ausa (verb) [°eyss; jós, jósu/jusu; ausinn] ‘sprinkle, bail...’Eyss 27/5

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 9/1, 10/4

3austr (adv.) [°compar. -ar, superl. -ast] ‘east, in the east...’ — 7/6

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 1/2, 2/2, 5/1, 7/6, 9/7, 15/3, 16/4, 17/3, 20/3, 27/7, 29/3, 31/3

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 2/5, 6/8, 16/3, 22/7

Ánarr (noun m.) ‘Ánarr...’Ánars 3/6

2ár (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘year, year’s abundance...’ — 23/2

áræði (noun n.) [°-s] ‘courage...’Áræðis 24/1

átta (num. cardinal) ‘eight...’ — 2/3

áttján (num. cardinal) ‘eighteen...’átján 6/4

1barr (noun n.) ‘barley...’barri 27/6, barri 29/1

baugr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘ring...’bauga 27/3

báðir (pron.) [°gen. beggja (báðra), nom./acc. n. bǽði] ‘both...’bæði 7/3

1bella (verb) [°præt. sg. ball] ‘deal with...’belli 28/3

1ben (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)] ‘wound...’benjar 15/5

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’berk 8/3, berr 29/3

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bað 14/1, bôðu 4/4, bôðu 22/5

bíta (verb) [°bítr; beit, bitu; bitinn] ‘bite...’bitu 23/3

bjartr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bright...’bjart 27/3, 18/6

bjóða (verb) [°býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)] ‘offer, order, invite...’Bauð 10/5, 11/8

blauðr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘cowardly...’blauðum 4/8

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’ — 29/1, blóði 6/6

blóðigr (adj.) [°blóðgan/blóðugan (f. dat. sg. bloðre Gulᴵ 82³⁴)] ‘bloody...’blóðugr 15/6

bolgari (noun m.) ‘[Bulgars]...’Bolgara 1/3

borð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘side, plank, board; table...’ — 9/7

borg (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -; -ir] ‘city, stronghold...’borga 2/4

bragningr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘prince, ruler...’bragning 7/6, 29/2

brattr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘steep...’bratt 27/4

breiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘broad, wide...’breiðum 9/8

2brenna (verb) [°brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn] ‘(strong, intransitive)...’brann 22/1

brennir (noun m.) [°dat. & acc. -] ‘[burner]...’ — 1/3

brjóst (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘breast, chest...’brjósti 13/3

brjóta (verb) [°brýtr; braut, brutu; brotinn] ‘to break, destroy...’ — 25/8, brutu 20/6

bróðir (noun m.) [°bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---] ‘brother...’brœðr 1/4

1brynja (noun f.) [°-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur] ‘mailcoat...’Bryn 15/5, brynju 28/2

burðr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir] ‘birth...’burðar 27/1

búandi (noun m.) [°-a; búendr (bøendr var. ÓH 47¹²: AM 325 VII 4° “325 VII”), dat. búǫndum/búandum/búendum] ‘farmer, resident...’búendr 21/8

1búi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘dweller, inhabitant...’búa 21/1

bygg (noun n.) [°-s] ‘barley...’ — 28/4

byggvir (noun m.) ‘dweller...’byggva 24/2

byrðr (noun f.) [°byrðar, acc. byrði/byrð(GrgKonᴵ 205¹¹); byrðar, acc. byrðar/byrðir] ‘burden, load...’byrðar 25/5

2byrja (verb) [°-að-] ‘begin, begat, please...’byrjuð 7/2, byrjuð 31/1

Danmǫrk (noun f.) ‘[Denmark]...’ — 10/4

danr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘Dane...’Dana 18/4

darr (noun n.) [°; *-um] ‘spear...’ — 3/2

dauð (noun f.) ‘[dead]...’ — 16/3

dauði (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘death...’dauðan 1/8

dáð (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘feat, deed...’dáða 14/6, dôð 12/3

dási (noun m.) ‘[sluggard]...’ — 3/1

dolg (noun n.) ‘battle, enemy...’ — 3/1, 11/3

dómr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix)...’dóm 22/7

2draga (verb) [°dregr; dró, drógu; dreginn/droget(Hirð NKS 1642 4° 146v²⁹; cf. [$962$])] ‘drag, pull, draw...’dró 15/1

dreki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘dragon, dragon-ship...’dreka 13/2

drengr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja] ‘man, warrior...’dreng 12/4

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’ — 1/2, 15/4

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’dróttin 11/4, dróttni 12/3

dýrr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr] ‘precious...’dýr 10/3, dýrum 11/3

dǫglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’ — 16/3

døkkr (adj.) [°-van; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr] ‘dark...’døkks 16/4

egðir (noun m.) ‘the Egðir...’Egða 7/5

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’át 18/1, 19/3

eiki (noun n.) ‘oak, oak ship...’ — 9/1

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’eina 18/3, einni 17/3

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’mér 14/3, mér 26/2, mér 27/8

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’ — 21/5

elja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘[rival, concubine]...’elju 3/3

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 1/3, 7/7, 20/5, 21/6, 31/2, enn 4/3

endr (adv.) ‘formerly, once, again...’ — 3/3

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 18/2, es 20/6, es 25/8, Sás 5/1, sás 18/5, þars 4/8, þars 10/3, þars 15/6, þats 30/3

1ey (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar] ‘island...’eyju 2/8

eyðir (noun m.) ‘destroyer...’ — 7/3, 24/1

él (noun n.) [°; dat. -um] ‘storm...’ — 1/2

fagna (verb) [°-að-] ‘welcome, rejoice...’ — 29/2

2falda (verb) ‘cover, clothe...’faldinni 3/7

fall (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘fall...’ — 22/8

falla (verb) ‘fall...’fell 9/6

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’fœrir 6/8, fór 7/8, fóruð 10/3

fastr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘firm, fast...’Fast 14/1, fast 21/3, fǫst 22/2

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fenginn 18/7, fengit 19/8

3fár (adj.) [°compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr] ‘few...’fátt 11/6, fæsta 17/2

2feginn (adj.) [°compar. fegnari, superl. fegnastr] ‘glad, happy...’fegnir 10/8

feitir (noun m.) ‘fattener...’feiti 11/5

finginn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[captured]...’fingnum 8/2

2finna (verb) ‘find, meet...’finnask 4/6, fyndisk 10/7

finnr (noun m.) ‘Saami (person)...’Finna 15/8

2Finnr (noun m.) ‘Finnr, Fiðr...’Fiðr 18/8

fjarri (adv.) ‘far, far from it, unlikely...’ — 3/2

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’ — 10/4

fleiri (adj. comp.) [°superl. flestr] ‘more, most...’Flest 16/1

2flóð (noun n.) ‘flood...’ — 10/3

flugr (noun m.) ‘[flight]...’ — 15/7

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 11/5

forða (verb) ‘escape, avoid...’ — 18/5

1fótr (noun m.) ‘foot, leg...’ — 16/8

2fránn (adj.) ‘bright, shining...’Frôn 12/1

1fregna (verb) ‘hear of...’frák 1/1

friðr (noun m.) ‘peace...’frið 14/2, friðar 4/4, 23/2

frœkinn (adj.) [°compar. frøknari, superl. frøknastr] ‘bold...’frœkna 21/3

frændi (noun m.) ‘kinsman, male relative...’frændr 10/7

1furða (noun f.) ‘marvel...’furðu 16/5

fylking (noun f.) ‘troop...’ — 14/1, 21/4, fylkingu 18/7

fylkir (noun m.) ‘leader...’ — 23/1

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 3/6, 4/5, 6/3, 13/3, 14/7, 23/3, 26/1

fœðir (noun m.) ‘feeder, nourisher...’fœði 16/2

2fœra (verb) ‘bring...’ — 21/7, Fœrði 23/1

1gagn (noun n.) ‘victory...’ — 22/1

1galli (noun m.) ‘destruction...’galla 22/8

gamall (adj.) [°gamlan; compar. & superl. „ ellri adj.] ‘old...’ — 1/6

gammr (noun m.) ‘vulture...’gamms 30/4

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’ — 5/2, gekk 2/8, Gekk 9/5, genginn 16/7, gingu 21/4

Garðar (noun m.) ‘Russia...’Gǫrðum 9/2

garmr (noun m.) ‘dog...’ — 21/8

gata (noun f.) ‘path, road...’gǫtu 7/8

2Gautr (noun m.) ‘Gautr, Óðinn...’Gauts 29/3

1gegn (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str] ‘reliable...’ — 11/1, 25/2, gegnan 17/1

geirr (noun m.) ‘spear...’Geirs 30/1

1gera (verb) ‘do, make...’gerði 20/3

Geri (noun m.) ‘Geri...’Gera 31/1

2geta (verb) ‘to beget, give birth to, mention, speak ...’gat 6/7

1girkr (noun m.) ‘Greek...’Girkja 7/7

gisting (noun f.) ‘accommodation, hospitality...’ — 31/1

gjald (noun n.) ‘payment, reward, return...’gjaldi 21/5, gjǫld 15/8

gjǫf (noun f.) ‘gift...’gjafa 13/1

glóð (noun f.) ‘ember...’ — 22/2

glygg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘storm...’ — 9/6

glæsa (verb) ‘adorn...’glæst 17/2

gnógr (adj.) [°compar. gnógari/gnǿgri, superl. gnógastr/gnǿgstr] ‘abundant...’gnóg 31/2

gotnar (noun m.) ‘men...’gotnum 11/7

góðr (adj.) ‘good...’góðum 12/3

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 1/2, gram 17/1, gram 20/2, 21/6, 28/2

gráðr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘greed, hunger...’grôð 4/4

gráligr (adj.) ‘[a hostile]...’gráligt 7/7

greddir (noun m.) ‘feeder...’ — 30/1

greypr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘cruel...’greypra 22/1

grimmligr (adj.) ‘terrible, fierce...’grimmligar 6/2

2grunnr (adj.) [°compar. gryðri] ‘shallow...’grunn 30/2

gull (noun n.) ‘gold...’golli 9/5

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle, Gunnr...’gunni 18/3

1gǫrr (adj.) ‘ample, perfect...’ — 21/5

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 6/3, 25/5, hefir 3/1, hefr 4/5, hefr 6/1, hefr 12/1, hefr 19/5

hagl (noun n.) [°-s; dat. *-um] ‘hail...’ — 3/7

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’ — 3/7, haldi 25/4

Halfr (noun m.) ‘Hálfr...’hǫlf 10/5, hǫlfum 24/3, Hôolfs 22/8

3hallr (adj.) ‘tilting, awry...’hǫll 9/7

hamall (adj.) ‘wedge-shaped...’hamalt 14/3

1hamla (noun f.) [°*-u; *-ur] ‘rowing position...’hǫmlur 14/3

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’ — 1/5, 4/5, 26/3, 30/3, hans 8/3, hônum 3/6

Haraldr (noun m.) ‘Haraldr...’ — 6/4, 24/4, 25/2, 25/7, 28/4, Haralds 9/8, Haralds 21/4

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’harðan 2/5, harðan 21/2

haugr (noun m.) [°-s, -i; -ar] ‘mound, cairn...’Haugi 1/1, haugs 8/4

1haukr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘hawk...’hauks 27/8

háll (adj.) [°[af e-u]] ‘slippery, deceitful...’hôla 10/6

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’ — 21/7, 32/1

1háttr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. hætti; hættir, acc. háttu] ‘behaviour, measure, verse-form...’hætti 2/3

1heiðingi (noun m.) [°-ja; -jar] ‘heathen...’heiðingja 7/4

heift (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘hatred, enmity...’heiptum 25/7

heinir (noun m.) ‘inhabitant of Hedemarken...’Heina 22/4

1hel (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju] ‘death, Hel, hell...’Heljar 16/7

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 2/5, her 8/1, her 8/2, her 22/3, 11/1

2heyja (verb) ‘fight, wage (battle)...’háðar 6/1, 2/8

hildingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’hildings 14/4

2Hildr (noun f.) ‘Hildr...’Hildar 2/6

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’ — 15/1, hilmis 25/3

hingat (adv.) ‘(to) here...’ — 6/8

hirð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)] ‘retinue...’ — 16/1, 30/3, hirðar 32/1

1hjaldr (noun m.) ‘battle...’ — 11/2, hjaldrs 26/4

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjalm 1/6

hjarta (noun n.) [°-; *-u] ‘heart...’ — 18/6

hleypa (verb) ‘impell, make run...’hleypi 20/7

hlé (noun n.) ‘[lee]...’ — 9/7

hlíf (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar] ‘shield, defence...’ — 1/2, hlífr 15/4

hljótandi (noun m.) ‘[possessors]...’hljótendr 25/8

hlýðisamr (adj.) ‘[possible]...’hlýðisamt 3/8

hlæmyldr (adj.) ‘warmly soil-covered ...’hlæmyldar 27/7

hneykir (noun m.) ‘confounder...’ — 8/1, 21/1

hold (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘flesh...’holdi 27/7

hollr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘loyal...’ — 13/2

holmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘island, islet...’Holm 21/1

2hóf (noun n.) [°-s; gen. -a] ‘moderation, reason...’ — 21/7

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’hrafns 16/2

hraustr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘strong, valiant...’hrausta 14/1, hraustan 7/6, hraustum 16/1

1hremsa (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘[shafts, Hremsa]...’hremsur 15/3

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hrings 16/7

2Hringr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘Hringr...’Hringum 22/6

hristir (noun m.) ‘shaker...’ — 22/3

hrís (noun n.) [°; -] ‘[brushwood, brush]...’ — 20/8

1hrjóða (verb) ‘clear, destroy...’ — 17/4

hróðigr (adj.) ‘glorious...’ — 6/6

hrót (noun n.) ‘roof...’ — 21/8

hrynja (verb) ‘fall, flow...’ — 28/2

hræ (noun n.) [°; -] ‘corpse, carrion...’ — 28/1, 30/4

hugna (verb) ‘please...’hugnar 11/1

hugr (noun m.) ‘mind, thought, courage...’hug 32/2, 24/3

hvar (adv.) ‘where...’ — 6/2

hvarf (noun n.) [°; *-] ‘disappearance...’hvarfi 23/4

hvars (conj.) ‘wherever...’ — 6/7

hvass (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘keen, sharp...’hvassar 6/5, Hvasst 1/1

hveiti (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[wheat]...’ — 28/1

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hver 14/8, hverr 16/8, 25/6, hvert 30/2

hvítr (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘white...’hvítar 15/3

hvǫt (noun f.) [°; dat. -um] ‘boldness...’ — 18/2

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’hykk 10/7, hykk 21/3, hykk 25/3

2hylja (verb) ‘to bury, cover, inhume...’hulði 1/5

hylli (noun f.) [°-] ‘favour...’ — 26/3

1hæll (noun m.) [°hǽls, dat. hǽli; hǽlar] ‘heel...’hæls 20/7

hættr (adj.) [°compar. -ari/-ri, superl. -astr] ‘dangerous...’ — 2/7

hǫfðingi (noun m.) [°-ja; -jar] ‘chieftain...’ — 4/2

hǫfuð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘head...’hǫfði 8/3, 19/8

hǫrðr (noun m.) ‘the Hǫrðar...’Hǫrða 23/1, Hǫrða 29/4

hǫss (adj.) ‘grey...’ — 6/5

hǫtuðr (noun m.) ‘hater...’ — 2/4

1illa (adv.) ‘badly...’ — 7/8

illr (adj.) ‘bad, evil, unwell...’illum 22/4

2inn (art.) ‘the...’ — 15/2, ins 21/3, it 1/1, it 17/2, it 23/2

innan (prep.) ‘inside, within...’ — 18/3

inndrótt (noun f.) ‘retinue...’ — 27/2

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 2/7, 10/4, 15/8, 18/7, 20/7, 22/2

ímr (noun m.) ‘dark wolf, dusky one...’ — 6/7

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’jǫrlum 18/4

játta (verb) ‘[to agree]...’ — 11/6

jóti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘one of the Jótar...’Jóta 16/8

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfri 3/5, jǫfri 6/3, 14/2, 27/2

jǫrð (noun f.) [°jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)] ‘ground, earth...’jǫrðu 20/3

kalfa (noun f.) ‘[territories]...’kǫlfur 27/8

karl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘(old) man...’karlar 20/2

kaupa (verb) ‘buy...’keyptan 4/7

kenna (verb) ‘know, teach...’kenndi 19/4

kjóll (noun m.) ‘ship...’kjóla 20/7

kjǫlr (noun m.) [°kjalar, dat. kili; kjǫlir] ‘keel, ship...’ — 9/1

klár (noun n.) ‘[claws]...’klœr 6/8

kljúfa (verb) ‘cleave...’klufu 10/3

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’kom 31/4, kómuð 6/7

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’konungs 16/8, 6/6, 11/8, 29/4

kraki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘pole-ladder, Kraki...’Kraka 27/6

krás (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘morsel...’krôs 6/7

krókr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘hook...’króks 23/4

kunnr (adj.) ‘known (?)...’ — 10/2

2kveðja (verb) ‘say, greet...’kvôðu 17/1

kviðja (verb) ‘[banned, a ban]...’kviðjat 4/2

lag (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘layer; (pl.) law...’lǫg 20/4

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’ — 9/4, 15/4, 16/4, 20/2, 27/5, landi 5/1, lǫnd 10/8

langbarðr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘Langobard...’Langbarða 5/2

langs (adv.) ‘[enduring]...’ — 19/5

last (noun n.) [°-] ‘fault, sin, vice...’ — 27/6

latr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘lazy, slow...’ — 3/2

launa (verb) ‘reward...’ — 18/1

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’Lét 4/1, lét 7/1, lét 8/2, Lét 13/1, lét 15/3, lét 26/1, Lét 28/1, Létu 20/1, lézt 10/1, lætr 26/3, lætr 29/1, lætr 30/1

leggja (verb) ‘put, lay...’Lagði 7/5

leiðangr (noun m.) [°leiðangrs, dat. leiðangri; leiðangrar] ‘naval levy...’leiðangrs 13/3

2leiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘hateful, loathsome...’leitt 4/8

leifa (verb) ‘[leave, had left]...’ — 32/2

1leikr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘sport, play...’leik 2/6

lengi (adv.) ‘for a long time...’ — 12/4

leyfð (noun f.) ‘praise...’ — 8/3

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’liðs 4/2, liðs 13/4

líf (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘life...’Lífs 22/5

ljós (noun n.) [°ljóss; -] ‘light...’ljóss 3/1

ljóss (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bright...’ljósu 27/5

2ljósta (verb) ‘strike...’laust 22/3

logi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘flame...’ — 22/6

lund (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(Rém 301³¹)] ‘mind, way...’ — 5/1

1lúka (verb) ‘end, close...’lauk 14/5

1lúta (verb) ‘(strong)...’Lýtr 11/5

lyfta (verb) ‘lift, raise...’lypt 4/1

lystr (adj.) ‘eager...’lystir 20/1, 13/3

lýðr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir] ‘one of the people...’lýðir 22/5, lýðum 3/8

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’mann 14/6, manna 24/4, mǫnnum 15/5

mark (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘sign...’ — 7/7

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 4/7, 9/5

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’ 2/1

miðja (noun f.) [°-u] ‘the middle...’miðju 13/4

miðr (adj.) ‘middle, less, hardly...’miðri 18/8

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’miklu 9/5

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’mín 32/4

1minni (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘memory...’ — 4/6

3minni (adj. comp.) [°superl. minnstr] ‘less, least...’minna 12/2

misseri (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘season...’missari 19/7

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mun 19/6

1mæla (verb) ‘speak, say...’mælt 19/2

mær (noun f.) [°meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar] ‘maiden...’mey 3/6

1mǫrk (noun f.) [°merkr, dat. -u/-; merkr/markir] ‘mark (unit)...’ — 26/1

naðr (noun m.) ‘snake...’ — 14/8

nauðigr (adj.) [°nauðgan; superl. nauðgastr] ‘reluctant(ly), under duress...’nauðgan 22/7

1 (verb) ‘reach, get, manage...’næði 16/3

nátt (noun f.) [°náttar/nǽtr, dat. -/-u; nǽtr] ‘night...’nôtt 15/2

1nema (verb) ‘to take...’namsk 23/2

2nema (conj.) ‘unless...’ — 11/6

(conj.) ‘nor...’ — 3/8

3niðr (adv.) ‘down...’ — 22/8

njóta (verb) ‘enjoy, use...’nýtr 25/6

norðan (adv.) ‘from the north...’ — 31/4

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 19/1

nýta (verb) ‘enjoy, use...’naut 24/1

nýtr (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr] ‘useful, able...’ — 14/7

2næma (verb) ‘[took place]...’næmisk 22/7

nærri (adj. comp.) [°superl. nǽstr] ‘near, nearer, next...’næsta 1/1

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’oddi 4/7, 13/4, 15/6, oddum 30/1

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 9/6, 10/2, 19/1

ofsi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘arrogance, violence...’ofsa 25/1

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 1/5, 1/7, 8/1, 10/8, 11/4, 12/3, 32/3

opt (adv.) ‘often...’ — 4/7, 6/3

ormr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘serpent...’orm 2/4

orri (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘[blackcock, grouse]...’orra 29/1

ódœmi (noun n.) ‘outrage, the unthinkable...’ — 20/4

óðal (noun n.) [°-s, dat. óð(a)li/óðrli; óðul, dat. óðlum/óðrlum] ‘(hereditary) property...’ — 32/3

Óláfr (noun m.) ‘Óláfr...’Ôleif 1/8, Ôleifs 10/6

ómyndr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘lacking bride-payment ...’ómynda 3/4

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 8/3, 9/2, 28/2, 31/2

ósk (noun f.) [°-ar; dat. -um] ‘wish, desire...’ — 32/4

plóg (noun n.) ‘[crop, plough]...’ — 19/3

plóga (verb) ‘[ploughed]...’plógaðan 27/3

rammr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘mighty...’Ramm 14/5

rauðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘red...’rauðs 2/2

2raumr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘one of the Raumar...’Rauma 21/2

ráð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘advice, plan, control, power...’ — 25/2, ráði 20/5

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’réð 5/2, réð 21/6, ræðr 24/3

ráðandi (noun m.) [°-a; ráðendr] ‘ruler...’ — 14/6

1refsa (verb) ‘punish...’Refsir 25/1

2reifr (adj.) ‘happy...’ — 32/2

reki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘ruler...’ — 9/4, 15/4, 27/5

rekkr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘man, champion...’rekkar 25/3

2renna (verb) ‘run (strong)...’runnu 4/3

reyna (verb) ‘test, try, experience...’reyndan 25/1

rimma (noun f.) [°-u] ‘battle...’rimmur 6/2

Rindr (noun f.) ‘Rindr...’Rindar 3/3

rísta (verb) ‘carve, raise...’Reist 9/1

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rautt 6/5

rjúfa (verb) ‘break...’rofizk 6/3

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’rendr 23/3, rǫndum 14/5

2sanna (verb) ‘prove...’sannar 24/4

1sannr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i;] ‘true...’sanns 25/6

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’sús 16/1, þat 11/7, þat 12/4, þat 13/4, þat 24/4, þat 32/4, þaus 19/1, þeim 18/2, þeim 20/6, þeirs 4/3, því 20/5, þvís 25/4

2sár (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘wound...’sôr 31/3

sátt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘settlement...’sáttir 6/4

segja (verb) ‘say, tell...’ — 2/1

Selund (noun f.) ‘Sjælland, Zealand ...’ — 24/2

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 11/1, 11/7

senn (adv.) ‘at once...’ — 17/3

Serkland (noun n.) ‘shirt-land, land of Saracens, Serkland...’Serklandi 2/2

2serkr (noun m.) [°; gen. -ja] ‘Saracen...’Serkjum 2/7

setr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘seat, abode...’ — 1/6

sex (num. cardinal) ‘six...’ — 18/2

sigð (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘[sickle]...’ — 29/3

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’ — 18/1, sigri 24/3

Sigurðr (noun m.) ‘Sigurðr...’Sigvorðar 31/4

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’sér 2/3, Sér 19/5, sér 22/5, sér 25/8, 10/5

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sinnar 26/3, sinni 12/2, sinni 27/2, sína 32/4, sínum 1/4

sitja (verb) ‘sit...’ — 11/2

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 9/3, 10/5

sjalfr (adj.) ‘self...’sjǫlfum 27/8

sjau (num. cardinal) ‘seven...’ — 17/2

1sjá (pron.) [°gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir] ‘this...’þessi 19/7

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’ 4/5, sær 27/1, sævar 30/4

2skapa (verb) ‘form...’Skóp 16/5

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’ — 9/8

skerðir (noun m.) ‘diminisher...’skerði 16/5

1skilja (verb) ‘separate, understand...’Skilðisk 1/5

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’ — 17/4

1skipa (verb) ‘change, place...’skipt 12/2

skipta (verb) ‘share, divide, exchange...’skiptir 25/7

skipun (noun f.) [°-anar/-unar; -anir] ‘ship’s equipment, crew...’ — 16/6

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skilda 14/4, skildi 2/6, skjǫldum 15/8

skolla (verb) ‘ridicule, rock...’ — 13/2

skorðuðr (noun m.) ‘[supporter]...’ — 2/5

skoti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘[adversaries]...’skotum 20/8

skógr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘forest...’skógi 31/2

skulu (verb) ‘shall, should, must...’skal 30/3, skyli 11/1, skyli 32/1

skunduðr (noun m.) ‘[impeller]...’skundaði 8/4

skyndir (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘hastener...’ — 3/4

skǫr (noun f.) [°skarar; skarir] ‘hair, planking...’ — 10/2

sleita (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘[for strife]...’sleitu 20/1

sléttr (adj.) ‘level, smooth...’sléttri 2/7

slitna (verb) ‘tear, break...’ — 10/1

2slíkr (adj.) ‘such...’slíkar 25/5

smjúga (verb) ‘[pierced, creeping]...’smó 15/5

snarr (adj.) ‘gallant, bold...’snǫru 18/6

snekkja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘warship...’snekkju 26/2

snjallr (adj.) ‘quick, resourceful, bold...’snjalli 15/2, 9/4, snjǫllum 16/6

sogn (noun m.) ‘Sogn-...’Sogns 17/1

sonr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni] ‘son...’ — 10/6, 18/8, 31/3, sonum 32/2

spakr (adj.) ‘quiet, gentle, wise...’spakra 27/4

spenja (verb) ‘entice...’ — 31/3

spjót (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘spear...’spjótum 4/1

standa (verb) ‘stand...’staðit 3/2, 11/4, 14/2, standisk 19/2, stóðu 15/6

starf (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘exertion, task, trouble ...’ — 23/4

1stari (noun m.) ‘starling...’stara 11/5

1stál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘steel, weapon, prow...’stôl 23/3

steinn (noun m.) [°steins; steinar] ‘stone, colour...’steini 22/4

1stika (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘[barricade]...’ — 30/2

stillir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 7/8

stinga (verb) ‘stab, poke...’ — 7/1, 8/2

stjóri (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘steerer...’ — 32/1

1stóll (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘seat, throne...’Stól 7/1

strǫnd (noun f.) [°strandar, dat. -u/-; strandir/strendr] ‘border, edge, coast, shore...’strǫndu 23/3

stund (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘time, hour...’ — 17/3

styrjǫld (noun f.) [°-aldar; -aldir] ‘conflict, war, battle...’ — 7/2

stœrandi (noun m.) ‘[increaser, sweller]...’stœranda 11/3

1støkkva (verb) ‘(str.) leap, spring; scatter...’ — 16/4

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 4/5

sunnar (adv.) ‘further south...’ — 30/2

1sút (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘sorrow...’sútar 7/4

svanr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘swan...’svans 29/4

svá (adv.) ‘so, thus...’ — 4/6, 19/5, 25/7

svát (conj.) ‘so that, so as...’ — 14/8, 19/2

2Sveinn (noun m.) ‘Sveinn...’Sveini 12/1, 18/1, Sveins 17/4

sveit (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘host, company...’ — 12/1

sveiti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’sveita 29/3

1svella (verb) ‘swell...’sollin 9/7

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’Sverðs 25/5

2svinnr (adj.) ‘wise...’svinns 19/6

svipr (noun m.) ‘swinging, violent...’svip 17/3

svíar (noun m.) ‘Swedes...’ — 9/3

syndr (adj.) ‘[swimming]...’syndan 14/5

sýna (verb) ‘show, seem...’sýndisk 14/3

sœma (verb) ‘honour...’ — 20/4

2taka (verb) ‘take...’tekna 2/1, tók 3/4, tók 14/8, Tók 21/1

tandr (noun m.) ‘[flame]...’tand 2/2

taumr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘reins...’taum 21/2

teinn (noun m.) [°dat. teini; teinar] ‘twig, rod...’teina 28/1

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 4/6, 11/6, 12/2, 16/7, 23/4

tilgerð (noun f.) ‘[deserving actions]...’tilgørðir 26/4

tírr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘glory, honour...’tírar 19/5

tíu (num. cardinal) ‘ten...’Tøgu 2/1, tøgu 17/2

tjá (verb) ‘to put in order, prepare...’téði 21/6, tœðu 9/3

tog (noun n.) [°; dat. -um] ‘leader...’toga 8/1, toga 22/3

tolf (num. cardinal) ‘twelve...’ — 1/7

torfa (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘[turf]...’torfu 32/3

2torg (noun n.) [°-s] ‘market-place...’torgs 2/4

trauðr (adj.) ‘reluctant...’ — 1/8

troll (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘troll...’ — 20/6

tróð (noun n.) ‘thatch, roof beam, rafter...’tróði 22/2

tyggi (noun m.) ‘prince, sovereign...’ — 1/7, tyggja 9/6

1tœja (verb) ‘help, support...’tœði 1/4, tœði 16/2

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’ulf* 31/2, ulfs 4/4

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 2/6, 9/8

undan (adv.) ‘away, away from...’ — 4/3

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ — 2/3

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 25/4

upplendingr (noun m.) ‘one of the Upplendingar...’Upplendingum 19/4

upplenzkr (adj.) ‘[Oppland]...’ — 15/1

út (adv.) ‘out(side)...’ — 7/4

útan (prep.) ‘outside, without...’ — 14/7

vala (noun f.) [°*-u; *-ur] ‘joint, seeress...’vǫlu 27/4

valda (verb) ‘cause...’ollu 20/6, 25/4, 26/4

2valr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘falcon...’val 28/4

vandr (adj.) ‘difficult...’vand 19/2, 11/4, 14/2

2varða (verb) ‘defend...’ — 30/3

vargr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’varg 13/2

varla (adv.) ‘hardly...’ — 20/2

2varr (adj.) ‘wary...’ — 27/6

vatn (noun n.) [°-s; -*] ‘water, lake...’ — 9/2, 10/1

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’óx 15/7, vexa 18/2, vexti 28/3

vefr (noun m.) [°-jar; -ir] ‘cloth, sail, weaving...’vef 9/8

2veita (verb) ‘grant, give...’veitt 26/1

veitir (noun m.) ‘giver...’ — 13/1

vekjandi (noun m.) ‘[rouser]...’ — 26/2

vel (adv.) ‘well, very...’ — 1/4, 16/2

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’es 11/6, es 12/4, es 32/4, s 19/1, vas 4/1, vas 4/8, vas 7/2, vas 13/4, vas 16/1, vas 16/6, vas 21/5, vas 31/1, Vasat 3/5

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’Varð 18/5, varð 22/2

verk (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘deed...’ — 19/1

verki (noun m.) [°-a] ‘deed, work...’verka 26/1

vetr (noun m.) [°vetrar/vetrs(HómHauksb³ 173²³), dat. vetri; vetr] ‘winter...’vetra 1/6

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’við 12/1, 1/8, 5/1, 10/5, 21/2, 25/6

3vigr (noun f.) ‘spear...’vigra 15/7

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vildit 18/5, vill 11/7, vill 28/3

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’vinnask 19/6

vinr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir] ‘friend...’vin 13/1, vinir 14/4

1vita (verb) ‘know...’veit 6/1

víðr (adj.) ‘far...’víð 10/2

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’ — 18/6

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’vísa 20/8, 10/1, 19/1

1Yggr (noun m.) ‘Yggr...’Yggjar 28/4

Yrsa (noun f.) ‘Yrsa...’Yrsu 27/1

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 10/7, 21/3

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 7/2, 11/7, 16/5, 16/6, 21/6

þás (conj.) ‘when...’ — 3/3, 4/1

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’þegna 10/8, þegna 22/1, þegnum 25/2

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’þengils 7/1, þengils 19/8

þinga (verb) ‘pronounce, pledge...’þingaði 22/6

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 6/1, 11/8, þjóðar 17/4, þjóðar 20/5

þriði (num. ordinal) ‘third...’þriðja 23/2

þrír (num. cardinal) ‘three...’þriggja 1/7, þríu 19/7

þunnr (adj.) ‘slender, thin...’þunnri 10/2

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’þér 9/3, þér 10/6

2æ (adv.) ‘always, forever...’ — 19/6

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’ — 20/3

ǫrð (noun f.) [°arðar; arðir/arðar] ‘corn, grain...’ — 27/1, 29/4

ǫrðigr (adj.) ‘battling, mounting...’ǫrðigt 9/2

1ǫrleikr (noun m.) ‘munificence...’ǫrleiks 18/4

1ǫrn (noun m.) [°arnar, dat. erni; ernir, acc. ǫrnu] ‘eagle...’arnar 6/5

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