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Note to stanza
 kuggr (m.) ‘cog’: A loanword from MLG kogge ‘cog’ and a kind of tall, broad merchant-ship used by the members of the German Hanseatic League in the later Middle Ages. This type of ship originated in Frisia in the second half of the C9th (Falk 1912, 89). According to Crumlin-Pedersen (2010, 118-19), this type of ship was characterised by ‘a straight stem and stern, flush-laid bottom planking, clinker-built sides, and floor timbers alternating between extension to port and starboard’. A series of wrecks (excavated in the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia during the last few decades) sharing these characteristics have been identified as cogs.
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