Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (ÞjóðA)

11th century; volume 2; ed. Diana Whaley;

1. Magnússflokkr (Magnfl) - 19

Skj info: Þjóðolfr Arnórsson, Islandsk skjald, d. 1066. (AI, 361-83, BI, 332-53).

Skj poems:
[untitled]
1. Magnúsflokkr
2. Runhent digt om Harald hårdråde
3. Sexstefja
4. Lausavísur

Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (ÞjóðA) is listed in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 254, 262) among the poets of Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and Haraldr harðráði ‘Hard-rule’ Sigurðarson, and virtually all his extant poetry seems to have been composed in honour of them, or in association with them; hence it dates from the period 1035-1066. The text of Skáldatal in AM 761 a 4°ˣ (SnE 1848-87, III, 259) also credits Þjóðólfr with poetry for Haraldr Þorkelsson, son of Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’ and one of the Dan. magnates present in Norway during the reign of Sveinn Álfífuson (1030-35). No identifiable fragments of this remain, but if true the tradition would suggest that Þjóðólfr was born not much later than 1010. Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar (Hem) has him die at the battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, and there is no record of him after that date, though Lv 11 has the air of being composed after the battle. Þjóðólfr was, according to Skáldatal and Fsk (ÍF 29, 245), the brother of another skald, Bǫlverkr Arnórsson (Bǫlv), and according to Sneglu-Halla þáttr (Snegl) in Flat (1860-8, III, 415), was from an undistinguished family in Svarfaðardalur, northern Iceland. The same þáttr (p. 421) names his father not as Arnórr but as Þorljótr, in the context of a scurrilous anecdote told against Þjóðólfr by Sneglu-Halli (SnH), who also taunts him with having composed the otherwise unknown Sorptrogsvísur ‘Dustbin Vísur’. The þáttr nevertheless describes him as accomplished (menntr vel) and courteous (kurteis maðr), highly favoured by King Haraldr and chief of his poets (haufutskꜳlld sitt, p. 415). Þjóðólfr’s poetry, rich in allusion and imagery, has continued to be widely admired, and it gains colour and vigour from the fact that he participated in many of the campaigns he depicts. It undoubtedly also reflects the fact that he was one of an exceptional circle of poets patronised by Haraldr (see Turville-Petre 1968), and much of his poetry shares topics and imagery with that of his contemporary Arnórr jarlaskáld (Arn), though there is no account of the dealings between these two. Þjóðólfr figures in several anecdotes centring on poetic composition: see Contexts to Lv 2-6, though we have no way of knowing whether he was so touchy about his reputation as the Context to Lv 4, and Snegl, would suggest; he also features as a go-between figure in Brands þáttr ǫrva, which cites no poetry. For brief biographies of Þjóðólfr see, e.g. SnE 1848-87, III, 578-9; LH 1894-1901, I, 627-32; Hollander 1945, 189-96.

In addition to the works edited here as Þjóðólfr’s, there have been further attributions to him. Þfagr Sveinn 7 is attributed to Þjóðólfr in Mork (1928-32, 165-6) and Flat (1860-8, III, 341), but to Þorleikr fagri in other sources; ÞKolb Eirdr 17I is attributed to Þjóðólfr in the U ms. alone, and Þfisk Lv 3 is attributed to him in F. Further, Flat, by citing Okík Magn 1 after ÞjóðA Magnfl 18 without announcing a change of skald implicitly assigns the latter to Þjóðólfr. We might perhaps also imagine Þjóðólfr having a hand in Anon (HSig) 2, the st. collaboratively composed by Haraldr’s men. A further set of six sts presented are anonymous in the medieval sources but are presented in this edn as Halli XI Fl (for reasons explained in Halli Biography below). These are printed among Þjóðólfr’s works in CPB II, 210-11 and listed under his name in SnE 1848-87, III, 583-4; Poole also finds ‘the ascription to Þjóðólfr Arnórsson … tempting, on stylistic grounds’ (1991, 75).

Preserved mainly in the kings’ sagas, above all in Hkr, Þjóðólfr’s oeuvre presents exceptional problems of reconstruction, which are discussed at some length in the Introductions to the individual poems or sets of sts. The chief problem is that Þjóðólfr certainly composed a major dróttkvætt poem for each of his patrons Magnús (Magnússflokkr, Magnfl) and Haraldr (Sexstefja, Sex), but that in each case there is also a set of sts that may or may not belong in the main encomium. The decision has been taken here to print them separately: fourteen sts depicting the aftermaths of Magnús’s major battles at Århus (Áróss) and Helgenæs (Helganes) are presented as ‘Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi’ (Magn), and seven describing the launch of Haraldr’s great levied fleet from Nidelven (the river Nið) as ‘Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr’ (Har). As a reference aid, the arrangement of Þjóðólfr’s oeuvre in SkP and Skj is shown here.

Magnússflokkr (ÞjóðA Magnfl)
SkP Skj
1-141-14
15Náði jarl at eyða 19
16Rǫnn lézt, ræsir Þrœnda,20
17Hizig laut, es heitir 21
18Flýði jarl af auðu, 22
19Háðisk heilli góðu25
Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi (ÞjóðA Magn)
SkPSkj
1Hrauð leifs mǫgr áðan Magnfl 15
2Misst hafa Sveins at sýnu, Magnfl 16
3Gær sák grjóti stóru Lv 1
4Spurði einu orði Magnfl 17
5Saurstokkinn bar svíra Magnfl 18
6Hrindr af hrókalandi Lv 2
7Menn eigu þess minnask, Lv 3
8Skjǫld bark heim frá hjaldri Magnfl 23
9Bauð leifs sonr áðan Magnfl 24
10Nú taka Norðmenn knýja,Lv 4
11Brum jǫrn at œrnuLv 5
12Svíðr of seggja búðirLv 6
13Fjǫrð lét fylkir verðaLv 7
14Ek hef ekki at drekkaLv 8
Runhent poem about Haraldr (ÞjóðA Run)
SkPSkj
1-41-4
Sexstefja (ÞjóðA Sex)
SkPSkj
1-51-5
6Þjóð veit, at hefr háðar7
7Stólþengils lét stinga6
8Ok hertoga hneykir25
9Reist eikikjǫlr austan8
10Vatn lézt, vísi, slitna,9
11Gegn skyli herr, sem hugnar10
12Frn hefr sveit við Sveini11
13Lét vingjafa veitir12
14Fast bað fylking hrausta13
15Alm dró upplenzkr hilmir14
16Flest vas hirð, sús hraustum15
17Sogns kvðu gram gegnan16
18Sveinn át sigr at launa17
19Nús of verk, þaus vísi,18
20Létu lystir sleitu19
21Tók Holmbúa hneykir20
22Gagn brann greypra þegna; 21
23Fœrði fylkir Hǫrða,22
24Áræðis naut eyðir23
25Refsir reyndan ofsa24
26Mǫrk lét veitt fyr verka26
27Ǫrð sær Yrsu burðar27
28Lét hræteina hveiti32
29Blóðorra lætr barri30a
30Geirs oddum lætr greddir30b
31Gera vas gisting byrjuð29
32Hár skyli hirðar stjóri35
Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr (ÞjóðA Har)
SkPSkj
1Skeið sák framm at flœði, Lv 18
2Slyngr laugardag lǫngu Lv 19
3Rétt kann rœði slíta Lv 20
4Sorgar veit, áðr slíti Lv 21
5Eigu skjól und skógi Lv 22
6Hléseyjar lemr hvan Lv 23
7Haraldr þeysti nú hraustla Lv 24
Fragments (ÞjóðA Frag )
SkPSkj
1 Nús valmeiðum víðisLv 9
2Jarl/Ǫrr lætr, odda skúrar Sex 28
3Ganga él of Yngva Sex 31
4Snart við sæþráð kyrtat Sex 33
5Útan bindr við enda Sex 34
Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Lausavísur (ÞjóðA Lv)
SkPSkj
1Leiða langar dauða Lv 10
2Sumar annat skal sunnar Lv 11
3[Logit hefr Baldr at Baldri]
brynþings fetilstingar
Lv 12
4Mildingr rauð í móðu Lv 13
5Varp ór þrætu þorpi Lv 14
6Sigurðr eggjaði sleggju Lv 15
7Haddan skall, en Halli Lv 16
8Út stendr undan báti Lv 17
9Ǫld es, sús jarli skyldi Lv 25
10Skalka frá, þótt fylkir Lv 26
11Ǫld hefr afráð goldit Lv 27

Reconstructions of the Þjóðólfr corpus are offered by Finnur Jónsson in SnE 1848-87, III, 579-90, which is the basis (almost unchanged) for Skj (AI, 361-83, BI, 332-53), and the Skj ordering is retained in Skald (I, 168-77); other major contributions are by Guðbrandur Vigfússon in CPB (II, 198-212) and by Fidjestøl (1982, 133-43, 172).

The principal eds consulted in the course of re-editing Þjóðólfr’s poetry for SkP are listed for each st., and are of two main types: eds of the skaldic corpus (Finnur Jónsson’s in Skj AI, 361-83; BI, 332-53 and Ernst Albin Kock’s in Skald I, 168-77, supported by numerous NN) and eds of the various prose works in which the poetry is preserved. Extracts are also included in anthologies, articles and other works including (with ten or more sts): CPB II, 198-212; Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 57-60; Hollander 1945,190-6 (annotated translations only), Poole 1991, 59-63; and (with seven sts) Turville-Petre 1976, 97-102. Such works as these, together with others containing comment on the poetry, are cited as appropriate in the Notes.

notes

Magnússflokkr — ÞjóðA MagnflII

Diana Whaley 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Magnússflokkr’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 61-87.

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Skj: Þjóðolfr Arnórsson: 1. Magnúsflokkr, omtr. 1045 (AI, 361-8, BI, 332-8); stanzas (if different): 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25

in texts: Flat, Fsk, H-Hr, Hkr, LaufE, MGóð, MH, ÓH, SnE, SnEW

SkP info: II, 61-87

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-liga (adv.) ‘-ly...’liga 11/2

(non-lexical) (unclassified)af 15/4, Ôleifs 5/5, sínar 5/4

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 3/2, 4/3, 18/1

aka (verb) [°ekr; ók, óku; ekinn/akiðr(Búal³ 34¹‰)] ‘drive...’ekin 2/2

aldr (noun m.) [°aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar] ‘life, age...’ — 5/7

Alfífa (noun f.) ‘Ælfgifu...’Alfífu 3/8

allvaldr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘mighty ruler...’ — 2/1

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 5/7

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’annan 11/2

askr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘ash, ash-tree, ash-ship...’aski 17/7

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 5/4, 9/6, 10/2, 10/4, 12/1, 14/3, 14/7, 15/1, 19/8

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 5/3, 6/6, 7/7, 12/7, 19/3

3auðr (adj.) ‘empty, barren...’auðu 18/1

aurr (noun m.) ‘sand or gravel bank, ford...’Aur 3/1

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 1/1, 3/4

3austr (adv.) [°compar. -ar, superl. -ast] ‘east, in the east...’ — 4/4, 5/1

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 1/2, 8/3, 9/4, 10/8, 13/3, 14/8, 15/2, 18/7

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 13/1

bani (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘death, killer...’bana 17/4

bann (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘ban...’ — 7/4

baugr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘ring...’baugs 9/7

1bára (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘wave...’bôru 14/8

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’berr 19/6, Bôru 10/1

2berja (verb) [°barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn] ‘fight...’barðir 9/7, barðisk 7/6, bǫrðusk 11/3, bǫrðusk 14/2

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bað 11/1

bitr (adj.) [°bitran; superl. bitrastr] ‘sharp, biting...’ — 8/3

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’ — 18/7

boð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘command, offer, feast...’ — 11/3, 11/4

bogi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘bow...’bog 10/2

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’brand 8/4, brand 18/8, Brand 19/5

1bráð (noun f.) ‘meat...’brôð 9/3

breiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘broad, wide...’breiða 7/8, breiða 9/4

bróðir (noun m.) [°bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---] ‘brother...’bróður 7/2

brýna (verb) [°-nd-] ‘sharpen, whet...’brýndan 18/7

buðlungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, prince...’ — 19/5

1 (noun n.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(Landsl 39ˆ, DN III (1367) 279¹‡, DN XII (*1348›AM 902 a) 73³⁰); -] ‘homestead...’ — 16/2

bǫrr (noun m.) ‘tree...’bǫrva 8/3, bǫrvar 9/8

bǫsl (noun f.) ‘arrow...’bǫslar 10/1

dagr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar] ‘day...’dag 10/3, dags 14/4

djarfr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bold...’Djarft 4/1

dolg (noun n.) ‘battle, enemy...’ — 4/2

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’ — 3/8

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’ — 2/6, 4/1

dúða (verb) ‘[shuddered]...’dúðisk 2/2

dylgja (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘hostility...’dylgjur 16/8

dýrr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr] ‘precious...’dýri 13/2

dǫrr (noun m.) ‘spear...’dǫrrum 17/8

efla (verb) [°-fld-/-að-(RómvUpph¹ 382²⁴)] ‘strengthen...’eflðr 1/2

1egg (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)] ‘edge, blade...’ — 18/6

eið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘?oath/headland...’eiðum 5/5

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’átt 5/6

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 15/3

eiki (noun n.) ‘oak, oak ship...’ — 4/7

1eisa (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘flame, ember...’eisu 16/3

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’mér 19/4

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’eldi 16/4

Elfi (noun f.) ‘Götaälv (Elfr)...’ — 5/1

Ella (noun m.) ‘Ella, Ælla, Ælle ...’Ellu 6/6

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 2/3, 9/7, 12/6

2enn (adv.) ‘still, yet, again...’ — 3/5

eptir (prep.) ‘after, behind...’ept 19/7

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 17/1, þars 7/6, þars 9/3, þars 11/3, þars 18/3

2eyða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘destroy...’ — 15/1

él (noun n.) [°; dat. -um] ‘storm...’éls 14/2

fagr (adj.) [°fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr] ‘fair, beautiful...’fagran 12/3, fǫgru 5/2

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fekk 9/3

feigr (adj.) [°compar. -ari/ri] ‘fated to die, fey, dead...’feigir 14/5

3fella (verb) ‘fell, kill...’feld 16/4, 6/6

fengi (noun n.) [°-s] ‘booty...’ — 12/6

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 13/3, 17/4

ferill (noun m.) [°dat. ferli] ‘route, track...’ferli 13/3

fjǫr (noun n.) ‘life...’ — 14/6

fjǫrgrið (noun n.) ‘[life-truce]...’ — 13/4

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’flausta 4/4

fleiri (adj. comp.) [°superl. flestr] ‘more, most...’ — 10/1

flet (noun n.) ‘platform, floor...’flettum 9/1

fljóta (verb) ‘flow, float...’Flaut 14/5

fljúga (verb) ‘fly...’flugu 10/5

flokkr (noun m.) ‘group, flock...’flokki 7/1

flótti (noun m.) ‘flight, fleeing...’ — 7/5

flýja (verb) ‘to flee, take flight...’Flýði 3/5, Flýði 18/1

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’foldar 13/1

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 15/6

framr (adj.) [°compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr] ‘outstanding, foremost...’fram 12/4, framar 11/4, framast 7/4

frá (prep.) ‘from...’ — 3/6

1fregna (verb) ‘hear of...’frák 3/7, frák 6/3, frák 9/1, fregit 6/8

frægr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str] ‘famous, renowned...’frægt 12/3

1fylgja (noun f.) ‘follower; fetch...’fylgjurum 16/8

2fylgja (verb) ‘follow, accompany...’fylgði 3/3

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 6/1, 8/2, 17/2

fyrr (adv.) ‘before, sooner...’ — 10/4

fœri (noun n.) ‘opportunity; tool, gear...’ — 19/4

fœrr (adj.) ‘capable...’fœrt 18/4

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’gekk 12/1, gekk 14/3

gefa (verb) ‘give...’ — 16/4

geirr (noun m.) ‘spear...’geir 6/8, geirs 8/8

1gera (verb) ‘do, make...’gerði 18/3, Gerðum 12/5, gǫrva 6/7, gørva 8/7

gjald (noun n.) ‘payment, reward, return...’gjǫldum 19/8

1gjalda (verb) ‘pay, repay...’ — 16/5

glóð (noun f.) ‘ember...’glóða 8/1

gnauða (verb) ‘roar...’gnauðuðu 4/5

gnýr (noun m.) ‘din, tumult...’gný 8/7, gný 14/6

gotnar (noun m.) ‘men...’gotna 6/4

góðr (adj.) ‘good...’góðu 19/1

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 5/8, 8/2, 17/6, 18/8

grár (adj.) [°gráan/grán] ‘grey...’Grôu 16/5

grjót (noun n.) ‘rock, stone...’grjóts 9/8

grœðir (noun m.) ‘?healer, ?ocean...’grœðis 8/1

gumi (noun m.) [°-a; gumar/gumnar] ‘man...’gumnar 6/7

gœðingr (noun m.) ‘chieftain...’gœðinga 16/6

haf (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘sea...’ — 2/4

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 5/6, hafi 6/7, hǫfðu 4/3

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’helt 17/5

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’ — 19/7, hônum 5/8, þeir 16/7, þeira 5/6

Haraldr (noun m.) ‘Haraldr...’Haralds 7/2

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’harð 14/2, hǫrð 11/3

1harri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘lord...’ — 3/3

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’hæra 19/8

2Heðinn (noun m.) ‘[Heðinn, champions]...’Heðins 8/6

Heiðabýr (noun m.) ‘Hedeby...’Heiðabý 6/2

3heiðr (noun f.) [°heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar] ‘heath...’heiði 7/8

2heill (noun n.) [°; -] ‘fortune...’heilli 19/1

2heita (verb) ‘be called, promise...’heitir 17/1, hét 5/2

Helganes (noun n.) ‘[Helgenæs]...’ — 17/2

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 18/5, her 19/7, 3/3, 8/7, 12/7, 14/3

2heyja (verb) ‘fight, wage (battle)...’Háðisk 19/1, hôðum 9/3

1hildr (noun f.) ‘battle...’ — 14/1, 19/2

hirð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)] ‘retinue...’ — 2/7

hizig (adv.) ‘there, thither...’ — 17/1

1hjaldr (noun m.) ‘battle...’ — 9/4

hjǫrr (noun m.) ‘sword...’hjǫrva 13/4, hjǫrva 14/6

2hlaða (verb) ‘heap, pile...’hlóðu 2/7

hneitir (noun m.) ‘sword...’hneitis 18/6

hníga (verb) ‘sink, fall...’hneigði 4/8

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’ — 7/3, 9/3, Hrafni 12/4

hrammr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘claws...’Hramma 14/1

hraustr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘strong, valiant...’ — 3/4

hríð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘time, storm...’ — 6/8

1hrjóða (verb) ‘clear, destroy...’ — 12/7, 18/5

hundrað (noun n.) [°-s; hundruð/-] ‘hundred...’hundraðs 7/1

1hungr (noun m.) [°hungrs/-s, dat. hungri, acc. hungr/hung] ‘hunger...’ — 7/4

1húnn (noun m.) [°; húnar] ‘knob...’hún 2/8

hús (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘house...’ — 12/8, 16/3

hvar (adv.) ‘where...’ — 6/7

hvass (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘keen, sharp...’hvassast 7/3

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hverri 14/8, hvert 16/3

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’Hykk 7/1

2hylja (verb) ‘to bury, cover, inhume...’ — 7/7

hyrr (noun m.) ‘fire...’hyr 16/4

hýndr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘high-hoisted...’hýnd 4/6

2hætta (verb) ‘risk...’ — 15/5

hǫggva (verb) ‘to strike, put to death, cut, hew...’hǫggvinn 7/7

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’hendr 5/4

hǫrr (noun m.) ‘linen...’hǫr 10/2

iðula (adv.) ‘[constantly, ever]...’íðula 19/6

il (noun f.) [°; -jar] ‘footsole...’ — 3/2

1illa (adv.) ‘badly...’ — 10/8

2inn (art.) ‘the...’ — 13/2, it 1/2

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 2/4, 2/8, 3/4, 7/1, 12/3, 15/6, 17/6, 18/6

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’ — 8/2, 15/1, 18/1, jarli 12/8, jarls 13/3, jarls 16/8

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfra 15/2

karl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘(old) man...’karla 12/8

kesja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘halberd, spear...’kesjum 17/2

kjǫlr (noun m.) [°kjalar, dat. kili; kjǫlir] ‘keel, ship...’kjalar 12/2

Knútr (noun m.) ‘Knútr...’Knúts 15/7

knýja (verb) ‘press forward, urge, drive...’ — 11/4

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’kom 8/3

konr (noun m.) [°-ar] ‘kind, descendant...’ — 6/6

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’ — 18/5

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landa 18/8

landreki (noun m.) ‘land-ruler...’ — 17/8

landvǫrn (noun f.) ‘defence of territory...’ — 15/4

langr (adj.) [°compar. lengri, superl. lengstr] ‘long...’langra 4/2, langt 4/7

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’láði 3/6

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’látit 10/7, létu 14/5, lézt 15/3, lézt 16/1

leggja (verb) ‘put, lay...’Lǫgðu 8/1

1leikr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘sport, play...’ — 8/4

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’ — 12/8

liggja (verb) ‘lie...’ 7/5, 13/3, lôgu 9/7

lítill (adj.) [°lítinn] ‘little...’lítla 15/3

1lúta (verb) ‘(strong)...’laut 17/1

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’manna 7/4, mannr 11/2, menn 2/7, menn 9/6, menn 10/2

2Magnús (noun m.) ‘Magnús...’ — 7/6, 11/1, 12/2, 15/5, 18/3, 19/2

man (noun n.) ‘girl...’ — 8/5

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’mǫrgu 9/2, mǫrgu 17/5

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’Máttir 15/5, môttu 9/5

meiða (verb) ‘maim, wound...’ — 16/2

mein (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘harm, injury...’ — 18/4

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’meir 12/1, 6/8, 8/8, mest 9/5

merkjandi (noun m.) ‘[stainers]...’merkjendr 8/6

mildr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘mild, gentle, gracious, generous...’ — 15/6

milli (prep.) ‘between...’ — 10/8

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’ — 6/1

mjǫk (adv.) ‘very, much...’ — 11/1

1morð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘killing, battle...’ — 18/3, morði 12/1

1muna (verb) ‘remember...’munðut 8/5

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mundit 10/3

1mœrr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘pl. Mœrir...’Mœra 17/6

mætr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘honoured, respected...’ — 17/5

mǫgr (noun m.) [°; megir, acc. mǫgu] ‘son, boy...’ — 5/2

1 (verb) ‘reach, get, manage...’náði 8/7, Náði 15/1

nár (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘corpse...’ — 14/8

nefi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘nephew...’nefa 15/7

1nema (verb) ‘to take...’nam 12/7, namt 16/3

neyð (noun f.) [°dat. -] ‘need, distress...’nauðum 14/7

neyta (verb) ‘use, enjoy...’neyttir 4/1, Neyttu 9/5

3niðr (adv.) ‘down...’ — 14/7

Noregr (noun m.) ‘Norway...’Nóreg 3/4

nýtr (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr] ‘useful, able...’nýtum 15/7

nær (adv.) ‘near, almost; when...’ — 6/3, 15/8

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’odd 17/7

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 2/6, 10/6, 14/4, 19/3

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 5/2, 8/2, 9/2, 9/8, 16/3

orrusta (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘battle...’orrostu 8/8

2óðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘raging, furious...’ótt 2/6, ótt 10/7

Óláfr (noun m.) ‘Óláfr...’Ôleifs 1/1

ótal (noun n.) ‘countless...’ — 6/5

ótvínn (adj.) ‘unwavering...’ — 18/2

prúðr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘magnificent, proud...’prúðir 2/7

rammr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘mighty...’Rǫmm 14/1

rann (noun n.) ‘house, hall...’Rǫnn 16/1

3 (noun f.) ‘sail-yard...’ 2/2

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’réð 5/3, Réð 5/5, Réð 18/5

ráðinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘determined...’ — 3/6, 15/8

4reiðr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘angry...’ — 16/2

rekkr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘man, champion...’rekka 11/1, rekkar 17/3

2renna (verb) ‘run (strong)...’renndu 16/7

3réttr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘right, straight, direct...’rétt 2/1

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rauð 17/7, rauð 19/5

1rjóðr (noun m.) ‘reddener...’ — 3/2

rýna (verb) ‘[conversed]...’rýndu 4/6

rýrandi (noun m.) ‘destroyer, diminisher...’ — 13/2

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 16/1

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randir 8/4

rǫskr (adj.) ‘brave...’rǫsk 11/2

1rǫst (noun f.) [°rastar; rastir] ‘(a measure of distance)...’rastar 7/8

saman (adv.) ‘together...’ — 8/4

2sannr (adj.) [°-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘true...’sann 3/6

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’sús 14/1, þann 2/4, þann 10/3, þat 12/3

sárr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘sore, painful; wounded...’sárir 17/3

sátt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘settlement...’sáttir 5/6

segl (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sail...’ — 4/6

4selja (verb) ‘hand over, sell, give...’seldi 13/1, selr 19/3

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 9/5, 15/8, 19/2

1senna (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘quarrel...’sennu 9/6

1serkr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ir] ‘shirt...’serkjar 8/6

setr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘seat, abode...’ — 15/2

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’ — 6/1, 19/3

Sigtúnir (noun f.) ‘Sigtuna...’Sigtúnum 2/8

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’sér 7/3

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sínu 18/2

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 3/5, 10/5, 19/6

sjalfr (adj.) ‘self...’ — 5/1

sjau (num. cardinal) ‘seven...’ — 4/4

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sátt 10/8

skammr (adj.) ‘short...’skemmra 5/7

skarpr (adj.) ‘sharp, bitter...’skarpa 6/3

skánungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘one of the Skánungar...’Skônunga 5/8

2skefla (verb) ‘pile up, heap...’skeflða 1/2

skefti (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[shafted]...’skepti 9/1

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’skeiðr 12/7

skera (verb) ‘cut...’skar 4/7

skeyti (noun n.) [°; -] ‘arrow, missile...’skeytum 10/4

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’ — 2/3, skipa 4/2, skipi 18/2

skjóta (verb) ‘shoot...’ — 2/1, Skotit 9/1

2skjótr (adj.) ‘quick(ly)...’skjótt 9/2

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skildi 15/6, skjǫld 19/8, skjǫldu 9/4

skotborgará (noun f.) ‘Kongeå...’Skotborgarô 6/4

1skrift (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘image...’skript 2/8

skríða (verb) ‘creep, glide...’ — 2/4

skrín (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘shrine...’skríni 5/4

skulu (verb) ‘shall, should, must...’skyldi 5/7

ský (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘cloud...’ — 11/4

skœðr (adj.) ‘dangerous...’skœðar 16/6

1skœra (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘fight, conflict...’skœru 6/3, skœru 10/6

skǫmmu (adv.) ‘recently...’ — 8/2

snarr (adj.) ‘gallant, bold...’snart 14/3

snekkja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘warship...’snekkju 2/2

1snerra (noun f.) [°-u] ‘onslaught...’snerru 14/3

snjallr (adj.) ‘quick, resourceful, bold...’ — 6/2

snœri (noun n.) [°; -] ‘cable, thong...’ — 17/6

snœridarr (noun n.) ‘[thonged javelins]...’snœridǫrr 10/6

sonr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni] ‘son...’son 3/8, son 7/2, 1/1, 5/5

sókn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘attack, fight...’ — 19/4

sól (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘sun...’ — 13/2

spjalli (noun m.) ‘confidant...’ — 6/2

spjót (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘spear...’spjóti 9/2, spjóti 17/5

2sporna (verb) ‘tread...’spornuðuð 3/1

spræna (verb) ‘spurt...’sprændi 18/7

stafn (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘prow...’ — 12/4

stafr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir] ‘staff, post, stave, stick...’stafir 14/6, stǫfum 13/4

stag (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘forestay, stay...’ — 4/6

standa (verb) ‘stand...’ — 15/4, stóðu 7/2

strangr (adj.) ‘strong...’ — 4/2

2styðja (verb) ‘protect, support...’studdan 17/7

stœrir (noun m.) ‘increaser...’ — 19/4

2suðr (adv.) ‘south, in the south...’ — 4/5

sunna (noun f.) ‘sun...’sunnu 14/4

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 6/1

súð (noun f.) [°-ar; gen. -a] ‘planking, ship...’súðir 4/5

svanr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘swan...’svan 13/1

svá (adv.) ‘so, thus...’ — 10/5

svát (conj.) ‘so that, so as...’ — 8/5, 12/5

sveigja (verb) ‘bend...’sveigðan 4/8, sveigðum 2/5

2Sveinn (noun m.) ‘Sveinn...’Sveini 18/4, 3/5, 5/3, Sveins 17/4

sveiti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’sveita 18/6

1sverja (verb) ‘swear...’ — 5/3

Svíþjóð (noun f.) ‘[Sweden]...’Svíþjóðu 3/2

1søkkva (verb) ‘sink, strong intrans....’sǫkk 14/7, sukku 17/3

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 18/8

1tíð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘time...’ — 2/4

tíu (num. cardinal) ‘ten...’tøgu 4/4

2tjúga (verb) ‘draw, tug...’tognum 10/2

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’Ulfs 5/2

una (verb) ‘be content, love...’Unði 6/5

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 15/6

undan (adv.) ‘away, away from...’ — 3/7, 16/7

út (adv.) ‘out(side)...’ — 2/1

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’ — 7/7

vatn (noun n.) [°-s; -*] ‘water, lake...’ — 1/2

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’óx 12/6

vápn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weapon...’vápna 9/6

2veðr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weather, wind, storm...’ — 2/6

1vega (verb) ‘strike, slay...’ 6/1, 18/8

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’vas 5/1, vas 10/7, vas 12/3, vas 14/1, vas 15/7, Vast 1/1, væri 15/8

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’varð 7/6

3verðr (adj.) ‘worth, worthy...’verðir 17/4

vetr (noun m.) [°vetrar/vetrs(HómHauksb³ 173²³), dat. vetri; vetr] ‘winter...’vetri 15/2

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 4/6, 5/1

1viðr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i] ‘wood, tree...’viðir 14/2

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vildi 19/2, vildir 16/5

vinðr (noun m.) [°; vinðr/-ir] ‘Wend...’Vinða 6/5, Vinða 7/5

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’unnin 14/4

vinr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir] ‘friend...’ — 16/6

1vita (verb) ‘know...’vissi 7/3

víðr (adj.) ‘far...’Vítt 7/5

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’ — 19/7

vík (noun f.) ‘bay...’ — 4/7

vísundr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘bison...’Visundr 4/8

1vægja (verb) ‘yield...’Vægðit 2/5

vǫgn (noun f.) [°; vagnir] ‘wagon...’vagna 12/2

vǫndr (noun m.) [°vandar, dat. vendi/vǫnd; vendir, acc. vǫndu/vendi] ‘rod, want, mast...’vand 4/7, vendi 2/5

1vǫr (noun f.) [°varar; varir/varar] ‘landing-stage...’varar 12/4

vǫrðr (noun m.) [°varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu] ‘guardian, defender...’ — 12/1

ýtr (noun m.) ‘man; launcher...’ýtar 4/3

þaðan (adv.) ‘from there...’ — 18/4

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 5/3, 8/3, 12/5

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 15/7

þás (conj.) ‘when...’ — 14/5

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’ — 12/6

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’þinga 8/5

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 14/7

þora (verb) ‘dare...’þorðir 16/2

þraut (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘struggle...’þrautar 2/3

þrennr (adj.) ‘three(fold)...’þrennin 19/7

þreyta (verb) ‘prolong, strive...’ — 10/4

þrífa (verb) ‘grab, grasp; thrive (refl.)...’þrifusk 11/3

þrítigr (adj.) ‘thirty...’þrítøgt 2/3

þrœndr (noun m.) [°; þrǿndir/þrǿndr] ‘people from Tröndelag...’Þrœnda 16/1, Þrœnda 19/5, Þrœndi 10/3

þrǫmr (noun m.) [°dat. þremi; gen. þrama] ‘rail, rim...’þrǫm 4/8

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’þér 2/6, þér 3/3, þér 15/4, 4/1, 15/3, 16/5

3þverra (verb) ‘-rð-...’þverrði 12/5

þvít (conj.) ‘because, since...’ — 4/3

2þykkr (adj.) ‘thick...’þykkt 10/5

þylja (verb) ‘recite...’ — 19/3

ǫr (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar] ‘arrow...’ǫrva 9/8

ǫrdrif (noun n.) ‘[arrow-drift]...’ — 10/7

ørlendis (adv.) ‘[abroad]...’erlendis 3/7

1ǫrn (noun m.) [°arnar, dat. erni; ernir, acc. ǫrnu] ‘eagle...’arnar 3/1

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ — 17/8, ǫrt 16/7

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