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Þorbjǫrn hornklofi (Þhorn)

9th century; volume 1; ed. R. D. Fulk;

2. Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) (Harkv) - 23

Little is known about the Norwegian Þorbjǫrn hornklofi ‘Horn-cleaver (?)’. Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273) names him as a poet of Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ (r. c. 860-c. 932). Judging from Fsk (ÍF 29, 59), he seems to have spent his whole life at the court of this king. Þorbjǫrn is the composer of two poems about Haraldr, Glymdrápa (Þhorn Gldr) and Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv). Skálda saga, an anecdote about skalds preserved in Hb, and hardly likely to be historical, depicts him as one of three skalds, the other two being Auðunn illskælda ‘Bad-poet’ and Ǫlvir hnúfa ‘Snub-nose (?)’, each of whom attempts a romantic encounter with the same rich widow and then bemoans his failure in a lausavísa (see Auðunn Lv 2, Þhorn Lv, Ǫlv Lv 2). The three skalds are also named in Egils saga (ÍF 2, 19) as Haraldr’s favourites. They occupy places of honour in his hall, with Þorbjǫrn between the other two.

In the prose sources Þorbjǫrn is predominantly referred to only by his nickname Hornklofi. To date there is no satisfying explanation of this word. It is attested in the Þulur as a raven-heiti (see Þul Hrafns 1/5III and Note), but it does not occur in that sense in the surviving body of skaldic poetry. Scholars have claimed that the nickname refers to Þorbjǫrn’s device, in Þhorn Harkv, of having a raven speak in his stead (SnE 1848-87, III, 408; ÍF 26, 101 n. 1). Fidjestøl (1991, 126) is, however, justified in doubting this interpretation. An alternative possibility would be to link the nickname to Egill Hfl 16/6-7V (Eg 49): en jǫfurr heldr lǫndum hornklofi ‘and the ruler holds his lands by a hornklof’. But hornklofi here must be the dative of neuter hornklof, whereas Þorbjǫrn’s nickname is a masculine n-stem, and unfortunately the meaning of this passage is obscure, though hornklof seems to be some kind of tool.

notes
my abbr.

Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) — Þhorn HarkvI

R. D. Fulk 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 91.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23 

Skj: Þórbjǫrn hornklofi: 2. Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál), Flere af de herhenhørende vers tillægges i forskellige håndskrifter Tjodolf hvinverske. (AI, 24-9, BI, 22-5)

in texts: Flat, Fsk, Gylf, HarHárf, HHábr, HHárf, Hkr, LaufE, ÓT, ÓTFlat, Skm, SnE

SkP info: I, 91

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

1-berandi (noun m.) ‘[bearers]...’berendr 1/1

-kyrja (noun f.) ‘[kyries]...’kyrja 2/1

-liga (adv.) ‘-ly...’liga 17/7

-ráðr (adj.) ‘-ful...’ráða 9/1

(non-lexical) (unclassified)* 16/5

afarauðigr (adj.) ‘exceedingly wealthy ...’afarauðga 1/4

all- ((prefix)) ‘very...’all 9/3

alls (conj.) ‘since...’ — 18/2

ambátt (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar (ambottor EiðKrA 391²²)] ‘handmaid...’ambáttir 13/2

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 13/5

Andaðr (noun m.) ‘Andaðr...’Andaðar 22/4, 23/1

andr (noun m.) [°; andrar] ‘ski...’and 19/8

andsvar (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘answer, defence...’andsvǫrum 4/4

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’aðrir 23/5, annar 4/3, Annat 13/1

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 3/4, 4/4, 8/6, 9/4, 10/2, 10/4, 13/4, 17/8, 18/1, 20/1, 22/1, 22/5, 23/1

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 3/8, 9/2, 19/3

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 6/6, 10/2, 17/3, 17/4, 17/5, 17/6, 21/4

auðlagðr (adj.) ‘[auðlagði]...’auðlagða 7/4

1auðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-] ‘wealth...’auð 11/5

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 7/5

2austr (noun n.) [°-s] ‘the east...’aust 9/3, aust 11/5, 11/5

austrœnn (adj.) ‘eastern...’austrœnu 16/8

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 2/8, 5/2, 8/6, 9/4, 9/7, 11/1, 11/8, 12/1, 19/1, 19/2

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 9/8

1ár (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)] ‘oar...’árar 17/4, ôrum 5/7

áræðismaðr (noun m.) [°; ·menn] ‘[men of courage]...’Áræðismǫnnum 21/7

bak (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘back...’baki 11/1

barmr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; *-um] ‘rim...’bǫrmum 2/8

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’ — 21/3, 23/7

bergir (noun m.) ‘[taster]...’ — 20/2

2berja (verb) [°barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn] ‘fight...’barðir 11/2, barðisk 7/2

2berr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bare...’berum 19/10

berserkr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, gen. -ja] ‘Berserk...’berserkir 8/5, berserkja 20/1, 8/5

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’beðnir 16/5

birtingr (noun m.) [°-s, dat -i/-] ‘[sea-trout]...’birtingar 16/2

bíta (verb) [°bítr; beit, bitu; bitinn] ‘bite...’bitu 8/8

bjarg (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘mountain, cliff...’bjarga 2/8

2blika (verb) [°-að-] ‘[gleamed]...’ — 11/1

blíkja (verb) ‘gleam, glisten...’ — 11/1

blóðigr (adj.) [°blóðgan/blóðugan (f. dat. sg. bloðre Gulᴵ 82³⁴)] ‘bloody...’blóðgar 21/3

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’brá 9/5

2brenna (verb) [°brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn] ‘(strong, intransitive)...’brennanda 23/7

brjóta (verb) [°brýtr; braut, brutu; brotinn] ‘to break, destroy...’ — 17/5

bróðir (noun m.) [°bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---] ‘brother...’ — 4/3

1bræða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘feed...’bræði 13/8

2búa (verb) [°býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)] ‘prepare, ready, live...’bjoggu 3/7, bjogguð 3/7, býr 5/2, býr 9/4

byggvir (noun m.) ‘dweller...’byggvi 12/3

byrr (noun m.) [°-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)] ‘favourable wind...’ — 9/4

bærr (adj.) ‘right, appropriate ...’bærum 19/10

dagr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar] ‘day...’degi 3/4

danr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘Dane...’danar 4/6

danskr (adj.) ‘Danish...’danska 14/6, dǫnsku 14/6

dáð (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘feat, deed...’dôð 12/4

dís (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘dís, woman...’dísir 13/3

djarfr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bold...’djǫrfum 20/5

djúpr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘deep...’djúpum 5/4

dramblátr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘[haughty]...’dramblátar 13/3

dreki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘dragon, dragon-ship...’dreka 6/1

2drekka (verb) [°drekkr; drakk, drukku; drukkinn/drykkinn] ‘drink...’ — 6/1

drepa (verb) [°drepr; drap, drápu; drepinn] ‘kill, strike...’drepit 23/9

dreyri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’dreyra* 13/7

dreyrugr (adj.) [°dreyrgan/dreyrugan; superl. dreyrgastr] ‘bloody...’dreyrgu 3/3

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’drifnum 5/8

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’dróttin 5/3, 5/3

1drykkja (noun f.) [°-ju/-u; -ur] ‘drinking...’drykkju 11/8

drykkjumál (noun n.) [°-s] ‘chatter over drink, breakfast...’drykkjumôlum 13/4

drýgja (verb) [°-gð-] ‘cause, practise...’drýgir 23/2

dræpr (adj.) ‘able to be killed with inpunity, worth k...’dræpir 23/10

1dúnn (noun m.) [°dat. dúni] ‘down, feather-bed...’dúns 6/8

dyngja (noun f.) [°-u] ‘[women chamber]...’dyngju 6/7

dýja (verb) [°dúði] ‘shake...’dúðu 8/8

dœma (verb) [°-mð-] ‘judge...’dœmði 1/8

eða (conj.) ‘or...’ — 6/6, 6/8

3ef (conj.) ‘if...’ — 6/2

2egg (noun n.) [°; -, gen. -ja] ‘egg...’eggi 4/8

eið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘?oath/headland...’ — 4/3

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’átti 9/6, 13/1

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’ein 12/2, 6/2, einum 21/7

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’ — 1/2, 1/5, 1/6, 3/7, 5/1, 17/7, 18/1, 20/1, 21/8, 22/2

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’eld 6/5, eld 23/6

2elska (verb) [°-að-] ‘love...’elskar 23/1

emja (verb) [°-að-] ‘howl...’emjuðu 8/7

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 17/6

4en (conj.) ‘than...’ — 7/3, 9/8, 13/8, 21/9

2enn (adv.) ‘still, yet, again...’ — 9/6

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 1/6, es 1/8, es 2/4, es 2/8, es 3/8, es 5/2, es 9/2, es 9/4, es 9/6, es 10/6, es 13/6, es 14/6, es 15/2, es 16/3, es 17/2, es 18/6, es 19/11, es 20/4, es 21/2, es 21/5, es 21/10, es 23/6

eygr (adj.) ‘eyed...’eygja 12/2

eyrnalauss (adj.) ‘[an earless]...’eyrnalausum 23/3

ér (pron.) [°gen. yðvar/yðar, dat./acc. yðr] ‘you...’ — 3/2, 13/5

faðmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘embrace...’faðm 12/3

fagna (verb) [°-að-] ‘welcome, rejoice...’fǫgnuðum 12/4

fagr (adj.) [°fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr] ‘fair, beautiful...’fǫgrum 16/6

fagrrendaðr (adj.)fagrrenduðum 19/5

falla (verb) ‘fall...’felli 9/8

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fengit 20/3, fenguð 20/3

3 (verb) [°præt. part. fáðr] ‘paint...’fôðum 19/5

feima (noun f.) ‘lass...’feimu 2/3

2fela (verb) ‘hide...’felask 21/8

4fela (verb) ‘commend?...’felisk 21/8

feldr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i; -ir] ‘cloak...’feldum 19/4

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ferðir 18/3

fetill (noun m.) [°dat. fatli/fetli; fetlar] ‘strap, sword-belt...’fetlum 19/8

(noun n.) [°fjár/féar; -] ‘cattle, money...’ — 15/1, 16/5, Féi 16/5

fjǫðr (noun f.) ‘feather...’fjaðri 4/1

fjǫrðr (noun m.) ‘fjord...’firði 7/1, firði 11/7

flýja (verb) ‘to flee, take flight...’ — 9/2

flýtir (noun m.) ‘hastener...’ — 15/3

flýtr (noun m.) ‘hastener...’ — 15/3

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’ — 15/2

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 20/4

fram (adv.) ‘out, forth, forwards, away...’ — 6/3

framr (adj.) [°compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr] ‘outstanding, foremost...’fram 2/3, fram 9/1

frá (prep.) ‘from...’ — 1/2, 1/5

1fregna (verb) ‘hear of...’fregit 22/2

freista (verb) ‘attempt, tempt...’Freistuðu 9/1

Freyr (noun m.) ‘(a god)...’Freys 6/4

Frigg (noun f.) ‘Frigg...’Friggjar 12/3

fugl (noun m.) ‘bird...’fugls 2/4

2fullr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘full, complete...’fulla 6/8

fúlr (adj.) ‘foul...’fúla 6/8

2fylgja (verb) ‘follow, accompany...’fylgðum 4/5, 9/2

fylkir (noun m.) ‘leader...’ — 6/3

fylla (verb) ‘fill...’fylldi 7/6

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 10/1

fǫr (noun f.) ‘journey, fate; movement...’far 18/3

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’gengr 3/6

gaupa (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘lynx...’gaupur 13/5

2gerð (noun f.) ‘gear...’gerðum 19/1

1gína (verb) ‘gape...’gínǫndum 7/7

gjafall (adj.) ‘generous, bountiful ...’gjafal 15/1, gjafall 15/1

gjalla (verb) ‘to scream, shriek; to repay, return, pay...’gullu 8/8

glymja (verb) ‘resound...’glumðu 8/8

glæhvarmr (adj.) ‘bright-eyelashed one ...’glæ*hvarma 2/6

grafa (verb) ‘to dig, earth, bury...’grǫfnum 7/8, grǫfnum 19/9

grenja (verb) ‘howl...’Grenjuðu 8/5

greppr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘poet, man...’greppa 18/3

grjót (noun n.) ‘rock, stone...’grjóti 11/2

grunr (noun m.) ‘suspicion, deceit...’ — 8/6

2grœnn (adj.) [°superl. grǿnastr/grǿnstr] ‘green...’grœnum 19/9

guðr (noun f.) ‘battle...’ — 8/6

gullbaugr (noun m.) ‘[their gold rings]...’gollbaugum 19/2

1gylla (verb) ‘gild...’gyltum 19/8

gœða (verb) ‘endow...’gœddir 16/5

gǫrla (adv.) ‘quite, fully...’ — 18/4

haddbjartr (adj.) ‘[bright-haired]...’haddbjarta 1/7

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 23/9, hafask 18/6, hafi 13/6, hef 22/2

1hafna (verb) ‘abandon, reject...’Hafnaði 14/1

hafr (noun m.) [°hafrs/-s(SnEU 56¹⁹), dat. hafri; hafrar] ‘goat...’Hafrs 7/1, Hafrs 11/7

haklangr (noun m.) ‘haklangr...’ — 9/8

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’ — 10/2

halfr (adj.) ‘half...’Half 4/6

halr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘man...’halir 23/10

halsdigr (adj.) ‘[fat-necked]...’halsdigra 10/3

1hamla (noun f.) [°*-u; *-ur] ‘rowing position...’hǫmlur 17/5

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’ — 5/4, 14/1, 15/1, honum 9/6, þá 17/7, þeim 8/6, þeim 9/2, þeim 19/11, þeim 21/6, þeir 8/1, þeir 16/5, þeir 17/1, þeir 19/3, þeir 19/4, þeir 23/9, þeira 13/8, þeira 19/1, þeira 22/4, þær 13/1

happ (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘fortune, luck...’haps 7/6

Haraldr (noun m.) ‘Haraldr...’Haraldi 1/2, Haraldi 4/5, Haraldi 18/6, 13/6, 14/2, 19/11, Haralds 16/3, Haralds 22/5

1harmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sorrow, grief...’hǫrmum 2/8

hauss (noun m.) [°hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar] ‘skull...’haus 2/7

1hár (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘oarport...’hái 17/6

hárfagr (adj.) ‘fine-haired...’hárfagra 1/4

1heðinn (noun m.) [°dat. heðni] ‘fur, skin...’heðnar 8/7, heðnar 21/1

hefja (verb) ‘lift, start...’ — 6/4

heiðinn (adj.) ‘heathen...’heiðnar 8/7

heim (adv.) ‘home, back...’ — 11/7

1heimska (noun f.) [°-u] ‘folly...’heimsku 23/2

heinverskr (adj.) ‘[from Hedmark]...’heinversku 14/3, heinverskum 14/3

2heita (verb) ‘be called, promise...’ — 21/1

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 13/5

1herra (noun m.) [°herra; herrar] ‘lord...’herran 14/3

heygja (verb) — 6/4

2heyja (verb) ‘fight, wage (battle)...’ — 6/4

2heyra (verb) ‘hear...’heyrða 1/6, Heyrði 7/1, Heyrðir 7/1, Heyrðu 7/1

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’hilmi 10/3, 14/1, 14/4

hizug (adv.) ‘[there]...’ — 7/2

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjǫlmum 19/9

2hlaða (verb) ‘heap, pile...’Hlaðnir 8/1

hlamman (noun f.) ‘[thundering]...’hlǫmmun 9/7

hlaupa (verb) ‘leap, run...’ — 17/3, hljópu 11/6

hlíf (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar] ‘shield, defence...’hlífum 9/7

hlífa (verb) ‘protect...’hlífði 8/6

hlífð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘shield...’hlífðum 9/7

hljóða (verb) ‘listen, sound...’Hlýði 1/1

hlœgja (verb) ‘make laugh...’hlœgir 23/4

hold (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘flesh...’ — 3/5

holmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘island, islet...’holm 10/4

holmrygr (noun m.) ‘[Hólmrygir]...’Holmrygjum 14/1

horn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘horn...’horni 2/8

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’ — 1/8, hrafnar 3/1

hraustliga (adv.) — 7/2

hreyfa (verb) ‘gloat...’Hreyfðisk 4/1

hringofinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘woven with rings...’hringofnum 19/7

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hring 1/1, hringum 19/10

hræ (noun n.) [°; -] ‘corpse, carrion...’ — 20/2, hræs 3/6

hundr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘hound, dog...’hundi 23/1

húfr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘hull...’húfum 23/8

húnlenzkr (adj.) ‘[with Hunnish]...’húnlenzkum 16/7

1húnn (noun m.) [°; húnar] ‘knob...’húnum 16/4

hús (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘house...’húsum 22/5

hvaðan (adv.) ‘whence, from where...’ — 3/2

hvat (pron.) ‘what...’ — 3/1

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’ — 22/3, hverri 14/3

hversu (adv.) ‘how, however...’ — 15/1, 20/3

hvé (conj.) ‘how...’ — 7/2

hvinverskr (adj.)hvinversku 14/3

hvítr (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘white...’hvíta 1/7, hvítra 8/2, hvítum 8/2

hyggendi (noun f.) [°-/-ar(BarlReyk 107²‰)] ‘wisdom...’hyggjandi 11/4

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’hugða 5/1, hugði 4/4, hugðu 11/8, hygg 3/7, hygg 17/7, hygg 21/8

Hymir (noun m.) ‘Hymir...’Hymis 2/7

1hyrna (noun f.) [°-u] ‘[its bill]...’hyrnu 4/2

2hœfa (verb) ‘hit, suit, befit...’ — 21/9

1hæll (noun m.) [°hǽls, dat. hǽli; hǽlar] ‘heel...’hæl 23/10

hœverska (noun f.) [°-u] ‘°høviskhed, belevenhed, dannet optræden,...’hœversku 14/3

hǫfuð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘head...’hǫfðum 7/7, hǫfðum 10/8

hǫggva (verb) ‘to strike, put to death, cut, hew...’ — 21/10

hǫlðr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘man...’hǫlða 8/1, hǫlða 14/4

Hǫlgi (noun m.) ‘Hǫlgi...’Hǫlga 14/4

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’hand 19/10

Hǫrðar (noun m.) ‘the Hǫrðar...’Hǫrða 14/2

hǫss (adj.) ‘grey...’hǫs 4/1

2inn (art.) ‘the...’Hinir 23/5, in 2/5, in 2/6, ina 14/6, 4/1, 6/3, 7/3, 7/4, 14/3, 14/5, 21/9, inni 14/3, ins 9/1, inum 1/4, inum 10/3, inum 12/2, inum 14/3

2inni (adv.) ‘in, inside, indoors...’ — 2/3, 6/6

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 3/5, 3/7, 7/1, 8/8, 10/8, 16/3, 16/5, 19/3, 20/4, 21/2, 21/10

ísarn (noun n.) [°; -] ‘iron...’ísǫrn 8/8

ítr (adj.) ‘glorious...’ítr* 15/3, ítra 15/3

íþrótt (noun f.) ‘skill, accomplishment...’íþróttar 1/3, íþróttir 1/3

íþróttarmaðr (noun m.) ‘[men of skills]...’íþróttarmenn 15/4

Jaðarbyggð (noun f.)Jaðarbyggðir 11/6

2Jaðarr (noun m.) ‘Jæren...’Jaðar 11/6

járn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘iron, weapon...’ — 8/8

jól (noun n.) [°; -] ‘midwinter feast...’ — 6/1

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfur 23/4

kapp (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength, vigour, courage...’kapps 7/6

kenna (verb) ‘know, teach...’kenndi 9/2

kjóll (noun m.) ‘ship...’kjólum 5/4

kjǫlr (noun m.) [°kjalar, dat. kili; kjǫlir] ‘keel, ship...’kjǫl 10/8

kjǫtvi (noun m.) ‘kjǫtvi...’Kjǫtva 7/4

kló (noun f.) [°-; klǿr] ‘claw...’klóum 3/5

knǫrr (noun m.) [°knarrar, dat. knerri; knerrir, acc. knǫrru/knerri] ‘(a kind of) ship...’Knerrir 7/5

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’ — 21/5, komnir 3/2, kvômu 7/5, kvômum 4/8

kona (noun f.) [°-u; -ur/-r(KlmA1980 116¹¹), gen. pl. kvenna/kvinna] ‘woman...’konu 14/6

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’konung 5/1, konung 19/3, 7/3, 14/5

kunna (verb) ‘know, can, be able...’ — 5/1, 18/4, kunni 2/4

kunnleikr (noun m.) ‘[friendly terms]...’kunnleikum 19/3

2kveðja (verb) ‘say, greet...’Kvaddi 2/5

kverkhvítr (adj.) ‘[white-throated]...’kverkhvíta 2/5

Kvinnar (noun f.) ‘Kvinnar...’Kvinnum 5/2

1kylfa (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘club...’kylfur 11/5

1kyn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘kin...’ — 7/3, 14/5

kynstórr (adj.) ‘high-born...’ — 7/3

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landi 10/2

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’lét 10/4, létu 10/4, létu 10/7, létu 11/1

2leiða (verb) [-dd] ‘lead; (-sk) grow tired...’leiddisk 6/5, Leiddisk 10/1

leikari (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘minstrel...’leikurum 22/1

1leikr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘sport, play...’leik 6/4

liggja (verb) ‘lie...’ 12/1, 3/8

1lind (noun f.) ‘linden-shield, linden tree...’linda 23/9

lífi (noun n.) [°-s] ‘life...’ — 16/5

lítill (adj.) [°lítinn] ‘little...’lítt 22/2

2loða (verb) ‘[cleaves, hangs]...’loðir 3/5

lofði (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘man...’lofðum 9/7

2loga (verb) ‘burn...’logǫndum 23/8

lúfa (noun f.) [°-u] ‘shaggy-locks...’Lúfu 10/1

lyndr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘minded...’lyndi 6/3

lystr (adj.) ‘eager...’lystir 7/6

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’manna 5/3, manna 9/3

malmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘metal...’malmi 16/7

man (noun n.) ‘girl...’mani 16/8

1mál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘speech, matter...’môlum 1/5

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 3/3, 7/7, 18/6

meðan (conj.) ‘while...’ — 1/2

mjǫðr (noun m.) [°dat. miði] ‘mead...’mjaðar 11/8, mjǫð 11/8

mjǫk (adv.) ‘very, much...’ — 16/1

munnr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘mouth...’munni 3/6

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mun 1/5, munt 18/4, myndu 5/1

1mynda (verb) ‘shape...’ — 5/1

mær (noun f.) [°meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar] ‘maiden...’mey 1/6, meyjum 14/2

mætr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘honoured, respected...’mætum 16/6

(noun f.) ‘carrion...’i 3/8

nár (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘corpse...’ — 3/8

nátt (noun f.) [°náttar/nǽtr, dat. -/-u; nǽtr] ‘night...’nótt 3/7

nef (noun n.) [°-s; -, gen. -ja] ‘nose, beak...’nefi 3/3

nenna (verb) ‘strive, be inclined...’nenni 9/6

(conj.) ‘nor...’ — 2/2

norð- ((prefix)) ‘northern, Norwegian...’Norð 5/3

norrœnn (adj.) ‘[Norwegian]...’norrœni 14/4

1næfr (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar/-ir(DN III (1322) 128²⁴)] ‘roof-shingle...’næfrar 11/3

nær (adv.) ‘near, almost; when...’ — 3/7, 3/8

2Nǫkkvi (noun m.) ‘Nǫkkvi...’Nǫkkva 9/5, nǫkkvar 9/5

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’odda 1/3, oddi 1/3

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 2/8, 4/2, 7/6, 11/6, 23/6

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 2/6, 4/2, 4/4, 5/6, 5/8, 6/4, 6/6, 7/8, 8/2, 8/4, 8/8, 11/6, 11/8, 14/2, 14/4, 16/6, 16/8, 17/4, 19/2, 19/5, 19/9, 22/1, 23/2, 23/4, 23/5

orrusta (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘battle...’orrostu 21/2

ógn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘terror, battle...’ — 15/3

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 3/6, 4/8, 11/7

pell (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘velvet...’pelli 6/5

Ragnhildr (noun m.) ‘Ragnhildr...’Ragnhildar 13/2

rauðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘red...’rauðum 5/6, rauðum 19/4

ráð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘advice, plan, control, power...’ráði 17/8

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’ — 6/2, 19/4, ræðr 5/4

1reiða (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘chariot, equipment...’reiðu 18/1, reiðu 20/1

1reifa (verb) ‘endow, enrich...’reifðir 16/1

2reifr (adj.) ‘happy...’reifir 17/1

reytir (noun m.) ‘[picker]...’reyti 2/7

ríkr (adj.) ‘mighty, powerful, rich...’ríku 17/7

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’ — 21/4, roðnum 5/5

róg (noun n.) [°-s] ‘strife, slander...’ — 16/2

róma (noun f.) ‘battle...’rómu 17/2

1rœða (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘story, tale, speech...’rœðu 18/1

rǫdd (noun f.) [°raddar, dat. -/u; raddir] ‘voice...’ — 2/4

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randir 21/3, rǫndum 5/5, rǫndum 19/5

1salr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum] ‘hall...’sal 11/3

saman (adv.) ‘together...’ — 21/6

sandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sand, beach...’sandi 12/1

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ — 21/9, þann 5/2, þat 15/1, þeim 1/6, þeim 15/2, þeim 20/4, þeim 21/10, þeir 16/3, þeir 21/2, þeira 18/6, þess 16/5, því 3/8

2sár (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘wound...’ — 8/8

sárr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘sore, painful; wounded...’sárir 10/6

seggr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘man...’seggir 11/4

segja (verb) ‘say, tell...’segi 1/2, 1/5

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 15/2

2serkr (noun m.) [°; gen. -ja] ‘Saracen...’serkjum 19/7

1sess (noun m.) [°-, dat -/-i;n dat. -um] ‘seat, throne...’ — 10/5

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’sér 10/4, sér 23/9

silfrvafiðr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘wrapped with silver wires...’silfrvǫfðum 19/6

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sína 15/4

2sinni (noun n.) [°-s;] ‘time, occasion; company, following...’ — 8/6, sinnum 8/6

sitja (verb) ‘sit...’sat 2/8, sist 21/6, 6/6

2síð (adv.) ‘late...’sízt 21/6

1síðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘long, hanging...’síðan 4/8

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’séð 13/5, sér 19/1

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’sævar 20/2

skati (noun m.) [°-a; -nar] ‘chieftan, prince...’skatnar 21/9

skáld (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘poet...’skalda 18/1

skil (noun n.) [°; -] ‘knowledge...’ — 18/2, 21/9

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skildi 10/4, skjalda 8/2, skjaldi 10/4, skjǫld 21/10, skjǫldum 5/6, skjǫldum 5/8, skjǫldum 8/2, skjǫldum 19/4

skulu (verb) ‘shall, should, must...’skal 6/2, 13/1, 23/6

skyli (noun m.) ‘lord...’ — 21/9

2slá (verb) ‘strike, cut...’Slógusk 10/5

2slíkr (adj.) ‘such...’slíkri 12/4

slíta (verb) ‘to tear...’ — 17/6

sonr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni] ‘son...’syni 4/6

spán (noun f.) ‘[plates, wood-chip]...’spôn 23/7

spyrja (verb) [spurði] ‘ask; hear, find out...’ — 18/1, 20/1

1staðr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s; -ir] ‘place...’stǫðum 9/5

standa (verb) ‘stand...’ — 10/7, 21/9, stóðu 9/5

steina (verb) ‘to stain, colour, paint...’steindir 9/5

stillir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 9/5

stinga (verb) ‘stab, poke...’stungu 10/8

stjǫlr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘[their rumps]...’stjǫlu 10/7

2stóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘stud-horse...’Stóðum 9/5

stórr (adj.) ‘large, great...’stóri 7/3, stóri 14/5

stúfi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘°træstub; penis, lem...’stúfa 10/7

stúpa (verb) ‘[stick]...’ — 10/7

styrr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘battle...’styrjar 9/6

2sumr (pron.) ‘some...’sumum 8/6

svalr (adj.) ‘cool...’sval 11/3

Sváfnir (noun m.) ‘Sváfnir...’Sváfnis 11/3

sveigja (verb) ‘bend...’ — 17/4

2svelta (verb) ‘starve (weak, trans.)...’sveltar 13/7

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’sverða 8/4, sverðum 8/4, sverðum 19/6

Svǫlnir (noun m.) ‘Svǫlnir...’Svǫlnis 11/3

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sóttu 2/3

2taka (verb) ‘take...’tók 14/6

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 21/5

tingl (noun n.) ‘prow-board...’tinglum 7/8

tjald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘tent, awning...’tjǫldum 5/8

tjǫrugr (adj.) ‘[tarred]...’tjǫrgum 5/7

2trúa (verb) ‘to believe (in)...’truðu 22/1

trúðr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘charlatan, juggler...’trúðum 22/1

tún (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘homefield, enclosure...’túni 16/3

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’ulf 8/7, Ulf 21/1

1um (prep.) ‘about, around...’ — 10/5

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 10/5, 23/9

undir (prep.) ‘under...’ — 21/8

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ — 6/5, ungum 4/7

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 10/7, 17/3

Úfi (noun m.) — 16/5

úti (adv.) ‘out, outdoors, out at sea, abroad...’ — 6/1

Útsteinn (noun m.) ‘Utsteinen, Utstein ...’Útsteini 9/4

vað (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘[ford, surge]...’vaða 20/4

valdr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 9/3, valds 9/3

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’val 2/1, val 13/7, 12/1

valskr (adj.) ‘foreign, French...’valskra 8/4, vǫlskum 8/4

varmr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘warm...’varma 6/7

vel (adv.) ‘well, very...’ — 19/5

velja (verb) ‘choose...’valði 19/11

velli (noun n.) — 6/5

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’er 8/6, eru 16/1, eru 16/5, eru 17/1, eru 19/3, eru 23/5, eruð 3/2, es 3/1, es 15/1, es 20/3, es 21/6, es 22/3, óru 2/2, vas 8/6, vas 9/6, vas 9/7, vôru 8/1, vôru 9/6, vôru 10/6, vôru 11/2

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’varð 8/6

3verðr (adj.) ‘worth, worthy...’verðum 3/4

3verja (verb) ‘defend...’ — 15/2

1verpa (verb) ‘to throw, cast (up)...’ — 16/4

1verr (noun m.) [°[-s; -ar/ir]] ‘man...’verar 2/2, verar 13/8, verum 20/5

vestrœnn (adj.) ‘[western]...’vestrœnna 8/3, vestrœnni 8/3

vér (pron.) [°gen. vár, dat./acc. oss] ‘we, us, our...’ — 4/5

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 1/8, 7/4, 15/4, 19/3

3vigr (noun f.) ‘spear...’ — 8/3, vigra 8/3, vigrar 21/4

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vil 18/1, vil 20/1, vill 6/1

1vin (noun f.) ‘meadow...’ — 2/8

1vita (verb) ‘know...’vissu 3/8, vissuð 3/8, 17/2, 18/2, vitu 17/2

vitinn (adj.) ‘[dedicated]...’ — 12/2, vitinum 12/2

vitr (adj.) ‘wise...’ — 2/1

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’ — 2/1, 20/5, vígs 21/5

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’vísa 17/8, 6/5

1vísir (noun m.) ‘[king, ruler]...’ — 21/9

1víss (adj.) ‘wise, certain(ly)...’vísi 21/9

væni (noun n.) ‘prospect, expectation...’ — 17/2

vænn (adj.) ‘beautiful, expected...’væni 9/6, vænni 9/6, væns 9/6

1vǫrr (noun m.) [°dat. verri; acc. vǫrru] ‘oar-stroke...’vǫrru 17/7

vǫttr (noun m.) [°; acc. -u] ‘[mittens]...’vǫttu 6/8

ymja (verb) ‘howl, resound...’ymðu 8/7

2ynglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king...’ynglingi 4/7

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 12/1, 21/6, 21/8

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 10/1, 17/1, 21/5

þefr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -] ‘[carrion]...’ — 3/6

þekkr (adj.) ‘pleasing...’þekkir 2/2

2þerra (verb) ‘[to dry, wiped]...’þerrði 4/2

þeysa (verb) ‘hasten...’ — 17/7

1þilja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘planking, decking...’þiljur 10/5

þjarfr (adj.)þjǫrfum 20/5

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’yðr 3/1, yðr 3/5, yðr 3/6, yðr 3/7, þér 20/3, þik 5/1, þik 18/1, þik 20/1, þik 22/2, 7/1, 18/4

2þykkja (verb) ‘seem, think...’þóttisk 2/1, þykkisk 18/2

œsa (verb) ‘surge...’œstisk 11/5, Œstusk 11/5

1ætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘family...’ættar 14/4

ǫðlingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘prince, ruler...’eðlingi 4/7

2ǫnd (noun f.) [°andar, dat. ǫnd/ǫndu; andir] ‘soul, breath...’ — 3/4

ǫrgáti (noun m.) ‘[hospitality]...’ørgáti 22/3

1ǫrn (noun m.) [°arnar, dat. erni; ernir, acc. ǫrnu] ‘eagle...’arnar 4/3

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ǫrvir 17/3

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated