Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturla Þórðarson (Sturl)

13th century; volume 2; ed. Kari Ellen Gade;

1. Hrynhenda (Hryn) - 21

Skj info: Sturla Þórðarson, Islandsk skjald og historiker, 1214-84 (AII, 101-29, BII, 112-36).

Skj poems:
1. Þverárvísur
2. Þorgilsdrápa
3. Hrynhenda
4. Hákonarkviða
5. Hrafnsmál
6. Hákonarflokkr
7. En drape om Magnús lagaböter
8. Lausavísur

The life of Sturla Þórðarson (Sturl) is chronicled in Sturlunga saga (Stu). He was born on 29 July 1214 as the second son of Þórðr Sturluson and his concubine Þóra, and he was the younger brother of Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson (Ólhv). In his early years he spent much time with his uncle, the poet, historian and lawspeaker Snorri Sturluson (SnSt, d. 1241), and later he took an active part in the events that played out before and after the collapse of the Icel. Commonwealth. Sturla was lawspeaker in Iceland 1251-2 and lawman, appointed by the Norw. king, 1272-82. In 1263 he went to Norway where he met King Magnús lagabœtir ‘Law-mender’ Hákonarson (d. 1280). After an initially very cool reception, the king commissioned him to write the saga of Magnús’s father Hákon Hákonarson (d. 1264) and also that of Magnús himself. Sturla later became the retainer (hirðmaðr, skutilsveinn) of Magnús and brought the law code Járnsíða ‘Ironside’ from Norway to Iceland in 1271. The story of Sturla’s journey to Norway in 1263 and his dealings with Magnús is recounted in Sturlu þáttr (StÞ), preserved in a version of Stu. In addition to the sagas of Hákon Hákonarson (Hák) and the no longer extant saga of his son Magnús lagabœtir (only two leaves are preserved in AM 325 X 4°), Sturla is the author of Íslendinga saga (Ísls) and of a redaction of Landnámabók (Ldn, in AM 107 folˣ = Stˣ). Some scholars believe that he may have been responsible for the extant redaction of Kristni saga (Kristni) (see LH 1894-1901, II, 98-105, 717-43), and he is also mentioned as an informant by the author of Grettis saga Ásmundarsonar (Gr; see ÍF 7, 157, 226, 289). Like his uncle, Snorri, and his brother, Óláfr, Sturla was a prolific poet. According to Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 256, 260, 272, 279, 384-96), he composed poems in honour of the Norw. kings Hákon Hákonarson and Magnús lagabœtir Hákonarson, and also about the Swed. jarl Birgir Magnússon (d. 1266). Nothing is preserved of Sturla’s panegyrics to the latter, but two sts from his poetry to Magnús are recorded in Hák (see Magnússdrápa (Sturl Magndr) below). The bulk of Sturla’s poetic oeuvre about Hákon Hákonarson is interspersed with the prose in Hák: Hrynhenda (Sturl Hryn), Hákonarkviða (Sturl Hákkv), Hrafnsmál (Sturl Hrafn) and Hákonarflokkr (Sturl Hákfl). In addition to these encomia, Sturla composed poetry about events and dignitaries in Iceland: namely Þverárvísur (Sturl ÞvervIV) and Þorgilsdrápa (Sturl ÞorgdrIV), both of which have been edited in SkP IV. That is also the case with his lvv. (Sturl Lv 1-4IV). One fragment which earlier eds assigned to Hryn (earlier st. 22) has been edited in SkP III as Sturl FragIII. Sturla died on 30 July 1284 and was buried in the Church of S. Peter at Staðarhóll.

Hrynhenda — Sturl HrynII

Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Sturla Þórðarson, Hrynhenda’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 676-98.

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Skj: Sturla Þórðarson: 3. Hrynhenda, 1262 (AII, 102-8, BII, 113-18); stanzas (if different): 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 22

in texts: Flat, Hák

SkP info: II, 676-98

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

2-gyltr (adj.) ‘[gilded]...’gyltar 16/7

-látr (adj.) ‘-ful...’látr 17/8

-ligr (adj.) ‘-ly...’lig 16/6, ligr 10/3

-ráðr (adj.) ‘-ful...’ráðan 18/6

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 1/4, 2/5, 3/4, 4/6, 6/7, 9/4, 12/8, 13/4, 15/6, 17/2, 19/2, 19/7, 21/2, 21/6

2afl (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength...’afla 17/8

alda (noun f.) [°; *-ur] ‘wave...’öldur 14/1

aldri (adv.) ‘never...’ — 13/3

alfr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘elf...’álfr 20/4

all- ((prefix)) ‘very...’all 13/7

allr (adj.) ‘all...’alla 17/2, allan 21/7, Allir 13/5, allir 18/6, alt 14/1, alt 20/1, alt 21/4, öll 11/5, öllum 2/3, Öllum 18/1

allvaldr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘mighty ruler...’ — 7/1, 20/6, 21/1

almenningr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘[host, All people]...’ — 12/5

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’ — 17/5, 20/5

arfi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘heir, heiress...’arfa 2/4

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 3/6, 5/2, 6/4, 7/2, 8/7, 9/3, 11/5, 12/5, 16/8, 18/4, 20/1

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 7/4

auðinn (adj.) [°compar. auðnari] ‘fated, decreed...’auðit 5/6

1auðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-] ‘wealth...’auðar 14/2

1auka (verb) [°eykr; jók, jóku/juku] ‘(str. intrans.) increase...’ — 20/1

2ausa (verb) [°eyss; jós, jósu/jusu; ausinn] ‘sprinkle, bail...’jós 14/7

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 2/1, 7/8, 11/1

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 7/4, 9/2, 10/4, 11/6, 12/2, 12/6, 13/2, 14/6, 15/2, 15/8, 16/2, 17/1

1ár (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)] ‘oar...’ára 13/7

Baldr (noun m.) ‘[Baldr, Baldur]...’ — 4/6

bál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘fire...’báli 10/7, báls 1/2

1bára (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘wave...’báru 9/6

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’báðu 18/5

birki (noun n.) ‘birch-...’ — 10/6

1blakkr (noun m.) ‘horse...’blakks 13/7

Bláland (noun n.) ‘North Africa, Africa ...’Blálands 21/4

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’blóði 8/4

boð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘command, offer, feast...’ — 12/7

borð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘side, plank, board; table...’ — 16/2

borg (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -; -ir] ‘city, stronghold...’borgum 19/1

bragnar (noun m.) ‘men, warriors...’bragna 19/2, 10/7

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’brandar 8/3, bröndum 12/1, bröndum 15/8

1bráð (noun f.) ‘meat...’ — 9/4

bráðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘quick(ly)...’bráðs 7/2

breiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘broad, wide...’breiða 14/6, breiðum 17/2, breiðum 19/1

2brenna (verb) [°brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn] ‘(strong, intransitive)...’ — 11/5, 15/5, brunnit 10/8

bróðir (noun m.) [°bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---] ‘brother...’bræðr 19/7

brúðfǫr (noun f.) ‘[bridal train]...’brúðför 2/8

2búa (verb) [°býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)] ‘prepare, ready, live...’bjoggu 5/3, búnu 6/2, búnu 16/6

búð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘booth, dwelling...’búðir 10/5

búkarl (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘farmer...’búkarls 10/5

byggð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘dwelling, settlement...’bygðum 6/8, bygðum 11/4, bygðum 14/4

dan (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -] ‘Dane...’Danir 18/6, Dönum 3/2

danaveldi (noun n.) ‘realm of the Danes...’ — 10/2

danr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘Dane...’Dana 6/8, Dana 11/4, Dana 17/4

danskr (adj.) ‘Danish...’danskrar 8/4

dauði (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘death...’dauða 5/6

digull (noun m.) [°diguls; diglar] ‘crucible...’Digla 15/1

dóttir (noun f.) [°dóttur, dat. dóttur/dǿtr/dóttir, acc. dóttur/dóttir, nom. dóttir/dóttur; dǿtr, gen. dǿtra (cf. [$1592$])] ‘daughter...’dóttur 2/4, dóttur 13/8

2draga (verb) [°dregr; dró, drógu; dreginn/droget(Hirð NKS 1642 4° 146v²⁹; cf. [$962$])] ‘drag, pull, draw...’dregnum 12/4

dreki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘dragon, dragon-ship...’dreka 15/4

drengr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja] ‘man, warrior...’drengir 6/6, drengir 8/1

1drífa (noun f.) [°-u] ‘snow-storm...’drífu 8/2

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’dreif 4/1, drifnar 14/3

1drótt (noun f.) ‘troop...’dróttir 10/6

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’dróttin 4/8, 18/5, dróttins 13/3

1dúfa (noun f.) [°-u; -ur, gen. -na] ‘billow, wave...’dúfur 14/3

dyggðarmaðr (noun m.) [°acc. ·mann; ·menn] ‘[trusty men]...’dygðarmenn 14/4

dýrð (noun f.) [°-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir] ‘glory...’ — 20/8, dýrðar 15/2

dýrka (verb) [°-að-] ‘glorify, worship...’ — 2/7, dýrkaz 21/1

dœmi (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘judgement, example...’dæmi 17/6

egðir (noun m.) ‘the Egðir...’Egða 18/1

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’ — 18/4, 19/6

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 5/1

eir (noun f.) ‘mercy...’eirar 2/8

1eisa (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘flame, ember...’eisur 15/5

elding (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ar] ‘lightning...’ — 16/1

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’eld 10/2, eld 19/4, eldi 12/3, 15/1, 17/4

Elfi (noun f.) ‘Götaälv (Elfr)...’ — 11/1, 14/8

elfr (noun f.) ‘river...’Elfi 5/5

elrir (noun m.) ‘[alder-tree]...’elris 11/2

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 10/6, 20/6

4en (conj.) ‘than...’ — 20/8

2engi (pron.) ‘no, none...’ — 1/3, 4/7, 17/5, 20/5

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’ — 6/5, 7/1, 16/3, 17/3, 19/6

errinn (adj.) ‘bold...’ — 13/1

2eyða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘destroy...’eyddu 10/7

eyrarsund (noun n.) [°; -] ‘Øresund...’Eyrarsundi 16/8

fagna (verb) [°-að-] ‘welcome, rejoice...’ — 20/3

2falda (verb) ‘cover, clothe...’faldin 8/7

falla (verb) ‘fall...’fellu 8/5, fellu 11/3

far (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘travel, vessel, trace, life, conduct...’fars 15/6

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’fór 10/5, færi 16/1

fasti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘flame, fire...’ — 15/7

fastr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘firm, fast...’fast 8/7

2feginn (adj.) [°compar. fegnari, superl. fegnastr] ‘glad, happy...’fegnir 18/7

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 13/4, ferðar 2/6, ferðar 16/5, ferðir 4/5

2finna (verb) ‘find, meet...’finniz 17/6

finnr (noun m.) ‘Saami (person)...’Finna 14/4

fjándi (noun m.) [°-a; fjándr/fjándar/fjándir] ‘enemy, devil...’fjand 18/8

fjǫlð (noun f.) ‘multitude...’fjölð 19/2

fjǫrnir (noun m.) ‘helmet...’fjörnis 20/4

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’ — 16/6

fleinn (noun m.) [°dat. fleini] ‘spear...’fleina 8/2

fleiri (adj. comp.) [°superl. flestr] ‘more, most...’flesta 15/8

floti (noun m.) ‘fleet...’flota 4/4, flota 15/7, flota 17/2

flotnar (noun m.) ‘mariners...’flotnum 5/6

flótti (noun m.) ‘flight, fleeing...’flótta 8/6

framla (adv.) ‘excellently...’ — 4/1

1fregna (verb) ‘hear of...’frák 19/1

frelsi (noun n.) ‘freedom...’ — 7/6

frétta (verb) ‘ask, enquire...’fréttuð 13/3

frægð (noun f.) ‘fame...’frægðum 1/8, frægðum 21/6

frægr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str] ‘famous, renowned...’frægi 18/2, Frægjan 1/1, 12/2, frægra 8/8, frægs 17/3

fundr (noun m.) ‘discovery, meeting...’fundar 14/2

fúss (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘eager, willing...’fúsa 19/5

fylkir (noun m.) ‘leader...’fylkis 7/2

2fyrðr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -] ‘man...’fyrða 18/7, fyrðar 20/3

fyriborð (noun n.) ‘[fir-planks]...’fýriborðum 5/8

fyrir (prep.) ‘for, before, because of...’ — 3/8, 5/5, 7/8, 11/1, 11/8, 12/3, 13/6, 14/8, 18/3

fýri (noun n.) ‘fir-tree...’ — 3/4

gammr (noun m.) ‘vulture...’ — 9/3

gandr (noun m.) [°-s; dat. *-um] ‘wolf, magic staff...’ — 10/4, 14/8

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’ — 7/4, gekk 8/7, gekk 10/3, gengu 9/1

garmr (noun m.) ‘dog...’ — 11/2

gauti (noun m.) ‘man, Geat...’Gauta 2/2, Gautar 6/3

gegna (verb) ‘encounter, mean...’gegnir 20/3

geiga (verb) ‘[drift, swung]...’ — 16/7

geigrþing (noun n.) ‘dangerous meeting...’geigurþing 18/4

geimi (noun m.) ‘ocean...’geima 13/2

geit (noun f.) ‘nanny-goat...’ — 7/8

1gífr (noun n.) ‘troll-woman...’ — 8/2

1gjalda (verb) ‘pay, repay...’gulduð 3/1

glaða (verb) ‘gladden, rejoice, be merry...’glöddusk 19/3

2Glaumr (noun m.) ‘Glaumr...’Glaum 11/8

glæsa (verb) ‘adorn...’glæsta 2/1, glæstum 15/7

gneisti (noun m.) ‘sword, spark...’Gneistum 11/1

góðr (adj.) ‘good...’ — 5/2

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 1/4, 5/8, 18/7

greypr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘cruel...’greypra 9/7

grímr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘Grímr; fierce...’grimrar 9/8

grund (noun f.) ‘earth, land...’ — 1/7, grundar 16/8, grundu 3/8, grundu 9/2, grundu 12/6

grœðir (noun m.) ‘?healer, ?ocean...’græði 18/3

gull (noun n.) ‘gold...’gulli 2/1, gulli 15/6

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle, Gunnr...’gunnar 18/3

gylðir (noun m.) ‘wolf...’gyldir 9/7

gǫfugr (adj.) [°gǫfgan/gǫfugan; compar. gǫfgari/gǫfugri, superl. gǫfgastr/gǫfugstr/gǫfugastr] ‘noble, glorious...’göfugr 19/8

hafa (verb) ‘have...’hafið 1/7, hefr 20/5, höfðu 3/5, höfðu 12/7

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’haldit 1/8, haldit 20/6, heldu 7/1, heldu 14/1, helduð 4/3, helduð 16/3, helt 5/5

Halland (noun n.) ‘Halland...’ — 7/5, Hallands 4/5

Hallandssíða (noun f.) ‘[coast of Halland]...’Hallandssíðu 11/6

1hamla (noun f.) [°*-u; *-ur] ‘rowing position...’hömlu 4/1

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’harða 12/8, harðir 5/3

1haukr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘hawk...’haukar 21/3

hauss (noun m.) [°hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar] ‘skull...’hausar 15/3, hausum 6/7

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’hávar 11/3, hæri 10/3

hegna (verb) ‘punish...’ — 3/6

heimangerð (noun f.) ‘[home]...’heimangerðum 13/4

heimr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘home, abode; world...’heiminn 20/2, heiminn 21/7

heitr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘hot, ardent...’heitan 10/2

2herja (verb) ‘harry, ravage...’herjat 7/5

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 12/1, her 12/7

herskip (noun n.) ‘warship...’ — 17/3, herskips 5/4, herskips 6/7

1hildr (noun f.) ‘battle...’hildi 8/7

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’ — 12/2, hilmis 4/2, hilmis 16/4, hilmis 17/3

himinn (noun m.) [°himins, dat. himni; himnar] ‘heaven, sky...’himna 17/4

hingat (adv.) ‘(to) here...’ — 1/3

hirðmaðr (noun m.) ‘retainer...’hirðmenn 5/3, hirðmenn 7/6, hirðmenn 10/1

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjálmi 8/8

2hlaða (verb) ‘heap, pile...’hlaðnar 14/6, hlóðu 6/5

hleypa (verb) ‘impell, make run...’hleyptu 8/3

hlunnr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘roller...’hlunni 12/4, hlunnum 3/4

hneitir (noun m.) ‘sword...’ — 5/1

1hnoss (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘treasure...’hnossir 21/8

hollr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘loyal...’hollar 21/7

1hrinda (verb) ‘launch, propell...’hratt 11/1, 12/1

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hringa 4/6

1hrjóða (verb) ‘clear, destroy...’hrauð 12/3

1hrjóta (verb) ‘fling, fly...’ — 21/5

hróf (noun n.) [°-s;] ‘boat-shed...’hrófi 14/5

hryggðarfolk (noun n.) ‘[rueful people]...’hrygðarfólk 6/8

hryggðarstund (noun f.) ‘sorrowful time...’hrygðarstund 11/4

1hræddr (adj.) ‘afraid...’Hræddar 4/5, hræddar 10/6

húfr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘hull...’húfar 14/3, húfum 16/3

hús (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘house...’húsum 10/3

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hverju 14/5, hverrar 4/1

hvé (adv.) ‘how...’ — 3/1

hœgri (adj. comp.) ‘higher, highest...’Hæstan 10/1

hǫfuð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘head...’höfuð 9/6

hǫlðr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘man...’hölda 9/7, höldar 12/7

1hǫll (noun f.) [°hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir] ‘hall...’hallar 10/4, hallir 11/3

hǫtuðr (noun m.) ‘hater...’hötuðr 1/2

1inn (adv.) ‘in, inside...’ — 16/2

2inn (art.) ‘the...’ — 18/2, ins 4/2

innan (prep.) ‘inside, within...’ — 13/8, 17/6, 21/2

1inni (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘house...’Innin 11/5

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 5/4, 6/8, 8/2, 8/6, 10/2, 11/2, 11/4, 13/2, 15/1, 17/4, 19/4

jaðarr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. jaðri; jaðrar] ‘edge, border...’jaðri 21/4

jafngóðr (adj.) ‘[so good, as good]...’ — 1/3

jóti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘one of the Jótar...’Jóta 4/7

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jöfra 5/1, jöfra 13/3, jöfurr 1/6

jǫrð (noun f.) [°jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)] ‘ground, earth...’jarðar 17/7

jǫrmungrund (noun f.) ‘huge/vast (expanse of) land...’jörmungrundar 16/4

kaldr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘cold...’kalda 20/2, köldum 12/3

kardináli (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘[Cardinal]...’ — 1/2

kind (noun f.) [°-ar; -r] ‘offspring, race...’kindir 7/7

kjósa (verb) ‘choose...’kaus 19/5

kjǫrr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘[kjörr]...’kjörr 7/8

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’kom 17/5

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’ — 6/6

1kóróna (noun f.) [°-u, -ur] ‘crown...’Kórónu 1/5

kristni (noun f.) [°-/-s(Ágr 26¹²)] ‘Christianity...’ — 1/5

kundr (noun m.) ‘descendant...’ — 16/4

1kyn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘kin...’ — 1/6

kynda (verb) ‘kindle...’kyndu 10/1

kyrrð (noun f.) ‘[quiet]...’kyrðum 5/4

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’ — 7/4, 10/8, landi 10/4, lands 13/8, lands 17/6, lands 21/2, lönd 13/2

langr (adj.) [°compar. lengri, superl. lengstr] ‘long...’langa 3/8

lata (verb) ‘[You let, be lazy]...’léztu 14/5

lauss (adj.) [°compar. lausari] ‘loose, free, without...’laust 21/6

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’láði 4/3, láði 7/2

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’lét 1/5, lét 12/1, létu 6/1, létu 7/5, létu 8/1, létuð 16/7, léztu 5/6

leið (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar] ‘path, way...’ — 17/2

leiðangr (noun m.) [°leiðangrs, dat. leiðangri; leiðangrar] ‘naval levy...’ — 3/7, 6/3

leiðarstjarna (noun f.) ‘[North Star]...’leiðarstjörnu 20/4

lengi (adv.) ‘for a long time...’ — 5/4

lengra (adv.) ‘longer, further...’ — 20/7

liggja (verb) ‘lie...’lágu 17/3

líf (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘life...’lífi 18/8

2líka (adv.) ‘likewise, also...’ — 21/3

4líka (verb) ‘please...’líkar 20/1

líta (verb) ‘look, see; appear...’leit 6/5

lítill (adj.) [°lítinn] ‘little...’ — 3/7

ljótr (adj.) ‘ugly...’ljótan 6/3

log (noun n.) [°; -] ‘flame...’logs 15/4, logs 18/3

lundi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘puffin...’lunda 6/4

1lundr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘grove, tree...’ — 12/6, 14/2, lunds 9/2

2lýsa (verb) ‘illuminate, show...’ — 6/7

lægi (noun n.) [°-s] ‘sea...’ — 13/6, 16/2

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’ — 4/7, manna 19/8, menn 9/1, menn 18/8

magn (noun n.) [°-s] ‘strength...’magni 19/2

malmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘metal...’málma 2/6, málma 8/8, málma 9/2

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 1/8, 2/3, 4/3, 6/2, 17/8, 21/1, 21/4

meginblóð (noun n.) ‘[life-blood]...’meginblóði 9/8

megindýrr (adj.) ‘[most noble]...’megindýrum 2/2

meiðr (noun m.) ‘beam, tree...’meið 12/4

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’mestri 2/5

1merki (noun n.) [°-s: -] ‘banner, sign...’merkjum 9/1

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’miklum 4/4

mildi (noun f.) ‘generosity, mercy...’ — 2/5, 21/2

mildr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘mild, gentle, gracious, generous...’mildir 12/7

Mostr (noun f.) ‘[Mostrar]...’Mostrar 6/4

1mót (noun n.) [°; -] ‘meeting...’móti 9/3

móti (prep.) ‘against...’ — 19/4

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’ — 20/3

mærð (noun f.) ‘praise...’mærðar 21/8

mæti (noun n.) [°; -] ‘precious thing...’ — 21/5

mætr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘honoured, respected...’Mætum 5/5

1 (verb) ‘reach, get, manage...’náðu 7/3

neyð (noun f.) [°dat. -] ‘need, distress...’nauða 5/7

norðan (adv.) ‘from the north...’ — 11/8, 14/1, 14/8, 16/2

norðmaðr (noun m.) ‘Norwegian...’Norðmanna 5/8

1norðr (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[Norwegians, north]...’ — 20/1

Noregr (noun m.) ‘Norway...’Nóregs 4/8

Noregsveldi (noun n.) ‘[kingdom of Norway]...’Nóregsveldi 12/8

nýr (adj.) [°nýjan; compar. nýrri, superl. nýjastr] ‘new...’nýjar 5/7

4of (particle) ‘(before verb)...’ — 1/6

ófriðr (noun m.) ‘unrest...’ófrið 3/1

ógn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘terror, battle...’ógnar 7/2, ógnar 9/6, ógnar 11/6, ógnar 12/6

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 8/3, 12/4, 14/4, 14/5, 19/1

óttalauss (adj.) ‘fearless...’ — 4/8

páfi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘Pope...’páfa 1/4

prúðr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘magnificent, proud...’prúðar 7/3

prýða (verb) ‘adorn...’prýddr 1/6, 21/7

raf (noun n.) ‘[roof, amber]...’ráfit 11/2

rammr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘mighty...’ramri 1/7

ráð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘advice, plan, control, power...’ráði 9/4, ráði 19/7

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’réð 1/1, rétt 7/1

rán (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘plunder, plundering...’ — 3/6

2reiða (verb) ‘carry...’ — 20/7

1reiði (noun m.) [°-a] ‘tackle, rigging...’ — 6/2

reiðivaldr (noun m.) ‘[swinger]...’ — 1/8

2reka (verb) ‘drive, force...’reknum 8/6

2renna (verb) ‘run (strong)...’rann 11/7, 17/1, runnu 10/8

3réttr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘right, straight, direct...’rétt 17/7

1ríða (verb) ‘ride...’ — 19/1

ríki (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘kingdom, power...’ — 20/6

ríkisvǫndr (noun m.) ‘royal sceptre...’ríkisvandar 1/7

ríkr (adj.) ‘mighty, powerful, rich...’ríki 17/8

Rín (noun f.) ‘[Rhine]...’Rínar 15/4

rísa (verb) ‘rise, raise...’ — 15/3

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rauð 15/7

roðna (verb) ‘redden...’roðnir 15/3

rofna (verb) ‘broken...’rofnar 5/2

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 17/7

rǫðull (noun m.) [°dat. rǫðli] ‘heavenly body...’röðull 20/8

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’rönd 15/8

saltan (noun f.) ‘[salty]...’ — 12/2

samr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘same...’samt 2/8

sandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sand, beach...’sandi 14/7

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’þann 19/6, þeiri 2/8, því 7/1

2sár (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘wound...’sára 9/6

segja (verb) ‘say, tell...’segik 3/1

segl (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sail...’segli 15/1, segli 16/6, seglum 6/5

2seimr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘gold...’seima 2/3, seima 4/4

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 13/7, 16/1

senda (verb) ‘send...’sendi 2/1, sendi 13/1

2serkr (noun m.) [°; gen. -ja] ‘Saracen...’Serkjum 21/1

setja (verb) ‘place, set, establish...’settu 3/3

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sína 2/4, sínu 7/6, sínu 18/8

2sinna (verb) ‘travel...’ — 12/5

sitja (verb) ‘sit...’sátuð 5/1

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 4/3, 6/5, 7/3, 11/3, 19/5

sjalfr (adj.) ‘self...’Sjálfri 9/5

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sénn 15/1

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’skeiðr 3/4, skeiðr 6/2, skeiðr 14/6

skeiða (verb) ‘[warships’]...’ — 15/8

skerðir (noun m.) ‘diminisher...’ — 2/6

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’skips 12/1

skipta (verb) ‘share, divide, exchange...’skipti 9/5

skipuðr (noun m.) ‘[commander]...’ — 3/2

skína (verb) ‘shine...’skíni 20/8

skógr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘forest...’skógar 10/8

1skrift (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘image...’skriptum 15/2

2skrýða (verb) ‘adorn, clothe...’skrýdda 1/6

1skærr (adj.) ‘pure, bright...’skæri 10/3

2slá (verb) ‘strike, cut...’slegnu 10/7

sleggja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘hammer, sledge-hammer...’slegnu 15/6

2slíkr (adj.) ‘such...’slíkan 17/8

slíta (verb) ‘to tear...’sleit 9/3

snarfengr (adj.) ‘sturdy...’ — 6/6

snarpr (adj.) ‘sharp, keen...’snarpir 8/1

snjallr (adj.) ‘quick, resourceful, bold...’snjall 18/6

sókn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘attack, fight...’sóknar 8/2

sóknarstrangr (adj.) ‘[war-fierce one]...’sóknarstrangs 7/4

sótt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘illness...’ — 10/6

spyrja (verb) [spurði] ‘ask; hear, find out...’spurðu 6/3

standa (verb) ‘stand...’stóð 9/7

1stál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘steel, weapon, prow...’stálin 14/7

steina (verb) ‘to stain, colour, paint...’steindu 14/7

steinn (noun m.) [°steins; steinar] ‘stone, colour...’stein 11/8

stiklir (noun m.) ‘thrower, dispenser ...’ — 4/4

stillir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 18/1

stirðr (adj.) ‘stiff...’stirðan 5/3

2storð (noun f.) ‘young wood, earth...’storðar 11/8, storðar 14/8

stórligr (adj.) ‘[great]...’stórlig 11/7

stórr (adj.) ‘large, great...’Stórar 7/5, Stórir 3/5

strengr (noun m.) [°-jar; -ir] ‘string, rope, bow-string...’streng 5/4

stríðr (adj.) ‘harsh...’ — 11/6

stræti (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘street...’ — 11/7

stund (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘time, hour...’ — 3/8

2styrkr (adj.) ‘powerful, strong...’Styrkir 9/1

stýra (verb) ‘steer, control...’stýrðuð 17/7

stýrir (noun m.) ‘ruler, controller...’ — 1/5, 2/2

2suðr (adv.) ‘south, in the south...’ — 4/3

sund (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sound, strait; swimming...’sundi 6/4

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 3/2, 13/6, 18/3

súð (noun f.) [°-ar; gen. -a] ‘planking, ship...’súðir 5/7

svanni (noun m.) ‘lady, woman...’ — 19/8

svarri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘(proud) lady...’svarra 13/1, svarra 19/4

svát (conj.) ‘so that, so as...’ — 17/6

sveit (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘host, company...’sveitir 7/3

sviðna (verb) ‘scorch...’sviðnu 10/4

sviptilundr (noun m.) ‘[flinging-tree]...’ — 15/2

svíar (noun m.) ‘Swedes...’Svía 2/6

1svíða (verb) ‘cause pain, burn...’ — 6/1

svífa (verb) ‘sweep...’ — 14/5

sygn (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘one of the Sygnir...’Sygna 18/5

syngja (verb) ‘sing...’ — 8/1

1sýja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘planking, vessel...’sýjur 16/7

sœmð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘honour...’sæmðar 19/5, sæmðum 2/3

sætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘settlement...’Sætta 18/5

sættir (noun m.) ‘reconciler...’ — 5/2

2taka (verb) ‘take...’tók 6/7, tóktu 2/5, tóku 11/5, tóku 13/5, tóku 15/3

tamr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘experienced, ready, tame ...’tams 13/6

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 4/1, 10/8, 14/2, 16/4, 17/7

tínir (noun m.) ‘gatherer...’ — 21/8

traustr (adj.) ‘trusty...’traustir 10/1

treysta (verb) ‘trust, believe in...’treystu 14/3

týna (verb) ‘lose, destroy...’týndu 7/7

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’úlfa 9/5, úlfr 11/8

Ullr (noun m.) ‘Ullr...’Ullar 15/6

1um (prep.) ‘about, around...’ — 10/5, 11/7, 14/1, 14/7, 16/2, 19/5, 20/2

1und (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘wound...’undum 8/3

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 9/1, 16/6, 20/4

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ungan 13/1

2unnr (noun f.) ‘wave...’unn 3/2, unnar 12/4, unnar 13/6, Unnar 15/5, unnum 17/1

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 17/1

út (adv.) ‘out(side)...’ — 12/1, 12/5, 13/2, 21/1

útan (prep.) ‘outside, without...’ — 5/5

útboð (noun n.) ‘[conscription]...’ — 3/5

vald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength, power...’ — 20/2, valdi 1/4, valdi 4/6

valda (verb) ‘cause...’valdiz 1/3

valdr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 13/7

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’val 9/3

valskr (adj.) ‘foreign, French...’valskar 19/3

varmr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘warm...’varma 9/4, varma 11/2

vatn (noun n.) [°-s; -*] ‘water, lake...’vatnit 14/6

vápn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weapon...’vápna 9/3

1vega (verb) ‘strike, slay...’vegnir 8/5

vegligr (adj.) ‘magnificent...’veglig 21/5

2vegr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -] ‘honour...’veg 16/6

veldi (noun n.) ‘realm...’ — 2/7, 17/4

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’var 4/7, var 15/1, var 16/1, væri 13/7

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’urðu 4/5, urðu 18/7, varð 12/5

1verpa (verb) ‘to throw, cast (up)...’varp 16/3

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 2/8, 4/8, 9/5, 13/8, 14/2, 18/4

viggr (noun m.) ‘horse...’viggs 3/2

Vilhjalmr (noun m.) ‘Vilhjálmr, William ...’Vilhjálmr 1/1

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vildi 19/6

virðr (noun m.) ‘man...’virða 7/7

1vita (verb) ‘know...’vissu 5/7

1víða (adv.) ‘widely...’ — 3/3, 7/7, 8/5, 10/5, 16/5, 18/2, 19/3, 21/5

víðr (adj.) ‘far...’víðri 3/8, víðri 9/2

vígadrótt (noun f.) ‘[war-band]...’ — 8/6

vígja (verb) ‘to hallow, consecrate...’ — 1/1

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’vísa 16/5

vægð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘mercy...’vægðar 21/6

vægðarlauss (adj.) ‘merciless...’vægðarlaust 7/8

vǫldugr (adj.) ‘powerful...’Völdugr 2/5

vǫllr (noun m.) [°vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli] ‘plain, field...’völl 6/4

vǫrðr (noun m.) [°varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu] ‘guardian, defender...’vörðr 16/8

1vǫrr (noun m.) [°dat. verri; acc. vǫrru] ‘oar-stroke...’varr 1/2, varrar 19/4

yðvarr (pron.) [°f. yður; pl. yðrir] ‘your...’yðrir 3/6, yðrir 6/6, yðru 19/7, yðrum 21/6, yðvart 2/7, yðvart 20/2

yfir (prep.) ‘over...’ — 9/7, 15/4, 15/7

yppiþollr (noun m.) ‘extolling fir-tree...’yppiþollar 13/5

ýtr (noun m.) ‘man; launcher...’ýta 11/7, ýtar 7/1, ýtum 3/7

þaðra (adv.) ‘there...’ — 21/4

þangat (adv.) ‘there, thither...’ — 20/7

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 8/7, 17/3, 17/5, 20/5

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’þegnar 3/6

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’ — 17/5, 20/5, þengils 4/7

þinn (pron.) [°f. þín, n. þitt] ‘your...’þinni 12/6, þinni 13/8, þinni 21/2, þína 20/8, þínar 3/3, þínar 6/1, þínar 21/8, þínir 7/6, þínir 18/8, þínir 21/3, þínu 4/6, þínu 9/4, þínu 19/2, þínum 2/4, þínum 15/4

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 4/2, þjóðar 8/4, þjóðar 9/8, þjóðir 3/3, þjóðir 6/1, þjóðir 19/3, þjóðir 20/7, þjóðum 21/3

þollr (noun m.) ‘fir-tree...’þollar 8/5, 2/3

þó (adv.) ‘though...’þóttu 15/5

þrútinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘swollen...’ — 13/2

þunnr (adj.) ‘slender, thin...’þunnar 3/4, þunnar 6/2

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’yðr 1/6, yðr 18/4, þér 20/1, þik 1/1, þik 14/2, þik 18/6, 20/6

því (adv.) ‘therefore, because...’ — 20/3

þvít (conj.) ‘because, since...’ — 18/7

2þykkja (verb) ‘seem, think...’þótti 17/1, þótti 18/1, þóttit 3/7

þyrja (verb) ‘race, rush, rage...’þurðu 16/5

œðri (adj. comp.) ‘nobler, higher...’æðri 13/4, æztra 19/8

œgiligr (adj.) ‘[terrifying]...’ægiligt 18/2

œgir (noun m.) ‘terrifier...’ægis 8/8

2ægir (noun m.) ‘ocean, sea...’ægi 12/2

œrinn (adj.) ‘ample, sufficient...’ærin 3/5, Ærin 16/1, ærnu 8/4

œsi (adj.) ‘[terribly]...’æsi 12/3

1ætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘family...’ættum 5/2

ǫðlingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘prince, ruler...’öðlings 19/7

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’aldar 1/4, aldir 2/7, Öldum 3/1, öldum 16/3

1ǫrn (noun m.) [°arnar, dat. erni; ernir, acc. ǫrnu] ‘eagle...’örn 9/5

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ört 8/3

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