Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturla Þórðarson (Sturl)

13th century; volume 2; ed. Kari Ellen Gade;

3. Hrafnsmál (Hrafn) - 20

Skj info: Sturla Þórðarson, Islandsk skjald og historiker, 1214-84 (AII, 101-29, BII, 112-36).

Skj poems:
1. Þverárvísur
2. Þorgilsdrápa
3. Hrynhenda
4. Hákonarkviða
5. Hrafnsmál
6. Hákonarflokkr
7. En drape om Magnús lagaböter
8. Lausavísur

The life of Sturla Þórðarson (Sturl) is chronicled in Sturlunga saga (Stu). He was born on 29 July 1214 as the second son of Þórðr Sturluson and his concubine Þóra, and he was the younger brother of Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson (Ólhv). In his early years he spent much time with his uncle, the poet, historian and lawspeaker Snorri Sturluson (SnSt, d. 1241), and later he took an active part in the events that played out before and after the collapse of the Icel. Commonwealth. Sturla was lawspeaker in Iceland 1251-2 and lawman, appointed by the Norw. king, 1272-82. In 1263 he went to Norway where he met King Magnús lagabœtir ‘Law-mender’ Hákonarson (d. 1280). After an initially very cool reception, the king commissioned him to write the saga of Magnús’s father Hákon Hákonarson (d. 1264) and also that of Magnús himself. Sturla later became the retainer (hirðmaðr, skutilsveinn) of Magnús and brought the law code Járnsíða ‘Ironside’ from Norway to Iceland in 1271. The story of Sturla’s journey to Norway in 1263 and his dealings with Magnús is recounted in Sturlu þáttr (StÞ), preserved in a version of Stu. In addition to the sagas of Hákon Hákonarson (Hák) and the no longer extant saga of his son Magnús lagabœtir (only two leaves are preserved in AM 325 X 4°), Sturla is the author of Íslendinga saga (Ísls) and of a redaction of Landnámabók (Ldn, in AM 107 folˣ = Stˣ). Some scholars believe that he may have been responsible for the extant redaction of Kristni saga (Kristni) (see LH 1894-1901, II, 98-105, 717-43), and he is also mentioned as an informant by the author of Grettis saga Ásmundarsonar (Gr; see ÍF 7, 157, 226, 289). Like his uncle, Snorri, and his brother, Óláfr, Sturla was a prolific poet. According to Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 256, 260, 272, 279, 384-96), he composed poems in honour of the Norw. kings Hákon Hákonarson and Magnús lagabœtir Hákonarson, and also about the Swed. jarl Birgir Magnússon (d. 1266). Nothing is preserved of Sturla’s panegyrics to the latter, but two sts from his poetry to Magnús are recorded in Hák (see Magnússdrápa (Sturl Magndr) below). The bulk of Sturla’s poetic oeuvre about Hákon Hákonarson is interspersed with the prose in Hák: Hrynhenda (Sturl Hryn), Hákonarkviða (Sturl Hákkv), Hrafnsmál (Sturl Hrafn) and Hákonarflokkr (Sturl Hákfl). In addition to these encomia, Sturla composed poetry about events and dignitaries in Iceland: namely Þverárvísur (Sturl ÞvervIV) and Þorgilsdrápa (Sturl ÞorgdrIV), both of which have been edited in SkP IV. That is also the case with his lvv. (Sturl Lv 1-4IV). One fragment which earlier eds assigned to Hryn (earlier st. 22) has been edited in SkP III as Sturl FragIII. Sturla died on 30 July 1284 and was buried in the Church of S. Peter at Staðarhóll.

Hrafnsmál — Sturl HrafnII

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 727-45.

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Skj: Sturla Þórðarson: 5. Hrafnsmál (AII, 119-24, BII, 126-31)

in texts: Flat, Hák

SkP info: II, 727-45

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-leitr (adj.) ‘-looking...’leitan 1/2

(non-lexical) (unclassified)miklum 15/2

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 1/7, 3/5, 4/1, 5/6, 6/2, 6/6, 8/1, 10/3, 11/7

Aleinn (noun m.) ‘[Alan]...’ — 14/8

alkeppinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[very vigorous]...’alkeppna 16/5, alkeppnum 7/5

allr (adj.) ‘all...’Alt 1/5, Öll 6/5

allvaldr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘mighty ruler...’allvaldi 3/3

alþroskinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[very manly one]...’alþroskins 20/8

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 16/8, 18/2, 19/7, 20/1

1auðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-] ‘wealth...’auð 18/8, auðar 5/8, auðar 15/3

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 1/6, 12/3

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 3/1, 4/3, 9/8, 16/3

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 20/5

1áll (noun m.) [°dat. ál; álar] ‘eel...’ál 5/7

áþokkaðr (adj.) ‘[like]...’áþokkuð 4/6

baugr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘ring...’baug 15/8, baug 18/4

bátr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘boat...’báta 13/3

belti (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘belt...’beltis 1/5

2berja (verb) [°barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn] ‘fight...’berjaz 12/8

bíta (verb) [°bítr; beit, bitu; bitinn] ‘bite...’Beit 20/1

bjarthiminn (noun m.) ‘[bright heavens]...’bjarthimna 4/3

bjóða (verb) [°býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)] ‘offer, order, invite...’Bauð 12/1

1bjórr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -] ‘beer...’bjórs 12/7

blár (adj.) ‘black...’blá 5/4

2blása (verb) [°blǽss; blés, blésu; blásinn] ‘blow...’Blés 16/1

blekkir (noun m.) ‘[destroyer]...’ — 2/5

blik (noun n.) ‘gleam...’ — 12/7, 17/2

blóm (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘flower...’blómum 4/4

Bót (noun f.) ‘[Bute]...’ — 10/3

bragnar (noun m.) ‘men, warriors...’bragna 12/2, bragna 16/2, 9/7

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’brands 9/8

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’brá 1/5

breiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘broad, wide...’breiða 10/4, breiðar 13/4

2brenna (verb) [°brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn] ‘(strong, intransitive)...’Brunnu 11/1

brim (noun n.) ‘surf...’ — 3/6, 8/2, 16/4, brims 4/3

2brúnn (adj.) ‘brown, dark...’brún 20/2

1brynja (noun f.) [°-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur] ‘mailcoat...’bryn 17/4, bryn 18/2, bryn 20/1

búmaðr (noun m.) [°; ·menn, gen. ·manna] ‘farmer...’búmanna 11/1

byggð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘dwelling, settlement...’bygðir 11/2

2byggja (verb) [°byggir/byggvir; byggði; byggðr] ‘inhabit, dwell; build, found...’bygðu* 13/7, bygðum 16/3

byrr (noun m.) [°-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)] ‘favourable wind...’byr 9/7

bǫð (noun f.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’böð 12/1, böð 16/1

bǫðgerð (noun f.) ‘[battle]...’böðgerðar 6/8

dalr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i/-a] ‘valley...’dal 7/8, dal 17/7

darr (noun n.) [°; *-um] ‘spear...’darra 13/2

deilir (noun m.) ‘ruler, ordainer...’deili 3/7

2draga (verb) [°dregr; dró, drógu; dreginn/droget(Hirð NKS 1642 4° 146v²⁹; cf. [$962$])] ‘drag, pull, draw...’Drógu 13/1

drengr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja] ‘man, warrior...’drengja 17/6

drepa (verb) [°drepr; drap, drápu; drepinn] ‘kill, strike...’Drap 17/5

drós (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘lady...’drósar 4/2

1drótt (noun f.) ‘troop...’ — 17/7, dróttar 8/8, dróttum 11/8

1dul (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar] ‘delusion...’ — 17/5

2dúfa (noun f.) ‘dove...’dúfur 5/4

dyggð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘virtue...’dygðar 11/2

dyggr (adj.) [°dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str] ‘trustworthy...’dyggvar 20/3

dynr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘din...’dyn 9/6, dyn 13/1

1dýr (noun n.) [°-s (spec.: dyʀiɴs KonrA 66⁴‡, etc., cf. Seip 1955 188-189); -] ‘animal...’dýra 8/2

dœma (verb) [°-mð-] ‘judge...’dæmði 17/8

1egg (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)] ‘edge, blade...’ — 20/3, 20/5

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’einum 2/4

elding (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ar] ‘lightning...’eldingum 4/8

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’eldi 5/7, 3/3

4en (conj.) ‘than...’ — 20/5

2engi (pron.) ‘no, none...’Øngr 2/1

Engus (noun m.) ‘[Angus]...’ — 7/6

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’ — 17/7

1ey (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar] ‘island...’eyjar 7/4, eyjar 13/6

2eyða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘destroy...’Eyddu 13/5

eyðir (noun m.) ‘destroyer...’eyði 7/8

fagr (adj.) [°fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr] ‘fair, beautiful...’fögru 15/6

falla (verb) ‘fall...’fellu 10/7, Fellu 11/5

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’Fekk 14/5

2feginn (adj.) [°compar. fegnari, superl. fegnastr] ‘glad, happy...’fegnir 12/6

feigr (adj.) [°compar. -ari/ri] ‘fated to die, fey, dead...’feigir 11/6

fellir (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i] ‘slayer, feller...’felli 14/6

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 4/5, 10/1

festr (noun f.) [°dat. & acc. -i; -ar/-ir] ‘mooring, betrothal...’festum 15/8

Finnbyggð (noun f.) ‘settlements of Saami ...’Finnbygðum 1/4

fjándi (noun m.) [°-a; fjándr/fjándar/fjándir] ‘enemy, devil...’fjandr 10/7

2fjǫl (noun n.) ‘very...’fjöl 16/2

fjǫr (noun n.) ‘life...’fjör 6/1, fjör 18/5

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’ — 15/7

fleinn (noun m.) [°dat. fleini] ‘spear...’flein 11/5, fleins 2/4

fleiri (adj. comp.) [°superl. flestr] ‘more, most...’ — 2/3

fleygr (adj.) ‘flying...’ — 10/8

flokkr (noun m.) ‘group, flock...’flokka 4/6

2flug (noun n.) ‘flight, ?precipice...’ — 2/3

flugskjarr (adj.) ‘[flight-shy]...’flugskjarrir 13/2

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’foldar 5/7

folkrakkr (adj.) ‘battle-brave...’fólkrakki 14/5

fram (adv.) ‘out, forth, forwards, away...’ — 15/2

frammi (adv.) ‘forth...’ — 18/6

friðr (noun m.) ‘peace...’frið 8/6, frið 10/1

friðskerðir (noun m.) ‘peace-diminisher...’friðskerðis 4/5

fróðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘wise...’fróði 12/1, 6/2

frónlæstr (adj.) ‘[land-secured]...’frónlæstum 15/7

frægr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str] ‘famous, renowned...’fræg 10/2

fúss (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘eager, willing...’fúsa 16/1

fylla (verb) ‘fill...’Fylduz 18/5

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 7/7

fyrstr (num. ordinal) ‘first...’Fyst 6/1

fœðir (noun m.) ‘feeder, nourisher...’fæðis 14/3

2fœra (verb) ‘bring...’Færðu 8/5

1galli (noun m.) ‘destruction...’ — 11/4

gammr (noun m.) ‘vulture...’gammar 18/6

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’Gekk 19/5, Gengu 9/1

garðr (noun m.) ‘enclosure, yard...’garða 8/4, garði 2/8

Gautelfr (noun f.) ‘[Götaälv]...’Gautelfi 1/7

2Gautr (noun m.) ‘Gautr, Óðinn...’Gauta 17/7

geðrakkr (adj.) ‘[valiant]...’geðrakka 19/5

geðstirðr (adj.) ‘mind-strong...’geðstirðir 14/4

geðstrangr (adj.) ‘[mind-strong]...’geðstrangir 9/1

gefa (verb) ‘give...’gaf 7/5

1gegn (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str] ‘reliable...’gegnir 9/7

geirr (noun m.) ‘spear...’geir 13/6, geira 1/3

Gestill (noun m.) ‘Gestill...’Gestils 3/2

gjald (noun n.) ‘payment, reward, return...’gjöld 6/3

gjalfr (noun n.) [°-s] ‘surge, waves...’gjálfr 1/7, gjálfr 3/1, gjálfrs 16/7

gjǫrningr (noun m.) ‘[sorceries]...’gjörningum 15/4

glóð (noun f.) ‘ember...’ — 5/8

glygg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘storm...’glyggs 1/4

glymja (verb) ‘resound...’Glumði 3/1

glymr (noun m.) ‘noise...’glym 1/3

grand (noun n.) ‘injury...’ — 16/8

greypr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘cruel...’greypa 17/5

griðmildr (adj.) ‘generous with peace ...’griðmildi 6/3

grund (noun f.) ‘earth, land...’grundar 16/7

guðleiðr (adj.) ‘[godforsaken]...’guðleiðum 10/4

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle...’gunn 14/6, gunn 19/4, gunn 20/4

gætir (noun m.) ‘guardian...’ — 6/4, gætis 1/8, gætis 9/2, gætis 19/6

haf (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘sea...’ — 5/3, 11/3

hafstraumr (noun m.) ‘[sea-currents]...’hafstrauma 4/7

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’heldu 5/3, Helt 7/1

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’ — 2/8

hauss (noun m.) [°hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar] ‘skull...’hausa 8/6

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’ 1/2, hæstum 5/5

hásæti (noun n.) ‘high-seat...’hásæta 1/8, hásæta 19/6

hefna (verb) ‘avenge...’ — 18/8

heimr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘home, abode; world...’heims 4/7

heitr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘hot, ardent...’ — 11/3

herðir (noun m.) ‘sword...’herði 6/8

herfenginn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘captured in battle ...’herfengna 7/6

herferð (noun f.) ‘military campaign...’herferðir 14/1

2herja (verb) ‘harry, ravage...’Herðu 14/1

herklæða (verb) ‘[war-clad]...’herklæddan 6/7

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 2/7, her 11/8, her 16/3, her 16/6, her 17/8, her 19/3, hersar 19/4

herskatni (noun m.) ‘[war-men]...’herskatnar 13/8

hestr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘horse, stallion...’hestum 3/2

hirð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)] ‘retinue...’ — 19/7

hirðr (adj.) ‘[protected]...’hirða 8/5

1hjaldr (noun m.) ‘battle...’hjaldri 19/8

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjálm 8/5

hjǫrr (noun m.) ‘sword...’hjör 10/5

hjǫrstœrðr (adj.) ‘[sword-swelled]...’hjörstærðum 19/7

2hlaða (verb) ‘heap, pile...’Hlóðu 18/1

hraðmæltr (adj.) ‘[quick-spoken]...’hraðmælti 7/1

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’ — 10/6

hregg (noun n.) ‘storm...’ — 16/3

2hreinn (adj.) [°compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr] ‘pure...’hrein 5/5

hreyfa (verb) ‘gloat...’Hreyfðiz 10/5

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hring 18/7, hringa 4/8, hringa 7/2, hrings 18/2

hríð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘time, storm...’hríðar 2/7, hríðar 16/4, hríðar 17/4, hríðar 20/5

Hroptr (noun m.) ‘[Hroptr, Hroptar]...’Hroptum 12/4

2hrókr (noun m.) ‘cormorant...’hróka 9/6

2hryggr (adj.) [°-van/-jan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri; superl. -astr] ‘sorrowful, sad...’hryggs 14/2

1hræddr (adj.) ‘afraid...’hrædd 6/7

hugprúðr (adj.) ‘proud...’hugprúðir 18/1

húfr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘hull...’húfum 5/4

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’ — 18/7

1hǫfn (noun f.) [°hafnar; hafnir(/hafnar(Streng 234³²)] ‘haven, harbour...’höfn 5/6

hǫlðr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘man...’hölða 19/3

1hǫll (noun f.) [°hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir] ‘hall...’hallar 11/4

Ingi (noun m.) ‘king, Ingi...’inga 15/4

2inn (art.) ‘the...’in 15/6, in 19/5, 6/3, 7/1, 12/1, 14/5, 17/3

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 2/4, 7/4, 10/8, 13/7, 14/2, 17/5, 20/2

Íl (noun f.) ‘Islay...’ — 7/7

ítrból (noun n.) ‘[splendid lair]...’ítrbóla 7/7

járnfaldinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[iron-hooded]...’járnfaldin 19/8

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jöfrar 8/7

jǫrð (noun f.) [°jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)] ‘ground, earth...’jarð 1/5, jarðir 8/4

kapp (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength, vigour, courage...’ — 19/1

1klyfja (verb) ‘[cleaves, cloven]...’klufðu 10/5

2kveðja (verb) ‘say, greet...’Kvöddu 19/1

kærir (noun m.) ‘[litigator]...’kæris 19/2

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landa 2/6, landa 5/2

lauss (adj.) [°compar. lausari] ‘loose, free, without...’lausir 8/6

lábrostinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[wave-bursting]...’ — 15/5

leið (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar] ‘path, way...’leiðir 7/3

lestir (noun m.) ‘damager, destroyer...’lestis 15/8

1leygr (noun m.) ‘flame...’leygs 7/4

leysa (verb) ‘release, loosen, redeem...’Leysti 5/1, Leysti 15/5, leystum 6/1

liðfastr (adj.) ‘staunch...’liðföstum 4/1

líf (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘life...’ — 11/4

lífdvǫl (noun f.) ‘[life duration]...’lífdvalar 14/8

ljómi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘light, beam...’ljóma 4/4

ljóss (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bright...’ljósum 4/2

2ljósta (verb) ‘strike...’Laust 4/1

lof (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘praise, leave, permission...’ — 17/6

log (noun n.) [°; -] ‘flame...’ — 9/4

2lómr (noun m.) ‘deceit...’lóm 2/5

1lundr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘grove, tree...’lundum 20/6

lykja (verb) ‘lock up, enclose...’Lukði 2/5

2lýsa (verb) ‘illuminate, show...’Lýstiz 5/5

lǫgr (noun m.) [°lagar, dat. legi] ‘sea...’lög 5/1, lög 7/3, lögr 15/6

magna (verb) ‘strengthen, increase...’magnat 16/2

margfréttinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[very inquisitive]...’ — 15/1

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 16/6

1mót (noun n.) [°; -] ‘meeting...’móti 20/1

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’man 18/7

mœta (verb) ‘meet...’Mætti 15/1

mæti (noun n.) [°; -] ‘precious thing...’mæta 9/2

mǫgnuðr (noun m.) ‘increaser...’magnaðr 12/2

nafnfrægr (adj.) ‘[renowned]...’nafnfrægjum 3/4

nesþjóð (noun f.) ‘[Ness-people]...’Nesþjóðum 6/2

Njǫrðr (noun m.) ‘Njǫrðr...’Nirði 18/4

norð- ((prefix)) ‘northern, Norwegian...’norð 6/4

norðmœrr (noun m.) ‘[Norðmærir]...’Norðmæra 19/2

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 3/3, 3/7, 4/7, 5/3, 8/3, 9/3, 10/6, 16/1, 20/3

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 2/8, 10/2

opt (adv.) ‘often...’optar 12/4

ormr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘serpent...’orm 2/1

orrusta (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘battle...’orrostu 12/3

ó- ((prefix)) ‘un-...’ó 11/2, ó 12/6, ó 20/3

ógn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘terror, battle...’ — 8/3

ógnfallinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[terror-struck]...’ógnfallin 6/5

óhræddr (adj.) ‘unafraid...’óhræddir 13/5

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 1/4, 15/7

ósjaldan (adv.) ‘Not seldom, repeatedly...’ — 14/7

ósvifr (adj.) ‘[relentless]...’ósvifrum 8/7

ótti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘fear...’ótta 8/8, 2/2

óvæginn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[unsparing]...’óvægin 10/2

óþjóð (noun f.) ‘evildoer, evil tribe...’óþjóða 15/3

óþrotligr (adj.) ‘unceasing, indefatigable ...’óþrotlig 3/8

rauðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘red...’rauð 20/2, rauðum 5/8

rán (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘plunder, plundering...’ — 8/8

1reið (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar] ‘riding; chariot...’reiðar 3/6

2reka (verb) ‘drive, force...’rak 16/5

reyðr (noun f.) [°; -ar] ‘whale, rorqual...’reyðar 7/8

runnr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘bush, tree...’runnar 9/4

rýrir (noun m.) ‘diminsher, destroyer...’rýri 12/7

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’rand 2/8

2rǫst (noun f.) [°; gen. rasta] ‘current...’rastar 5/1

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ — 17/7

2sár (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘wound...’sárs 9/3

Sátíri (noun n.) ‘[Kintyre]...’ — 9/3

seðja (verb) ‘satisfy, satiate...’Söddu 9/5

4selja (verb) ‘hand over, sell, give...’seldum 18/5

senda (verb) ‘send...’Sendi 17/1

1sig (noun n.) ‘[battle]...’ — 3/7

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’ — 12/2

sigrflaust (noun n.) ‘[victory-vessels]...’sigrflaustum 1/6

sigrmætr (adj.) ‘[victory-glorious]...’sigrmæti 17/3

2síð (adv.) ‘late...’ — 17/4

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’ 2/1

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’ 11/7

skaut (noun n.) [°; -] ‘sail...’ — 15/6

skautvænn (adj.) ‘[sail-fair]...’skautvænum 3/5

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’skeiðum 3/6

2skeið (noun n.) [°; -] ‘race, course...’ — 3/2

skerðir (noun m.) ‘diminisher...’ — 17/2, skerðis 10/1

skipstafn (noun m.) ‘[ship-prows]...’skipstöfnum 5/6

skíð (noun n.) [°; -] ‘ski...’skíðum 2/7, skíðum 7/3, skíðum 11/7, skíðum 16/4

skína (verb) ‘shine...’Skein 3/5

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skjöldu 16/6

Skotland (noun n.) ‘[Scotland]...’Skotlandi 9/8, Skotlandi 16/8

1skozkr (adj.) ‘Scottish...’skoskir 20/8

skynja (verb) ‘learn, understand...’skyndu 20/7

ský (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘cloud...’ — 20/7

snarlyndr (adj.) ‘quick-witted...’snarlynda 17/1

snotr (adj.) ‘wise...’snotrum 3/8

sókn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘attack, fight...’ — 1/1, sóknar 9/6

sól (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘sun...’ — 3/7

2spjall (noun n.) [°; -*] ‘destruction, loss...’spelli 14/6

spjót (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘spear...’ — 12/4

1staðr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s; -ir] ‘place...’stað 2/4

standa (verb) ‘stand...’Stóð 8/1

stefnir (noun m.) ‘commander...’stefni 18/8

stiklir (noun m.) ‘thrower, dispenser ...’ — 15/2

stillir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’stillis 10/7

stórbyggð (noun f.) ‘[large settlements]...’stórbygðir 14/2

stórr (adj.) ‘large, great...’stór 6/6, stórum 18/3

stórráðr (adj.) ‘ambitious...’stórráðum 8/1

strandleið (noun f.) ‘[beach-paths]...’strandleiðir 13/4

2styðja (verb) ‘protect, support...’studda 19/1

stýrandi (noun m.) [°-a; -endr] ‘ruler, steerer...’ — 5/2

stýrir (noun m.) ‘ruler, controller...’stýri 8/2

stœra (verb) ‘increase, strengthen...’stærðan 12/5

stœrir (noun m.) ‘increaser...’stæri 1/3, stæris 2/3

1suðr (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[southern, the]...’ — 7/4

2suðr (adv.) ‘south, in the south...’ — 11/7

Suðreyjar (noun f.) ‘[Hebrides]...’Suðreyjum 10/8

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 9/4

svanr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘swan...’svan 11/6

svartklæddr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[black-coated]...’svartklædda 9/5

sveigir (noun m.) ‘brandisher...’sveigis 13/1

sveit (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘host, company...’ — 17/3, sveitir 1/2

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’sverða 17/2

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sóttir 11/8, Sóttu 1/1

sætr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘[seat, settlements]...’sætra 6/4, sætrum 11/3

2taka (verb) ‘take...’tók 6/1

tamiðr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘accustomed, tamed...’tömðum 3/1

teigr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ar, acc. -a/-u] ‘field, land...’teigar 11/6

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 17/4

tjald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘tent, awning...’tjalda 20/4

tún (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘homefield, enclosure...’túnum 20/2

undan (adv.) ‘away, away from...’ — 20/6

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 7/5, 16/5

úr (noun n.) ‘drizzle, spray, sea...’ — 8/3

útstrǫnd (noun f.) ‘outer shore...’útstrandir 2/6

útver (noun n.) ‘[fishing-stations]...’útverja 12/8

vald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength, power...’völdum 6/6

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’val 4/2, val 18/6

valtafn (noun n.) ‘[slaughter-food]...’valtafni 10/6

vargr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’varg 14/3

vatn (noun n.) [°-s; -*] ‘water, lake...’vatni 13/8

várr (pron.) [°f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir] ‘our...’várir 18/3

2vegr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -] ‘honour...’veg 4/4, veg 9/2, veg 18/3, vegs 13/7

velja (verb) ‘choose...’valðir 19/3

vengi (noun n.) ‘land, field...’vengis 2/1

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’var 4/5, var 6/5, var 11/3

2vers (noun n.) [°vers; -] ‘[verse]...’versum 19/4

1vestr (noun n.) [°-s/-] ‘[western]...’ — 8/4

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 6/7, 12/7

2vinda (verb) ‘wind, twist...’undit 16/7

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’vann 10/1

virðr (noun m.) ‘man...’virðar 14/4, virðar 18/4

1víða (adv.) ‘widely...’ — 14/3

víðr (adj.) ‘far...’víð 13/7

víðþinguðr (noun m.) ‘[assembly-convener]...’viðþingaðr 7/2

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’ — 20/6

vígdrótt (noun f.) ‘battle-retinue...’vígdróttir 2/2

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’þegnar 12/6

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’þengils 17/6

þeyr (noun m.) [°; -jar/-ir] ‘breeze, thawing wind...’þeyjum 13/6

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’þingi 18/2

þollr (noun m.) ‘fir-tree...’þollar 11/5

þora (verb) ‘dare...’Þorðut 12/5

þrekr (noun m.) ‘powerful...’þrek 12/5

Þundr (noun m.) ‘Þundr...’Þundar 20/7

þveginn (adj.) ‘[washed]...’þvegnar 8/3

þverrir (noun m.) ‘dminisher...’þverris 18/7

2ægir (noun m.) ‘ocean, sea...’ægis 3/4

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’aldar 20/4, aldir 5/3, öld 6/6, öld 16/6, öldum 14/7

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