Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigvatr Þórðarson (Sigv)

11th century; volume 1; ed. Judith Jesch;

II. Bersǫglisvísur (Berv) - 18

Skj info: Sigvatr Þórðarson, Islandsk skjald, o. 995-o. 1045 (AI, 223-75, BI, 213-54).

Skj poems:
1. Víkingarvísur
2. Nesjavísur
3. Austrfararvísur
4. En drape om kong Olaf
5. Vestrfararvísur
6. Et kvad om Erlingr Skjalgsson
7. Flokkr om Erlingr Skjalgsson
8. Tryggvaflokkr
9. Et digt om dronning Astrid
10. Knútsdrápa
11. Bersǫglisvísur
12. Erfidrápa Óláfs helga
13. Lausavísur
14. Et par halvvers af ubestemmelige digte

Sigvatr or Sighvatr Þórðarson (Sigv) is said (ÍF 27, 54) to have been the son of Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’, an Icelander who served, in succession, Sigvaldi jarl Strút-Haraldsson, leader of the Jómsvíkingar, his brother Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’, who campaigned in England, and Óláfr Haraldsson, later king of Norway (r. c. 1015-30) and saint. Þórðr is listed as one of Sigvaldi’s skalds in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 259, 268), but none of his poetry survives. The family tradition of poetry can also be traced in Óttarr svarti ‘the Black’, said to have been Sigvatr’s sister’s son (ÍF 27, 144; ÓH 1941, I, 203). Sigvatr was brought up by a certain Þorkell, at Apavatn in south-west Iceland. When nearly fully grown he sailed to what is now Trondheim, where he met up with his father and joined King Óláfr’s retinue. According to Snorri (ÍF 27, 54-6; ÓH 1941, I, 81-3), Sigvatr recited Lv 2-3 at this time, and he interceded with the king on behalf of Icelandic merchants forced to pay a heavy tax in Norway (cf. Sigv Lv 4). It is also likely that this is when Þórðr provided Sigvatr with the material for Víkv (see Introduction to Sigv Víkv), which may be the poem referred to in the prose introduction to Sigv Lv 2 (Fidjestøl 1982, 118). There is no evidence that Sigvatr ever returned to Iceland, and according to the anecdote in which Sigv Lv 11 is preserved, he died on the island of Selja in north-western Norway and was buried at Kristskirkja (Kristkirken) in Trondheim. His poetry records his various journeys to Sweden, England and the Continent, as well as incidents in Norway. We know nothing of Sigvatr’s private life, except that he had a daughter called Tófa, who had King Óláfr himself as her godfather (Sigv Lv 19).

Sigvatr’s surviving poetic oeuvre is both large and remarkably diverse, encompassing different kinds of encomia not only on King Óláfr (Sigv Víkv, Sigv Nesv, Sigv Óldr, Sigv ErfÓl), but also on King Knútr of Denmark (Sigv Knútdr) and the Norwegian nobleman Erlingr Skjálgsson (Sigv Erl, Sigv Erlfl). Sigvatr was godfather to King Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and composed some avuncular words of advice to the boy-king (Sigv BervII). All of these patrons are recognised in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 252-4, 258, 260-2, 269), where Sigvatr is also credited with having composed for the Swedish king Ǫnundr Óláfsson (although no such poetry survives, cf. Sigv Knútdr 4/6) and the Norwegian chieftain Ívarr inn hvíti ‘the White’ (cf. Context to Sigv Lv 8). Sigvatr also composed a poem on the Norwegian pretender Tryggvi Óláfsson (Sigv Tryggfl) and is unique in having composed in dróttkvætt in praise of a woman, Óláfr Haraldsson’s widow Ástríðr Óláfsdóttir (Sigv Ást). Several of Sigvatr’s poems are more or less loosely connected sequences of stanzas rather than more formal compositions, and encompass both travelogue (Sigv Austv) and political commentary (Sigv Vestv, Sigv BervII). The latter genre is also well represented in his lausavísur, which also include some remarkably personal stanzas expressing his grief at the death of King Óláfr (Sigv Lv 22-4). Sigvatr’s status as a hǫfuðskáld ‘chief skald’ was recognised in the twelfth century (cf. Esk Geisl 12/8VII). His versatility as a poet has clearly inspired a number of anecdotes focusing on the composition of poetry, mostly of doubtful authenticity (cf. Contexts to Sigv Lv 1, 8, 11, 27; also Introduction to Ótt Hfl). Apart from two fragments preserved in SnE (Sigv Frag 1-2III), Sigvatr’s poetry is transmitted in a wide range of texts within the tradition of the kings’ sagas and is therefore edited in this volume or (in the case of the late Sigv Berv) in SkP II. For general studies of Sigvatr’s life and works, see Paasche (1917), Hollander (1940) and Petersen (1946).

Bersǫglisvísur (‘Plain-speaking Vísur’) — Sigv BervII

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Sigvatr Þórðarson, Bersǫglisvísur’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 11-30.

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Skj: Sigvatr Þórðarson: 11. Bersǫglisvísur, o. 1038 (AI, 251-6, BI, 234-9); stanzas (if different): 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 13 | 15 | 18

in texts: Ágr, Flat, Fsk, Gramm, H-Hr, Hkr, MGóð, MH, ÓH, ÓTOdd, Skm, SnE, TGT

SkP info: II, 11-30

notes: ms. refs separated from first cards. In Magnúss saga ins góða.

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-eggr (adj.)eggjum 2/6

-leifð (noun f.) ‘[mony]...’leifð 14/8

-ligr (adj.) ‘-ly...’ligt 15/4

2-orðr (adj.) ‘-worded...’orðr 13/5

-sǫgli (noun f.) ‘[speaking]...’sǫgli 9/4

(non-lexical) (unclassified)* 18/3, kon 2/4, ung 2/8, ungs 2/4

Aðalsteinn (noun m.) ‘[Æthelstan]...’Aðalsteins 5/8

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 5/7, 6/3, 6/8, 8/5

aldr (noun m.) [°aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar] ‘life, age...’ — 16/6

aldri (adv.) ‘never...’ — 13/8

allr (adj.) ‘all...’alla 7/3, allan 16/5, allir 12/1, allt 4/2, allts 15/4, ǫllu 17/7

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 9/8

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’ǫnnur 9/8

aptann (noun m.) [°aftans, dat. aftni; aftnar] ‘evening...’aptans 15/2

arfi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘heir, heiress...’ — 6/5

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 1/3, 12/4, 14/7

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 1/1

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 4/8, 11/4, 13/2, 13/7

aumr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘wretched, poor...’auman 18/1

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 7/2

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 1/1, 3/5, 5/1, 5/5, 8/4, 12/7, 13/4, 14/3, 16/7

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 11/6, 12/2

bak (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘back...’ — 13/4

báðir (pron.) [°gen. beggja (báðra), nom./acc. n. bǽði] ‘both...’beggja 17/8

1ben (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)] ‘wound...’benja 10/5

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’bar 16/5, bark 8/5

2berja (verb) [°barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn] ‘fight...’berjask 1/4, bǫrðusk 4/3

2berr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bare...’ber 9/4

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’biðk 15/1

bíða (verb) [°bíðr; beið, biðu; beðit] ‘wait, suffer, experience...’ — 15/2

bjóða (verb) [°býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)] ‘offer, order, invite...’bauð 2/2, býðr 10/6

blíðr (adj.) [°n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘gentle, happy...’blíðs 5/6

bragningr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘prince, ruler...’bragningi 11/6

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’brugðumk 8/6

burr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘son...’ — 7/7

1 (noun n.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(Landsl 39ˆ, DN III (1367) 279¹‡, DN XII (*1348›AM 902 a) 73³⁰); -] ‘homestead...’ — 11/2

búandi (noun m.) [°-a; búendr (bøendr var. ÓH 47¹²: AM 325 VII 4° “325 VII”), dat. búǫndum/búandum/búendum] ‘farmer, resident...’búendr 5/8, búendr 9/6, búendr 14/4

búmaðr (noun m.) [°; ·menn, gen. ·manna] ‘farmer...’búmenn 10/8

1deyja (verb) [°deyr; dó, dó(u); dá(i)nn] ‘die...’ — 15/8

digr (adj.) [°digran; compar. digrari, superl. digrastr] ‘fat, large...’digra 16/3

dolgr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ar] ‘enemy, battle...’dolga 8/2

dómr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix)...’dómi 14/7

drjúgr (adj.) [°compar. -ari (drýgari [$1033$] „ ms. 56v‰, superl. -astr] ‘very, excessive...’drjúg 16/3

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’dróttin 2/2, 14/2, dróttins 9/3, dróttins 16/4, dróttni 8/8

dyggr (adj.) [°dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str] ‘trustworthy...’ — 6/6

dýrð (noun f.) [°-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir] ‘glory...’dýrða 16/2, dýrðar 9/3

dǫglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’ — 9/4

3ef (conj.) ‘if...’ — 1/4

eggja (verb) [°-að-] ‘urge...’eggjar 11/1, eggjar 13/1

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 8/6

eign (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘property...’ — 14/3, eignum 6/3

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’ — 7/3, Eitt 14/1

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’ — 8/7, k 16/5, mér 17/6, mik 16/1

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 2/3, 4/5, 5/3, 10/6

4en (conj.) ‘than...’enn 17/7

endr (adv.) ‘formerly, once, again...’ — 9/7

2engi (pron.) ‘no, none...’Engr 11/5

2enn (adv.) ‘still, yet, again...’ — 5/7

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 3/1, es 7/2, es 7/6, es 12/3, hinns 14/5, s 2/1, s 3/6, s 6/7, s 10/2, s 10/5, s 12/1, s 12/5, þats 14/1

erfð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘inheritance...’erfðir 4/8

1ey (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar] ‘island...’ — 15/8

eygr (adj.) ‘eyed...’eygjum 2/6

eyra (noun n.) [°eyra; eyru/eyrun, gen. eyrna] ‘ear...’eyru 8/3

faðir (noun m.) ‘father...’ — 4/4, feðr 3/4, feðrum 17/5, Fǫður 8/1, fǫður 14/8

fagna (verb) [°-að-] ‘welcome, rejoice...’fagni 17/4

falla (verb) ‘fall...’ — 2/5, fell 5/1

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’fer 1/4, ferr 10/2, Fǫrum 1/5, Fórk 17/5, fóru 8/4

fastr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘firm, fast...’fast 5/5, Fast 13/5

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fekk 2/3, fekk 17/6

2feginn (adj.) [°compar. fegnari, superl. fegnastr] ‘glad, happy...’fegnir 3/3

2fela (verb) ‘hide...’folgin 8/2

feldr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i; -ir] ‘cloak...’feldi 12/6

felli (noun n.) ‘[felling, toppling]...’ — 14/7

fengr (noun m.) [°-jar/-s, dat. -/-i] ‘loot...’feng 13/6

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 4/3

(noun n.) [°fjár/féar; -] ‘cattle, money...’ — 3/2

firar (noun m.) ‘men...’ — 5/4

Fitjar (noun f.) ‘Fitjar...’Fitjum 5/1

2fjǫl (noun n.) ‘very...’ — 5/2, 5/6

flaumr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘eddy...’flaums 14/7

flokkr (noun m.) ‘group, flock...’flokki 3/8

flotnar (noun m.) ‘mariners...’flotna 16/8, 4/3

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 1/3, 6/2, 7/8

fóstri (noun m.) ‘foster-brother, foster-father, foster-so...’fóstra 5/5

fram (adv.) ‘out, forth, forwards, away...’framm 4/8

frama (verb) ‘promote, advance...’framask 16/2

2fránn (adj.) ‘bright, shining...’frán 2/6

1fregna (verb) ‘hear of...’ — 8/1, fregnisk 7/4, Fregnk 1/1

freista (verb) ‘attempt, tempt...’ — 1/3

fremja (verb) ‘advance, perform...’ — 1/3

fresta (verb) ‘[delay]...’ — 1/3

friðr (noun m.) ‘peace...’frið 3/3, frið 6/4

2fullr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘full, complete...’Full 2/5, full 4/6

fundra (verb) ‘[ponder]...’ — 1/8

1fylgja (noun f.) ‘follower; fetch...’fylgju 3/1

2fylgja (verb) ‘follow, accompany...’Fylgðak 3/1

2fyrðr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -] ‘man...’fyrða 13/5

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’ — 13/2, Gekk 4/1

garðr (noun m.) ‘enclosure, yard...’garði 17/2

gefa (verb) ‘give...’gaf 2/7, gef 18/2, gôfu 6/4

1gegn (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str] ‘reliable...’ — 5/2

2gegnir (noun m.) ‘[promoter]...’ — 11/2

gegnum (prep.) ‘through...’gǫgnum 4/2

gjafi (noun m.) ‘giver...’gjafar 9/1

gjalt (noun n.) ‘[pay]...’ — 10/1

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 1/2, gram 2/1, gram 3/2

grár (adj.) [°gráan/grán] ‘grey...’grônum 2/6

greifi (noun m.) ‘count...’greifum 14/8

greypr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘cruel...’Greypt 12/5

grund (noun f.) ‘earth, land...’ — 1/8

gull (noun n.) ‘gold...’goll 2/2, Goll 16/5, golls 17/7

gumi (noun m.) [°-a; gumar/gumnar] ‘man...’gumnum 2/1

gǫfugr (adj.) [°gǫfgan/gǫfugan; compar. gǫfgari/gǫfugri, superl. gǫfgastr/gǫfugstr/gǫfugastr] ‘noble, glorious...’gǫfgir 14/4

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 7/6, 9/5, hafði 11/5, hefr 1/2, hefr 12/7

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’haldask 6/5, halt 18/3, helt 5/5

halr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘man...’hal 3/5

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’hans 16/6, 2/3, hans 1/8, hans 3/8, hônum 5/3, þeim 3/1, þeira 17/5

Haraldr (noun m.) ‘Haraldr...’Haralds 6/5, Haralds 15/7

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’hart 4/5

1harri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘lord...’ — 13/1

1haukr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘hawk...’hauk 15/8

haust (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘autumn...’ — 7/2

Hákon (noun m.) ‘Hákon...’Hôkun 5/4

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’ 15/4

hárr (adj.) ‘grey...’hárir 12/3

heðra (adv.) ‘here...’ — 10/2

hegna (verb) ‘punish...’ — 5/2, 7/4

4heiðr (adj.) ‘bright...’heiðan 7/5

heift (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘hatred, enmity...’heiptar 5/3, heiptar 13/2

3heill (adj.) [°heilan; compar. heilli, superl. -astr/-str] ‘healthy, hale, hail...’heilum 8/5

heit (noun n.) [°; -] ‘promise...’ — 13/7

2heita (verb) ‘be called, promise...’Hét 5/1, hézt 9/8

heldr (adv.) ‘rather...’ — 12/6

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 3/5, 9/6, 11/8

2heyra (verb) ‘hear...’heyrðu 8/3, heyrik 12/3

himinn (noun m.) [°himins, dat. himni; himnar] ‘heaven, sky...’Himin 7/5

hizig (adv.) ‘there, thither...’hizig 17/1

1hjaldr (noun m.) ‘battle...’ — 13/8

2hjaldr (noun n.) ‘battle...’ — 11/2

hjarta (noun n.) [°-; *-u] ‘heart...’hjǫrtu 4/5

hjǫrr (noun m.) ‘sword...’hjǫrvi 3/5, hjǫrvi 15/7

2hlið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘gate...’ — 3/6

2hlýða (verb) ‘hear, listen; be able...’hlýðið 10/6

hneppa (verb) ‘[hang]...’hneppta 12/5

hollr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘loyal...’hollum 2/2

2hóf (noun n.) [°-s; gen. -a] ‘moderation, reason...’hófi 10/3

2hót (noun n.) [°; -] ‘a bit...’ — 12/4

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’hrǫfnum 2/3

hraustr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘strong, valiant...’hraustan 1/6

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hringum 1/7, hringum 16/4

hrís (noun n.) [°; -] ‘[brushwood, brush]...’hrísi 3/7

2hryggr (adj.) [°-van/-jan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri; superl. -astr] ‘sorrowful, sad...’hryggr 16/7

hræ (noun n.) [°; -] ‘corpse, carrion...’ — 2/4

hrœsinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘boastful...’ — 3/7

hugr (noun m.) ‘mind, thought, courage...’hugr 17/1, hug 4/6, hug 8/6

hvar (adv.) ‘where...’ — 6/6

hvat (pron.) ‘what...’ — 10/8

hvatr (adj.) [°-ari, -an; -astr] ‘keen, brave...’ — 1/2

hvárrtveggi (pron.) ‘both...’hvárritveggju 16/7

1hverfa (verb) ‘turn, disappear...’ — 4/8

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’ — 11/1, 13/1, hvert 8/5

hvé (adv.) ‘how...’ — 1/7, 8/4

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’hykk 6/1, hykk 11/7

hœfr (adj.) ‘proper, fitting...’hœfir 13/7

1hæll (noun m.) [°hǽls, dat. hǽli; hǽlar] ‘heel...’hæl 3/5

hættr (adj.) [°compar. -ari/-ri, superl. -astr] ‘dangerous...’Hætts 12/1

hǫfuð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘head...’hǫfðum 12/5

hǫggva (verb) ‘to strike, put to death, cut, hew...’ — 11/1

hǫlðr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘man...’hǫlða 10/4

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’hendi 16/8, 10/3, hǫndum 7/8

Hǫrðaknútr (noun m.) ‘Hǫrðaknútr...’Hǫrðaknúts 17/2

2inn (art.) ‘the...’ — 4/1, ins 16/3

innan (prep.) ‘inside, within...’ — 11/4

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 1/5, 3/6, 4/2, 9/7, 10/3, 12/6, 14/6, 17/2

jafn (adj.) [°comp. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘even, just...’jǫfn 6/8

jafnt (adv.) ‘constantly, always...’ — 16/5

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’jarla 6/2

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfra 4/7, jǫfra 16/1, jǫfri 11/3, jǫfurs 8/2

jǫrð (noun f.) [°jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)] ‘ground, earth...’ — 7/4

karl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘(old) man...’ — 6/2

kerska (noun f.) [°-u] ‘[valiant]...’kerska 2/5

kjósa (verb) ‘choose...’ — 6/1

knega (verb) ‘to know, understand, be able to...’knôttu 6/1

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’komt 7/2

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’ — 1/6, 9/2, 11/8, 17/4, konungs 2/8, konungs 14/8

kóngr (noun m.) ‘king...’kóng 1/6

krefja (verb) ‘request...’krafðir 7/6

kveða (verb) ‘say, recite...’ — 15/2, kveðask 9/5

1kvittr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir/-ar, acc. -u] ‘[rumour, chatter]...’kvitt 10/4

lag (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘layer; (pl.) law...’laga 18/4, lǫg 6/7, lǫg 9/5, lǫgum 5/6

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’ — 7/8, 9/6, landa 7/6, lands 11/4

lán (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘loan, gift...’lánar 8/8

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’Lát 18/1, lét 4/7, lét 6/5, lét 16/1, létk 8/1

leggja (verb) ‘put, lay...’leggr 14/2

2leiða (verb) [-dd] ‘lead; (-sk) grow tired...’leiðask 11/8

lengi (adv.) ‘for a long time...’ — 1/7

letja (verb) ‘deprive...’lattan 1/2

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’liði 4/4

lifa (verb) ‘live...’ — 15/8, lifðir 7/7

ljúga (verb) ‘lie...’ljúgi 9/5

lofði (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘man...’lofða 6/3

lofðungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, leader...’lofðungs 7/7

lystr (adj.) ‘eager...’lystir 1/6

lýðr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir] ‘one of the people...’lýðar 6/7

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’menn 12/3, menn 12/8, mǫnnum 9/8

2Magnús (noun m.) ‘Magnús...’ — 4/2, 15/5, 17/4, Magnúss 8/1

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’margan 2/7

1mál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘speech, matter...’ — 8/5, 14/1, mála 15/4, môl 18/3, môlum 13/4

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 1/1, 2/1, 3/5, 3/7, 7/1, 15/6, 16/4, 17/5, 17/7

meðal (prep.) ‘between...’ — 15/3

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’mátt 7/3

miðja (noun f.) [°-u] ‘the middle...’miðjum 3/6

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’mikla 4/1

mildr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘mild, gentle, gracious, generous...’ — 17/3, mildum 3/2, mildum 15/6

millum (prep.) ‘between...’ — 3/6

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’ — 14/2, mína 3/4

1minna (verb) ‘remind, remember, recall...’minnir 5/7

mjǫk (adv.) ‘very, much...’ — 17/3

1móðr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-] ‘courage...’móð 4/1

móti (prep.) ‘against...’ — 12/4

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mun 14/5

mútari (noun m.) ‘hawk...’mútaris 10/7

1mæla (verb) ‘speak, say...’ — 14/1

mǫgnuðr (noun m.) ‘increaser...’ — 13/8

nafn (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘name...’ — 2/3

nafni (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘namesake...’nǫfnum 6/8

2nema (conj.) ‘unless...’ — 9/5, 17/3

3niðr (adv.) ‘down...’ — 12/6

njóta (verb) ‘enjoy, use...’ — 18/1

Noregr (noun m.) ‘Norway...’Nóregs 18/2

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 3/3, 10/2, 18/1

nǫs (noun f.) [°; nasar/nasir] ‘nose, nostrils...’nǫsum 12/8

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 16/5

4of (particle) ‘(before verb)...’ — 10/4

ofrausn (noun f.) ‘excess of heroism...’ — 11/3

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 1/5, 5/2, 6/2, 6/6, 7/7, 12/6, 15/8, 16/6, 18/2

opt (adv.) ‘often...’ — 13/3

orð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘word...’ — 8/3, 9/3

orrusta (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘battle...’orrostu 1/3

óðal (noun n.) [°-s, dat. óð(a)li/óðrli; óðul, dat. óðlum/óðrlum] ‘(hereditary) property...’óðǫl 14/3

óframr (adj.) ‘cautious man, Óframr ...’óframs 15/3

Óláfr (noun m.) ‘Óláfr...’Ôláfar 6/4, Ôláfr 4/7, Ôláfr 16/1, Ôláfs 15/1

órýrr (adj.) ‘[not decreasing]...’ — 16/2

óskeggjaðr (adj.) ‘[beardless]...’ — 17/8

ótti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘fear...’ótta 8/8

ráð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘advice, plan, control, power...’ — 9/1

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’ — 12/2, ráðit 11/6, réð 4/7, réð 5/2

rán (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘plunder, plundering...’ — 5/3, 11/7, 14/5

4reiða (verb) ‘make angry...’reiðask 9/1

4reiðr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘angry...’reiðrs 11/8

rekkr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘man, champion...’rekkum 11/7

reyna (verb) ‘test, try, experience...’reynir 13/3

3réttr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘right, straight, direct...’Rétt 6/1

rjúfa (verb) ‘break...’ — 13/7

2ryðja (verb) ‘to clear (free) land...’ryðr 9/2

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ — 10/5, sás 5/1, þat 4/6, þat 7/2, þat 9/2, þat 11/3, þat 12/1, þat 12/5, þau 6/7, þaus 8/3, þeim 2/1, þeim 6/8, þeim 10/2, þess 1/8, þess 2/4, því 12/2, því 14/6, þvís 5/7

seggr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘man...’ — 14/5

seinn (adj.) [°seinan; compar. seinni, superl. seinstr/seinastr] ‘slow, late...’seinir 5/8

4selja (verb) ‘hand over, sell, give...’selr 14/6

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 18/3

sendir (noun m.) ‘sender, distributor...’sendis 16/8

senjórr (noun m.) ‘[Seigneur]...’sinjórr 18/4

Sighvatr (noun m.) ‘[Sigvatr, Sighvats]...’Sighvats 17/1

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’Sig 1/2

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sína 14/2, sína 14/5, sínu 4/4

2síð (adv.) ‘late...’ — 15/2

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 5/6

sjaldan (adv.) ‘seldom...’ — 16/6

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sák 2/5

skáld (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘poet...’skaldi 17/3

1skjalla (verb) ‘slam, bang...’skullu 4/6

skjǫldungr (noun m.) ‘king...’skjǫldungi 12/4

skulu (verb) ‘shall, should, must...’skal 1/7, skal 3/7, skal 10/3, skal 12/2, skulum 1/4, Skulut 9/1, skyli 13/5

2slá (verb) ‘strike, cut...’slegit 12/7

snúðr (noun m.) [°-ar; -ar] ‘fortune, favour...’snúðar 15/1

sonr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni] ‘son...’sonr 2/6, 6/6, Syni 15/1

standa (verb) ‘stand...’stóðk 3/6

1stál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘steel, weapon, prow...’stôl 13/4

stillir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 7/3

stinga (verb) ‘stab, poke...’ — 12/8

stórr (adj.) ‘large, great...’stórum 18/2

strangr (adj.) ‘strong...’ — 13/2

stytta (verb) ‘[be held back]...’ — 10/4

2suðr (adv.) ‘south, in the south...’ — 1/1

sund (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sound, strait; swimming...’sundum 9/7

svá (adv.) ‘so, thus...’ — 4/7, 6/2, 7/4, 11/5, 15/4, 18/3

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’sverðum 2/8

1svik (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘deceit, treachery; poison...’ — 8/4

sygn (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘one of the Sygnir...’Sygnum 1/1

1sýsla (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘work, job...’sýslu 4/6

sæll (adj.) ‘happy, blessed...’sælan 18/3, 13/6

sǫk (noun f.) [°sakar; sakar/sakir] ‘cause, offence...’ — 15/3

2taka (verb) ‘take...’tekit 7/8

tár (noun n.) [°; -] ‘tear...’ — 10/7

teitir (noun m.) ‘gladdener...’ — 10/7

telja (verb) ‘tell, count...’ — 14/6

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 1/8, 9/3, 10/8

traustr (adj.) ‘trusty...’traust 1/6

Tryggvi (noun m.) ‘Tryggvi...’Tryggva 6/6

tunga (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘tongue, language...’ — 17/6

2tvistr (adj.) ‘repentant, muted...’tvist 1/6

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’Ulfa 9/7

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ungum 17/6, 7/1, ungum 11/5

1unna (verb) ‘love...’unnu 5/4

út (adv.) ‘out(side)...’ — 14/6

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’val 2/7

2varða (verb) ‘defend...’varðar 15/7

vargr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’vargi 2/7

varhugi (noun m.) ‘[heed]...’varhuga 10/1

varmr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘warm...’varmra 10/5

vápn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weapon...’ — 2/3, vôpn 1/5

várr (pron.) [°f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir] ‘our...’ossum 8/7, ór 8/4

vel (adv.) ‘well, very...’ — 1/6, 3/4, 17/3

veltir (noun m.) ‘[rolling, Toppler]...’ — 10/1

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’es 17/1, eru 3/3, eru 5/7, Erum 15/5, es 11/3, es 14/1, s 12/5, vask 16/6, Vasat 3/5, Vask 2/1, vask 7/1, vask 17/7, vesa 13/6

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’urðu 16/3

3verja (verb) ‘defend...’Varði 4/5, verjum 1/5

verri (adj. comp.) ‘worse, worst...’ — 9/6

vér (pron.) [°gen. vár, dat./acc. oss] ‘we, us, our...’ — 15/5

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 4/1, 4/6, 9/4, 12/2, viðr 10/2

1viðr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i] ‘wood, tree...’við 3/8

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vildak 15/6, vildi 3/2, 10/8

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’ — 11/4

vinr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir] ‘friend...’Vinrs 10/5

2vit (pron.) ‘we two...’okkar 15/3

1vita (verb) ‘know...’vissa 8/7

væginn (adj.) ‘lenient, balanced...’vægnir 15/5

vǫrnuðr (noun m.) [°varnaðar, dat. varnaði] ‘[a warning]...’vǫrnuð 10/6

yðvarr (pron.) [°f. yður; pl. yðrir] ‘your...’yðrir 9/2

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 3/6, þars 4/3

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 7/5, 17/8

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’þegna 11/2, þegna 12/7, þegna 14/3, þegnar 3/3

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’ — 7/1, 13/6

þiggja (verb) ‘receive, get...’þôgu 6/7

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’ — 12/8, 16/4

þinn (pron.) [°f. þín, n. þitt] ‘your...’ — 4/4, þinna 18/4, þínum 3/4, þínum 11/7, þínum 13/3

þjokkva (verb) ‘[thick, make]...’ — 3/8

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 5/5

þjófr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘thief...’þjófs 10/3

2þokka (verb) — 3/8

þó (adv.) ‘though...’ — 1/4, 8/7

þunnr (adj.) ‘slender, thin...’þunn 13/4

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’þér 7/1, þér 13/8, þér 15/6, þik 11/1, þik 13/1, 9/8, 13/3, 15/7

þvít (conj.) ‘because, since...’ — 6/3, 8/6

2þykkja (verb) ‘seem, think...’þóttusk 7/5

þǫgn (noun f.) [°þagnar] ‘silence...’ — 12/7

ætla (verb) ‘intend, mean, think...’ — 12/1

ævi (noun f.) [°-/-ar] ‘life...’ — 2/4

ǫfga (verb) ‘[revolt]...’ǫfgask 14/4

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