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Rǫgnvaldr jarl and Hallr Þórarinsson (RvHbreiðm)

12th century;

III. Háttalykill (Hl) - 84

notes
No biography, so editor and volume are not set in this entry.

Háttalykill (‘The old key to verse-forms’) — RvHbreiðm HlIII

Kari Ellen Gade 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Rǫgnvaldr jarl and Hallr Þórarinsson, Háttalykill’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1001.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9-10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   67   68   69   70   71   72   73   74   75   76   77   78   79   80   81   82 

for reference only:  10x 

Skj: Rǫgnvaldr jarl og Hallr Þórarinsson: Háttalykill, o. 1145 (AI, 512-28, BI, 487-508); stanzas (if different): 1b | 2a | 2b | 3a | 3b | 4a | 4b | 5a | 5b | 6a | 6b | 7a | 7b | 8a | 8b | 9a | 9b | 10a | 10b | 11a | 11b | 12a | 12b | 13a | 13b | 14a | 14b | 15a | 15b | 16a | 16b | 17a | 17b | 18a | 18b | 19a | 19b | 20a | 20b | 21a | 21b | 22a | 22b | 23a | 23b | 24a | 24b | 25a | 25b | 26a | 26b | 27a | 27b | 28a | 28b | 29a | 29b | 30a | 30b | 31a | 31b | 32a | 32b | 33a | 33b | 34a | 34b | 35a | 35b | 36a | 36b | 37a | 37b | 38a | 38b | 39a | 39b | 40a | 40b | 41a | 41b

SkP info: III, 1001

notes: incomplete; in Orkn

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

1 Skyldr at skemmta
þykkik skǫtnum vesa,
þeims vilja nýtt mál nema.
Forn frœði
lætk framm of borin,
ef þér vilið heyrt hafa.
I feel I am obliged to entertain men who wish to learn useful sayings. I shall let ancient wisdom be declaimed, if you want to listen.
2 Barn at aldri
þykkik brǫgnum vesa,
þó hefk forn tíðendi fregin.
Sannligar sǫgur
þykkjumk ek …
fyr lǫngu liðnar.
I seem to men to be a child in age, yet I have heard ancient tidings. True tales I believe … long ago passed.
3
í framstafn
frœðis þessa.
ok mannbót
marga gerði.
… in the prow of this poem … and did many a manly deed.
4
… †arðar†
vatni blœtt
of vísa …
… †endi†
heiðar hvals
til hjarta …
… … bleeding with water above the leader … … to the heart of the whale of the heath [SERPENT] …
5
heiptbráðr taka náði
snyrtibyggð, þás seggir
… vegin …
naut illa þess stillir;
gunnar geymirunnar
gáttar … aðrir.
The wrath-quick one was able to seize the splendid settlement, when the men … slain … the ruler benefited badly from that; other tending-trees of the door of battle [SHIELD > WARRIORS] …
6 Ór skôru þá œrit
Atla menn til hvatla
harðir hjǫrva Nirðir
hjarta ógnarbjǫrtum.
Heldr Gunnari ldu
hjǫrþings framir bǫrvar
— hann fekk harma sinna —
hugbyggð vegins tyggja.
Atli’s men, the harsh Nirðir <gods> of swords [WARRIORS], then cut the heart much too quickly out of the battle-cheerful one [Hǫgni]. The aggressive trees of the sword-assembly [BATTLE > WARRIORS] praised very much the mind-settlement [HEART] of the slain lord to Gunnarr; he got [compensation] for his griefs.
7 Gunnarr réð grundu linna;
gætti vel digra mæta;
Faðmis láð fengu þjóðir
færi heldr, an skapligt væri.
Lestir réð loks at kasta
— lofðungs brǫgð ýtar sǫgðu —
urðar lax œskijǫrðu
út á Rín Fenris sútar.
Gunnarr governed the ground of snakes [GOLD]; he guarded the large treasures well; rather fewer people received Faðmir’s <serpent’s> land [GOLD] than was fitting. The destroyer of the sorrow [GLADDENER] of Fenrir <wolf> [WARRIOR] finally decided to throw the desired earth of the salmon of the rocky slope [SERPENT > GOLD] out into the Rhine; men recounted the ruses of the ruler.
8 Atli tók ǫðling frœknan
— es svá rétt saga þessi —
— eptir frá alnar driptum —
ekki mjúkr sonum Gjúka*.
Leggja bað í linnum byggðan
lǫgði*s hrjóð †fram† …
byggðar vǫrðr bǫðvarharðan
bauga †ga† …
Atli, not gentle to the sons of Gjúki <legendary king> [= Gunnar and Hǫgni], seized the brave prince; he asked about the snow-drifts of the arm [SILVER]; thus this tale is right. The guardian of the settlement [Atli] ordered the battle-hard destroyer of the sword [WARRIOR] to be placed … … in the snake-settled … of rings … …
9-10 Heldr vas Helgi mildr
hjǫrva … ok gegn;
háði hjalms við þjóð
†hin† …
gerðisk geira harðr
gnýr, en †ordo† …
… flaug
bǫðvar tungl á stǫð;

hvít klofnaði rít;
blóði …
… fekk gagn;
veitti vísi nýtr
… fúsliga fljótt
Fenris átti ben
egg sundraði legg
Gauts, en gerði …
… malms sakaðr hjalmr.
Helgi was very generous with the swords’ … and honourable; he waged the helmet’s … … against people; a hard crash of spears [BATTLE] came about and … … flew the moon of battle [SHIELD] toward the landing place … the white shield was cloven … with blood … got victory; the bountiful ruler gave … eagerly quickly; Fenrir’s <wolf’s> got wound … the edge shattered the leg; of Gautr <= Óðinn>, and the damaged helmet made … metal’s …
11 Rétts, at rekkum þótti
Ragnarr hauksnarr … ;
rauð bragna vinr blóði
bensildr hringmildr algildr.
Frægr lét gramr með gnógu*
gunnhvatr ólatr †ul† … ;
satts, at siklingr þótti
sjaldhýrr, margskýrr, aldýrr.
It is right that Ragnarr seemed hawk-keen … to men; the ring-generous, thoroughly splendid friend of the people [= Ragnarr] reddened wound-herrings [SWORDS] with blood. The renowned, battle-swift, not tardy ruler gave … … with abundance; it is true that the lord seemed seldom friendly, very wise, thoroughly excellent.
12 Segik, at fell, en flagða
fekk blóð grástóð, mǫrg þjóð;
hjalmsamt lið með hilmi
— hjǫrr gnast; skjǫldr brast — stóð fast.
Hold beit hrátt, en fyldisk,
hringr þuðr, vargs muðr; óx guðr;
hirð jók (hermenn gerðu)
— hjósk lið — (þann sið) ófrið.
I say that many people fell, and grey stud-horses of troll-women [WOLVES] got blood; the helmet-adorned host stood firmly alongside the ruler; a sword cracked; a shield burst. The slender sword bit raw flesh, and the wolf’s mouth was filled; battle intensified; the retinue increased hostility; warriors created that custom; the host exchanged blows.
13 Ella var
†a … ss† þar
Ragnars bani
rómu trani.
… †erð†
sœfðisk ferð;
gekk at frið
fylkis lið.
Ælla was Ragnarr’s slayer; the crane of battle [EAGLE] … … there. … … the company was killed; the ruler’s troop destroyed the peace.
14
þá vas rít
roðin hvít.
Hjǫrva hríð
… skjǫld
siklings ǫld.
… then the white shield was reddened. The storm of swords [BATTLE] … the shield the lord’s life.
15 … an vægði
sóknfúss inn beinlausi

… í bǫð færi,
því …
… meginvíða
réð aldrlagi Ellu
… than submitted, battle-eager, the boneless … in battle fewer, therefore … very widely … caused the death of Ælla …
16 Harðr vann ráð ok ríki;
réð hans enginn líki;
… hann gagn af gunni
gnóg dag …
… vellbrota vissu
víst skjǫldungar flestir
… Agnars bróður
án gǫrvallra beina.
The harsh one gained control and power; none to match him ruled … he victory from the battle … abundant day … … most lords certainly knew the gold-breaker [GENEROUS MAN] without complete bones [as] … Agnarr’s brother [= Ívarr].
17 Bjǫrn ǫrn bræddi; fjǫrnis
beit reit firum hneitir;
bauðsk — rauðsk brynju váði
bjǫrg mǫrg frekum vargi.
Ypt lypt átti at skipta
egg legg í tvau seggja;
hrátt brátt hafði at slíta
hrafn tafn af því jafnan.
Bjǫrn fed the eagle; the sword bit men’s land of the helmet [HEAD]; much nourishment was offered to the greedy wolf; the danger of the byrnie [SWORD] was reddened. The drawn, uplifted edge divided men’s legs in two; the raven always had raw food to tear quickly because of that.
18 Gramr framr gerði rimmu;
gekk — fekk vargr at drekka
blóð — þjóð — bragningr háði*
bǫð — glǫð til vígstǫðva.
Sǫng lǫng slíðra tunga;
sleit beit atfleyg peita;
bar þar * buðlungr hæri
bjart snart í styr hjarta.
The outstanding ruler created a conflict; people went happy to the battle-harbour [BATTLEFIELD]; the wolf got blood to drink; the lord conducted a battle. The long tongue of scabbards [SWORD] sang; the soaring spear tore, bit; there, the more distinguished prince carried a cheerful, brave heart to battle.
19 Sigurð frák seðja
sára skára;
verð skóp vísi
vǫrgum mǫrgum.
Ruðr nam rjóða
randa branda;
sókn gerði sá
snarpa skarpa.
I heard that Sigurðr sated the sea-gull of wounds [RAVEN/EAGLE]; the leader created a meal for many wolves. The shrub of shield-rims [WARRIOR] began to redden blades; that one made a swift, sharp attack.
20 Spurðak hraustan

þanns linns legu
lesti festi.
Lét opt jǫfurr
†ar† …
… sveita
saddan gladdan.
I heard that the brave … who injured the lair of the snake [GOLD] … fastened. The prince often made … … of blood gladdened, sated.
21 Hvítserkr gekk at hildi
ha† …
jafnt vas hann maðr †h† …
… flug stildi.
Fylkir †hyg† …

… sem skildi.
Hvítserkr went to battle … … always he was a man … … halted the flight. The leader … … as with the shield.
22 Vas með víg …
… kunni;
ǫrn kom at ylgjar brunni
….
Beit ór hauka hlunni
hjalms …
œgði orma grunni;
ulfs kom …
Was with battle … knew; the eagle came to the spring of the she-wolf [BLOOD] … Bit from the prop of the hawk [HAND] the helmet’s … ; he terrorised the shallows of serpents [GOLD]; came the wolf’s …
23 Sǫgu kannk Svipdags;
saga es frá gram …;
es mér sagt sǫguligt
frá sǫgu þeiri.
Auðlingr gerðisk ótrauðr
auðbjóðr þjóðum;
auðar lét auðbrjótr
auðit, þeims sverð rauð.
I know Svipdagr’s story; there is a story about the hero …; I am told story-worthy [things] about that story. The lord became an unstinting wealth-giver to the people; the wealth-breaker [GENEROUS MAN] let wealth be bestowed on the one who reddened the sword.
24 Hildi vakði … ;
hildar vas sá gramr mildr,
þvít hildi …
hildfrœkn vildi.
Hjalmar kenndu hjalms vǫnd;
hjalm beit snarpr malmr,
en hjalmr hjalms …
hjalmr framði.
… stirred up battle; that hero was generous with battle, because … the battle-brave wanted battle. Helmets felt the rod of the helmet [SWORD]; the sharp sword bit the helmet, and the helmet helmet’s … the helmet advanced.
25
hjǫrþings ǫr*u
réð byrbeiðir
brands huglandi.
almr hjǫrsalma
þjóð lofar þat ráð
… the demander of the fair breeze of the sword [(lit. ‘sword’s fair-breeze-demander’) BATTLE > WARRIOR] ruled a brave mind-land [HEART] as to sword-assembly [BATTLE] … the elm-tree of sword-psalms [BATTLE > WARRIOR] … people praise that counsel …
26 … við geira
galdr allvalda
hafs …
herr unni verr.
Þats of hilmi
harðráðan …

… var snarast.
… at the incantation of spears [BATTLE] of the mighty rulers … of the ocean … the army defends with the sword. That is about the hard-ruling lord … was the bravest.
27 … rekja
hygg ek mærð of kon …
… maðr unda sunda
jǫfur …
… herr fyr hjǫrvi fjǫrvi

svan frák blóðs til benja* …
… dyn leggja seggja.
… I believe I shall recite praise about the relative … man … of the seas of wounds [BLOOD] … the prince … … the army … life before the sword … I heard the swan of blood [RAVEN/EAGLE] … to wounds … din … of the legs of men.
28 Frægr stillir
fekk þengill sér gengi drengi;
… †nner† gunni kunni
grið lestusk þá …
Auðveitir drap ýta nýta;
almr sparn … malma hjalma;
at stǫddusk þá oddar broddar;
ítrar sprungu rítar hvítar.
The famous ruler … the lord got himself support, men; … … knew battle; then truces were broken … The wealth-giver killed capable people; the elm-bow kicked arrows … of helmets; then spear-points, arrow-heads were placed against each other; precious white shields burst.
29 Hǫrðu réð Hagbarðr
— hvatir leyfa menn þat —
aldrklifs epli*;
ýta vas sá gramr nýtr.
Mýll gerðit margsnills
morðalfs skjalfa
í geira glymskúr
geðvangs strangri.
Hagbarðr commanded a hard apple of the life-cliff [BREAST > HEART]; keen men praise that; that lord of the people [RULER] was capable. The stone of the mind-meadow [BREAST > HEART] of the deeply wise battle-elf [WARRIOR] did not tremble in the strong din-shower of spears [BATTLE].
30 Jǫfri vasat aldrklifs
akarn við sverðs brak
— stillir vakði stál*gǫll —
stalldræpt snjǫllum.
Hvǫssu réð hugarsess
— hildar vas sá gramr mildr —
í branda brakvind
baugnjótr grjóti.
The acorn of the life-cliff [BREAST > HEART] of the brave prince was not terror-struck by the crash of the sword [BATTLE]; the ruler stirred up a sword-roar [BATTLE]. The ring-user [MAN] commanded a sharp stone of the mind-seat [BREAST > HEART] in the crash-wind of blades [BATTLE]; that lord was generous with battle.
31 Frilleifs vann ek sagt frá snilli;
siklingr vakði gunni mikla;
rjóða kunni randar váða
rómu valdr í benja ǫldu.
Bíta knátti brynju ótti
— brandar skôru svartar randir —
(Gera spurðik þar gladdan verða)
gunnar sól (með ylgjar brunni).
I was able to tell about the prowess of Friðleifr; the hero stirred up a great battle; the ruler of strife [WARRIOR] knew how to redden the danger of the shield-rim [SWORD] in the wave of wounds [BLOOD]. The terror of the byrnie [SWORD] bit the sun of battle [SHIELD]; blades cut black shield-rims; I heard that Geri <wolf> was gladdened there with the spring of the she-wolf [BLOOD].
32 Bragningr réð í branda regni
benja linn* til sára spenja;
allvaldr rauð, þars ýtar fellu,
unda naðr í hræva sundi.
Bitran spurðak bǫðvar Njǫrðum
brynju snák í hausum dynja;
reiða tóku ríkar þjóðir
randar orm at svarðar strǫndu.
The lord enticed the serpent of wounds [SWORD] to injuries in the rain of blades [BATTLE]; the mighty ruler reddened the adder of wounds [SWORD] in the sea of carrion [BLOOD] where men fell. I heard that the bitter snake of the byrnie [SWORD] crashed against the skulls of the Nirðir <gods> of battle [WARRIORS]; powerful people began to swing the reptile of the shield-rim [SWORD] towards the beach of the scalp [HEAD].
33 Óli fœddi aldinn ara;
allvítt kveðk hans snilli fara;
eigi frák hann armlog spara;
auði gœddi drengi snara.
Víða hygg ek bragna bera
buðlungs nafn, þess’s saddi Gera;
hraustan spurðak vísa vera;
vôpnum kunni benjar skera.
Óli fed the ancient eagle; I say that his prowess travels very widely; I did not hear that he spared the arm-flame [GOLD]; he enriched valiant warriors with wealth. Far and wide I believe men carry the name of the hero who sated Geri <wolf>; I heard that the ruler was courageous; he knew how to cut wounds with weapons.
34 Hjartat dugði jǫfri ǫrum;
ýtar fylgðu hilmi snǫrum;
segja kannk frá fylkis fǫrum;
fyrða beitti lið með ǫrum.
Harðir ôttu hermenn saman;
hilding frák við gunni taman;
hônum þótti at geirleik gaman;
greppar leyfðu vísa framan.
The heart helped the liberal prince; men followed the bold ruler; I can tell about the leader’s expeditions; he killed the troop of men with arrows. Hardened warriors joined [battle] against one another; I heard that the lord was trained in warfare; he took pleasure in spear-play [BATTLE]; poets praised the outstanding leader.
35 Þjóð hefr frétt til Fróða;
ferð leyfir menskerði;
hróðr hefk hugt at smíða
hringmiklum dǫglingi.
Hôtt bar hodda veitir
hjalmstall inn margsnjalli;
alkostigr gekk œstu
ǫðlingr at brynþingi.
People have heard of Fróði; the company commends the necklace-diminisher [GENEROUS MAN]; I have intended to forge praise for the ring-powerful ruler. The very capable bestower of treasures [GENEROUS MAN] carried the helmet-support [HEAD] high; the thoroughly splendid lord went to the raging byrnie-assembly [BATTLE].
36 Gaf landreki lofðum
linnból inn margsvinni;
sigrstýrir nam særa
sefþvengjar hrynvengi.
Frægr vísi réð fleygja
fjallreyðar glóstalli;
morðkennir gaf mǫnnum
móinsæti ágæta.
The very wise land-ruler gave snake-lair [GOLD] to warriors; the victory-controller [WARRIOR] began to injure the resounding meadow of the rush-thong [SERPENT > GOLD]. The renowned ruler flung the glowing resting-place of the mountain-char [SERPENT > GOLD]; the battle-master [WARRIOR] gave the splendid serpent-seat [GOLD] to men.
37 Hafði Helgi
í hjǫrva gný
geðstein glaðan,
gótt drengjaval,
hjalm harðsleginn,
hjól mundriða,
sverð snardregit
ok svala brynju.
Helgi had a cheerful mind-stone [HEART] in the clamour of swords [BATTLE], a good choice of warriors, a hard-forged helmet, a wheel of the sword [SHIELD], a swift-drawn sword and a cold byrnie.
38 Vas rǫnd roðin;
riðu skelkingar;
fellu fyrðar
í flogi vápna.
Ôtu ernir
af jǫfurs dolgum;
hreyfðusk hrafnar
of hrækesti.
The shield-rim was reddened; swords swung; men fell in the flight of weapons. Eagles ate from the prince’s enemies; ravens gloated above the carrion-pile.
39 Harald frák gunni gerva;
Geri varð, þars lið barðisk,
— môr kom sigrs til sára
svangr — fullr, þars spjǫr gullu,
þvít, grástóði gríða
gnast hlífð, en brá fǫstu,
(hjaldrgǫgl nutu hildar)
hvít* (svǫrt) í dyn rítar.
I heard that Haraldr waged war; Geri <wolf> became sated where the troop fought; the hungry seagull of battle [RAVEN/EAGLE] came to wounds where spears resounded, because the white shield cracked, and the fast ended for the grey stud-horses of troll-women [WOLVES] in the din of the shield [BATTLE]; black battle-goslings [RAVENS] benefited from the fight.
40 Benfasti varð bresta
— bitu hjalm svalir malmar —
í háturnum hjarna,
heitr, kaldr, þars dreif sveiti*.
Strǫng vas guðr, áðr gengi
(geirmót) konungs Jóta,
bendr sparn almr til unda,
(óx) þvarr, boga stǫrrum.
The cold wound-flame [SWORD] had to crack in high towers of the brain [HEADS] where hot blood spurted; cool weapons bit the helmet. The battle was strong before the company of the king of the Jótar [DANISH KING = Haraldr] diminished; the spear-meeting [BATTLE] intensified; the bent elm-bow kicked sedge-grass of the bow [ARROWS] towards wounds.
41 Hringr brast; hjoggusk drengir;
hjalmr gnast; bitu malmar;
rǫnd skar; rekkar týndusk;
ruðusk sverð; hnigu ferðir.
Brandr reið; blœddu undir;
ben sullu; spjǫr gullu;
brast hjǫrr; brynjur lestusk;
beit skjómi; dreif sveita.
A sword crashed; warriors exchanged blows; a helmet cracked; weapons bit; a shield-rim was cut; warriors died; swords were reddened; companies fell. A blade swung; gashes bled; wounds swelled; spears resounded; a sword crashed; byrnies were damaged; a sword bit; there was a blizzard of blood.
42 Sverð ruðusk; sœfðusk ferðir;
svall ben; valr lá fallinn;
und hraut; almar bendusk;
ǫr flaug; beitt varð hjǫrvi.
Herr fell; geirar gullu;
gnast hlífð; hrafn brá fǫstu;
oddr beit; ernir sǫddusk;
ulfr fyldisk; vé skulfu.
Swords were reddened; companies were killed; a wound swelled; the slain lay fallen; a wound burst; elm-bows were bent; an arrow flew; a sword was drawn. The army fell; spears resounded; a shield cracked; the raven ended its fast; an arrow-point bit; eagles were sated; the wolf was filled; standards shook.
43 Frá ek Angantýs ævi
— óð stofnak svá — góða;
lét drjúgum brot bauga
bjúg hertogi fljúga,
nema ek ljúga, en ek mun eigi ljúga.
Kannk fyr randa runnum
— ráð hófsk grams við dáðir;
menn lofa vísa vinnur —
veg þess konungs segja,
nema ek þegja, en ek mun eigi þegja.
I heard that Angantýr’s life was good; thus I make poetry; the army-leader let bent fragments of rings [GOLD] fly abundantly, unless I lie, and I shall not lie. I can relate the glory of that king before shrubs of shield-rims [WARRIORS] – the power of the ruler was elevated through deeds; men praise the achievements of the leader –, unless I keep quiet, and I shall not keep quiet.
44 Hl*ǫðr réð hann at kveðja
hauðrs benloga rauðum,
þvít margkostigr mesta
mildingr of vann hildi,
ef hann vildi, en ek veit, at hann vildi.
Trauðr vas lundr af lǫndum
linns fyr þeim at sinna
— svipr varð at þat sverða —
sára polls ok golli,
ef þat olli, sem ek veit, at þat olli.
Hlǫðr went to claim the land from him [Angatýr] with the red wound-flame [SWORD], because the very splendid generous one waged the greatest war if he wanted, and I know that he wanted. The tree of the serpent of the pool of wounds [BLOOD > SWORD > WARRIOR = Angantýr] was reluctant to leave his lands and gold because of that one [Hlǫðr] – there was a motion of swords [BATTLE] because of that –, if that was the reason, as I know that was the reason.
45 Hverr réð Hildi at næma?
Hverir daglengis berjask?
Hverir síðarla sættask?
Hver*r siklingum atti?
Heðinn réð Hildi at næma;
Hjaðningar æ berjask;
þeir síðarla sættask;
saman Hildr liði atti.
Who decided to abduct Hildr? Who fight all day long? Who get reconciled late? Who incited the chieftains? Heðinn decided to abduct Hildr; the Hjaðningar fight forever; they get reconciled late; Hildr incited the troops against each other.
46 Hverr rýðr hvassar eggjar?
Hverr brytjar mat vargi?
Hverr gerir hjalma skúrir?
Hverr eggjaði styrjar?
Haraldr rauð hvassar eggjar;
herr brytjar mat vargi;
hjalmskúr gerir Hǫgni;
Hjarrandi réð gunni.
Who reddens sharp edges? Who cuts food for the wolf? Who creates showers of helmets [BATTLES]? Who instigated strife? Haraldr reddened sharp edges; the army cuts food for the wolf; Hǫgni creates the helmet-shower [BATTLE]; Hjarrandi caused the battle.
47 Hrólfs spurðak hag;
hafs veitti dag;
fló Faðmis setr;
fáir * kunnu betr.
Hann veitti her
haukslóðar sker;
brast linna láð
við lofðungs ráð.
I heard about Hrólfr’s behaviour; he gave daylight of the sea [GOLD]; the seat of Faðmir <serpent> [GOLD] flew; few could do better. He gave skerries of the hawk-track [ARM > GOLD] to the army; the land of snakes [GOLD] burst at the counsel of the hero.
48 Kraka þrautat kapp
— konung sótti happ,
hinns brynþing bauð —
at brjóta auð,
þvít buðlungr var,
sás benjar skar,
— honum tíddisk hildr —
hugprúðr ok mildr.
Zeal was not wanting in Kraki when he broke wealth; good fortune sought out the king, the one who offered byrnie-assembly [BATTLE], because the ruler, who cut wounds, was gallant and generous; battle gave pleasure to him.
49 Heyja réð hjǫrþey
Hjalmarr vígsnarr;
auðar vôru óleið
ǫrbrjót geirmót.
Vekja frák vítt mjǫk*
vápnþing dǫgling;
fella spurðak fǫrsnjǫll
fira kyn víghlyn.
Battle-swift Hjálmarr waged a sword-wind [BATTLE]; spear-meetings [BATTLES] were not unpleasant to the generous breaker of wealth [GENEROUS MAN]. I heard that the hero stirred up weapon-assemblies [BATTLES] very far and wide; I learned that the battle-maple [WARRIOR] killed attack-clever kin of men.
50 Hausa beit hjalm-Týs
hjaldrliðr allstiðr;
sundra nam snarbeind*
sverðs egg manns legg.
Veita réð vellbrjótr
valgjóð hræflóð;
haukum vas hjǫrleiks
hjaldrmôs gefin krôs.
The thoroughly stiff battle-snake [SWORD] of the helmet-Týr <god> [WARRIOR] bit skulls; the powerfully straightened edge of the sword sundered a man’s leg. The gold-breaker [GENEROUS MAN] gave carrion-flood [BLOOD] to the corpse-buzzard [RAVEN/EAGLE]; the morsel of the battle-gull [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES] was given to hawks of sword-play [BATTLE > RAVENS/EAGLES].
51 Ák frá Eireks mildi
elds brjótǫndum hranna,
þess’s hét inn sigrsæli,
segja einkar gegnum,
þvít gollskati gagni
— gram þann lofa ýtar —
réð, sás ríkstr vas heitinn,
í randa gný hverjum.
I must tell very reliable breakers of the fire of the waves [GOLD > GENEROUS MEN] about the generosity of Eiríkr, who was named the Victorious, because the munificent man, who was called the mightiest, had victory in every clamour of shield-rims [BATTLE]; people praise that prince.
52 Réð gunnstara gildi
Gauts mútari drekka,
þvít morðhauka milsku
Muninn kunni sér nýta.
Ǫl vas ógnar gagla
ótrautt gefit hrafni;
réð ylgjar mjǫð erni
ógndjarfr konungr veita.
The hawk of Gautr <= Óðinn> [RAVEN/EAGLE] drank the banquet of the battle-starling [RAVEN > BLOOD], because Muninn <raven> knew how to avail itself of the brew of battle-hawks [RAVENS/EAGLES > BLOOD]. Ale of goslings of battle [RAVENS/EAGLES > BLOOD] was unstintingly given to the raven; the battle-brave king gave mead of the she-wolf [BLOOD] to the eagle.
53 Ák frá Óláfi
eiðar þrár meiðum
sløngði *á* svanvengi
Selju mens — telja.
Fréttu fleystéttar
— fengu gjǫf drengir —
harðir hyr-Nirðir
hildings fémildi.
I must tell about Óláfr; the one firm of oath flung trees of Selja’s <island’s> necklace [SEA > SHIPS] onto the swan-meadow [SEA]. Harsh Nirðir <gods> of the fire of the ship-path [(lit. ‘ship-path’s fire-Nirðir’) SEA > GOLD > MEN] heard about the leader’s generosity; the warriors received a gift.
54 Fleygði á folkstígu
forðum aurborða
tum margnýtum
malmi gollhjalmi.
Sungu svanvengis
snótir raustljótar
hátt of hafbeittum
hjalmi Serksalma.
Of old, he flung the precious, highly beneficial metal, the gold helmet, onto the main paths of ship-boards [SEA]. The ugly-voiced women of the swan-meadow [SEA > WAVES] sang Saracen-psalms above the sea-bitten helmet.
55 Gætt at: Gautrekr þótti
góðr illr kyni þjóðar;
saddr varð svanr, en hræddisk
seint, skjótt, konungr, Þróttar.
Allvald frák, þanns óðisk,
opt, sjaldan, styr valda;
vǫrðr gekk fróns, né fœrðisk,
framm, aptr, í bǫð ramma.
Listen: Gautrekr seemed good [and] bad to the kin of men; the swan of Þróttr <= Óðinn> [RAVEN/EAGLE] was sated quickly, and the king was frightened slowly. I heard that the mighty ruler, who was seldom afraid, often caused uproar; the guardian of the land [RULER] went forwards in the strong battle; he did not pull back.
56 Morð óx (mildingr sparði)
mjǫk (lítt diguljǫkla);
lét ósa rǫf ræsir
rétt bjúg á her fljúga.
Fira sættir rak flótta
fúss trauðr vita lauðar;
þollr vas geirs, en gulli,
góðr, illr, kyni þjóðar.
The battle intensified much; little did the generous one spare crucible-glaciers [SILVER]; the ruler made bent amber of estuaries [GOLD] fly straight at the army. The reconciler of people [JUST RULER], reluctant to flee, eager, pursued the beacon of the furnace [GOLD]; the tree of the spear [WARRIOR] was good to the kin of men, but bad to gold.
57 Styrbjǫrn réð til styrjar
styrfimr meginsnimma;
hildingr gekk at hjaldri
hildarfúss und skildi.
Eggþinga skar eggjum
eggjandi fjǫr seggja;
vargfœðir rauð vargi
varghollr granar mǫrgum.
Battle-swift Styrbjǫrn engaged in battle extremely early; the warrior went war-eager beneath the shield to war. The egger-on of edge-assemblies [BATTLES > WARRIOR] severed men’s lives with edges; the wolf-devoted wolf-feeder [WARRIOR] reddened the whiskers of many a wolf.
58 Hilmir rauð ok hjalma
hjalmskóð í dyn malma;
skjǫldungr komat skildi
skjaldfimr í bug sjaldan.
Bǫrr lét vígs at vígi
vígreyr lituð dreyra,
þvít gunnþorinn gunni
gunn-Freyr hvata kunni.
The ruler reddened helmet-harmers [SWORDS] and helmets in the din of swords [BATTLE]; the shield-deft lord did not seldom advance in the hollow of the shield. The tree of slaughter [WARRIOR] let slaughter-reeds [WEAPONS] be coloured with blood at the slaughter, because the battle-daring battle-Freyr <god> [WARRIOR] knew how to hasten battle.
59 Haraldr kunni gný gerva
(gekk hilmis lið vekja)
— menn ruðu geir at gunni —
(gráp smíðaðra vápna)
— háði herr við prýði
hjǫrþing með dǫglingi,
hinns skyndi* byr branda —
bendags inn hárfagri.
Haraldr inn hárfagri (‘the Fair-haired’) could create clamour of the wound-daylight [SWORD > BATTLE]; the troop of the ruler went to stir up a hail-storm of forged weapons [BATTLE]; men reddened the spear in battle; the army waged sword-assemblies [BATTLES] with honour alongside the leader, the one who hastened the fair breeze of blades [BATTLE].
60 Haraldr kunni gný gerva
— glaðr vas hrafn fyr Jaðri —
— þars svát víg á vági
vargs gráðtapaðr háði,
þvít við hodda hneiti
hvatráðan burr Kjǫtva
barðisk Bokks í firði —
bendags inn hárfagri.
Haraldr inn hárfagri (‘the Fair-haired’) could create clamour of the wound-daylight [SWORD > BATTLE]; the raven was cheerful off Jæren, there where the greed-terminator [FEEDER] of the wolf [WARRIOR] held a battle in the bay, because the son of Kjǫtvi [= Þórir] fought in the Billy-goat’s fjord against the quick-witted cutter of treasures [GENEROUS MAN].
61 Frétts, at Eirekr átti
eggmót, sás rauð spjót,
(frægr gerði val víga)
víðs mǫrg (konungr bjǫrg),
þvít blóðstari bæði
bens nýtti sér fen
— frægr þótti sá flotnum
foldar vǫrðr — ok hold.
It is heard that Eiríkr, who reddened spears, had many edge-meetings [BATTLES] far and wide; the famous king provided sustenance for the falcon of battles [RAVEN/EAGLE], because the blood-starling [RAVEN] availed itself of both the fen of the wound [BLOOD] and flesh; that guardian of the earth [RULER] seemed famous to his followers.
62 Sér nýtti þá sveita
sármútari grár;
hrafn fekk døkkr at drekka
drengja blóð til sprengs.
Môr drakk morðs af dreyra
(menn fylgðu vel) sylg;
valdr bar hjalms frá hjaldri
(hvǫtum bragningi) gagn.
The grey wound-hawk [EAGLE] then availed itself of blood; the dark raven got to drink the blood of warriors to the point of bursting. The seagull of battle [RAVEN/EAGLE] drank a drink from the gore; men followed the keen lord well; the ruler of the helmet [WARRIOR] carried victory away from the battle.
63 Hauðr frák Hôkon síðan
harðgeðjaðastan varða;
þjóð sá ræsi rjóða
ráðvandaðastan branda.
Seimskerðir klauf sverði
snarpeggjuðustu leggi;
getk, at gramr fekk vitni
gráleituðustum sveita.
I heard that the very hardminded Hákon then guarded the land; people saw the very righteous ruler redden blades. The gold-diminisher [GENEROUS MAN] split legs with the very sharp-edged sword; I believe that the lord gave blood to the very grey-looking wolf.
64 Ríkr barg lofðungr Leiknar
ljóthrǫmmuðustum Sóta;
svan frák blóðs til bráða
bjúgnefjaðastan fljúga.
Skutu bráðgegnir bragnar
beinskeptuðustum fleini;
almr sparn hart til hjalma
hvassodduðustum broddi.
The mighty lord provided for the very ugly-pawed Sóti <horse> of Leikn <giantess> [WOLF]; I heard that the very crooked-beaked swan of blood [RAVEN/EAGLE] flew to flesh. Very capable warriors shot the very straight-shafted spear; the elm-bow kicked the very sharp-pointed arrow hard towards helmets.
65 Haraldr magnaði hildi;
hildr tíddisk gram mildum;
frák hann við gný Gunnar
Gunnhildar bur kunna.
Harðr rauð í svip sverða
sverðs egg konungr ferðar;
morðs lét hilmir Hǫrða
hǫrð reyr lituð dreyra.
Haraldr strengthened battle; battle gave pleasure to the generous ruler; I heard that he, Gunnhildr’s son [= Haraldr], was knowledgeable about the clamour of Gunnr <valkyrie> [BATTLE]. The harsh king of the company reddened the edge of the sword in the swinging of swords [BATTLE]; the lord of the Hǫrðar [NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr] let hard reeds of battle [SWORDS] be coloured with blood.
66 Siklingr lét þar sveita
— sveit fylkis rauð hneiti —
bǫðvar skýrstr í bráði
bráðmôl lituð stála.
Vann blóðroðin benja
benflœðr skolat rœði;
sóknbôru* gat sára
sárvǫrðr þvegit árar.
There the lord, wisest in war, let welded patterns of swords be coloured with gore in haste; the company of the leader reddened the sword. The wound-flood [BLOOD] rinsed the blood-reddened paddle of wounds [SWORD]; the wound-guardian [WARRIOR] washed oars of wounds [SWORDS] with the battle-wave [BLOOD].
67 Sveinn framði gný grimman
— guðr heitir svá — peitu;
hagl brast skóðs á Skǫglar
— skjǫld nefnik svá — tjaldi.
Sóknbjartar skar snyrtir
— sverð nefnik svá — ferðir;
hringr brá horskra drengja
— hjǫr nefnik svá — fjǫrvi.
Sveinn performed a grim clamour of the spear [BATTLE]; battle is called thus; hail of the weapon [ARROWS] crashed against the tent of Skǫgul <valkyrie> [SHIELD]; thus I name the shield. The polished one – thus I name the sword – cut battle-cheerful companies; the ringed one – thus I name the sword – ended the life of wise warriors.
68 Hjaldrkyndill beit hildar
— harðr brandr es þat — garða;
ljós varð hǫggs í hausum
— hjǫr kallak svá — gjalla.
Hart skar hildar kerti
— hjalms grand es þat — randir,
þvít benlogi brynju
beit; nefnik svá hneiti.
The battle-candle [SWORD] – that is a hard sword – bit farm-yards of battle [SHIELDS]; the light of the sword-blow [SWORD] – thus I call the sword – had to resound against skulls. The hard taper of battle [SWORD] – that is the harm of the helmet [SWORD] – cut shields, because the wound-flame [SWORD] – thus I name the sword – bit the byrnie.
69 Knútr sásk, — herr hjósk —
hlífð gnast, rǫnd brast,
— guðr svall — folk fell,
fátt, mart, hvít*, svǫrt.
Bargsk ǫld, (beit skjǫld
benskóð) rann þjóð,
hvasst flugu hjalmreyr
hó, lôg (breið) mjó.
Knútr feared little; the army exchanged blows; the white shield cracked; the black shield-rim crashed; battle increased; many men fell. Noble people saved themselves; the broad wound-weapon [SWORD] bit the shield; ignoble people ran; slender helmet-reeds [ARROWS] flew violently.
70 Guðr vas, en grams niðr,
(gekk herr berjask)
flótta, þars fell drótt,
(fúss) trauðr, kvik, dauð.
Þótti þar ulfs ætt,
(ǫrva gerðisk hríð snǫr)
eigi vas fleins flaug,
full, svǫng, skǫmm (lǫng).
The battle was lively and the kinsman of the lord [= Knútr] reluctant to flee; the army went eager to fight where the dead retinue fell. The hungry family of the wolf seemed sated there; the swift storm of arrows [BATTLE] became long; the flight of the spear [BATTLE] was not short.
71 Óláfr rauð í éli
Yggjar slíðra bryggjur;
veitk, at vísi átti
víða brynju hríðir.
Hirð réð gramr í Gǫrðum
gleðja þursa kveðju
fœddr, en fylki studdu
fróðan sygnskar þjóðir.
Óláfr reddened bridges of scabbards [SWORDS] in the hailstorm of Yggr <= Óðinn> [BATTLE]; I know that the lord had storm-winds of the byrnie [BATTLES] far and wide. The ruler, raised in Russia, gladdened the retinue with the greeting of giants [GOLD], and the people of Sogn supported the sagacious leader.
72 Sonr Tryggva bað seggi
síðan ógnarblíða
vallar baug á vági
verja* sœnskum herjum.
Hjaltvendi skar Hrundar
hríðar tungla stríðir
— alms varð hagl á hjalma
hrynja — danskar brynjur.
The son of Tryggvi [= Óláfr] then commanded the battle-cheerful men to defend the ring of the meadow [SERPENT = Ormr inn langi] against Swedish warriors in the bay. The opponent of the moons of the storm of Hrund <valkyrie> [BATTLE > SHIELDS > WARRIOR] cut Danish byrnies with the hilt-rod [SWORD]; hail of the elm-bow [ARROWS] crashed against helmets.
73 Óláfr náði eggjar rjóða
enskra þjóða vǫrmu blóði;
hneigiborða háði skerðir
hjǫrva þeyja Viðris meyja.
Bǫðvar hauka bðar snáka
beiti-Nirðir ógnar girði
rjóða nômu; rekkar kómu
randar Freyju þing at heyja.
Óláfr was able to redden edges with the warm blood of English people; the diminisher of the bending-boards of swords [SHIELDS > WARRIOR] waged warm winds of Viðrir’s <= Óðinn’s> maidens [VALKYRIES > BATTLES]. The brandishing-Nirðir <gods> of the snakes of the meat of hawks of battle [RAVENS/EAGLES > CORPSES > SWORDS > WARRIORS] began to redden fences of fight [SHIELDS]; warriors came to hold an assembly of the Freyja <goddess> of the shield-rim [VALKYRIE > BATTLE].
74 Slíðrar tungur snarpar gengu;
sullu benjar; hlífðir gullu;
hilmir vakði — hneitir rakði
hjǫrva salma — skúrir malma.
Hyggju knarrar harða veggi
hjoggu sverðum vísa ferðir
vægðar trauð*ar valskrar þjóðar
varg at tafni knífum grafna.
Sharp tongues of the scabbard [SWORDS] wagged; wounds swelled; shields resounded; the ruler stirred up showers of weapons [BATTLES]; the sword spread psalms of swords [BATTLES]. The leader’s companies, reluctant to grant mercy, cut with swords the hard walls of the ship of thought [HEART > CHESTS], incised by knives, of French people as food for the wolf.
75 Mætr rauð Magnús hneiti;
mildr fylkir vann hildi;
snjallr gerði styr stillir;
stóð ógn af gram þjóðar.
Dunðu dǫrr á brynju;
drótt hilmis rak flótta;
egg brast hǫrð í hǫggvi;
hjǫrr beit … gǫrva.
Splendid Magnús reddened the sword; the generous leader waged war; the clever prince caused battle; terror exuded from the lord of the people [RULER]. Spears resounded against the byrnie; the ruler’s retinue pursued those who fled; the hard edge burst as it struck; the sword bit … thoroughly.
76 Skjǫldr brast skreyttr í hjaldri;
skôrusk randir * brandi;
rít hykk malmar meittu;
mǫrg vôpn … tǫrgur.
Hlífð frák karlmenn kljúfa;
kyn jǫfra skar brynjur;
sungu slǫg við hringa;
sundr brast hjalmr fyr malmi.
The adorned shield burst in the battle; shield-rims were cut by the blade; I believe swords sliced the shield; many weapons … targes. I heard that men split the shield; the kinsman of princes [RULER = Magnús] cut byrnies; weapons sang against byrnie-rings; the helmet burst asunder before the sword.
77 Haraldr var (herr skar)
harðráðr sigrs bráðr;
— snart lið sleit frið —
(sverðs egg manns legg).
Bargsk ǫld; beit skjǫld
brandr þuðr; óx guðr;
skaut gramr geðframr;
gnast almr; flaug malmr.
Hard-ruling Haraldr was quick [to gain] victory; the army cut a man’s leg with the sword’s edge; the keen company sundered the peace. People saved themselves; a slender blade bit a shield; battle increased; the outstanding-minded lord shot; an elm-bow cracked; an arrow flew.
78 Ben svall; brandr gall;
beit egg manns legg;
roðin var — rǫnd skar
rendr hjǫrr — benstǫrr.
Rautt blóð rann þjóð;
riðu sverð; hné ferð;
almr hrauzk — hræ bauzk
hrafns ætt — óslætt.
A wound swelled; a blade resounded; an edge bit a man’s leg; wound-sedge-grass [SWORD] was reddened; the drawn sword cut a shield-rim. Red blood poured from people; swords swung; the company fell; an elm-bow discharged itself not bluntly; carrion was offered to the family of the raven.
79 Ǫrt rauð Óláfr snyrtis
egg; gall hjǫrr við leggi;
dunði bitr á brynjur
brandr; skôru spjǫr randir.
Bitu rammslegin rimmu
reyr; knôttu ben dreyra;
ferð, þars fylkir barðisk,
fell; hné drótt at velli.
Óláfr swiftly reddened the sword’s edge; the sword rang against legs; the sharp blade resounded against byrnies; spears cut shields. Hard-hammered reeds of battle [SWORDS] bit; wounds bled; the company fell where the ruler fought; the retinue sank to the ground.
80 Kœnn hlaut lofðungr linna
láð; segik vísa dáðir;
gramr prýddi sá gumna
gjǫfum; kunni sið jǫfra.
Ógnbeiðis naut auðar
ǫld; leyfum bǫr skjaldar,
þvít ljósan veg vísi
vann; nús mælt it sanna.
The clever lord obtained the land of serpents [GOLD]; I recount the ruler’s deeds; that monarch adorned men with gifts; he knew the custom of princes. People enjoyed the wealth of the war-craver [WARRIOR]; we [I] praise the tree of the shield [WARRIOR] because the ruler gained glowing glory; now the truth has been told.
81 Magnús * malma regni
morðbráðan frák ráða;
hyrbrjótr hauka strætis
hjǫrskúrir vann gǫrvar.
Allnýtr Egða gætir
ósjaldan rauð skjaldar
sval*fúr seggja dreyra;
sveiti* dreif á hneiti*.
I heard that battle-quick Magnús caused a rain of weapons [BATTLE]; the breaker of the fire of the hawks’ street [(lit. ‘hawks’ street’s fire-breaker’) ARM > GOLD > GENEROUS MAN] made sword-showers [BATTLES]. The thoroughly beneficial guardian of the Egðir [NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús] not seldom reddened the cool fire of the shield [SWORD] with the gore of men; blood splattered on the sword.
82 Glygg-Freyr Gǫndlar veggjar. The Freyr <god> of the storm of Gǫndul’s <valkyrie’s> wall [(lit. ‘Gǫndul’s wall’s storm-Freyr’) SHIELD > BATTLE > WARRIOR].
Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated