Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Óttarr svarti (Ótt)

11th century; volume 1; ed. Matthew Townend;

1. Hǫfuðlausn (Hfl) - 20

Skj info: Óttarr svarti, Islandsk skjald, 11. årh. (AI, 289-99, BI, 267-75).

Skj poems:
Lausavísur
1. Óláfsdrápa sœnska
2. Hǫfuðlausn
3. Knútsdrápa

The Icelandic poet Óttarr svarti ‘the Black’ (Ótt) was remembered in the twelfth century (ESk Geisl 12) as one of the hǫfuðskǫld ‘chief skalds’ of the late Viking Age. His nickname would seem to locate him within the tradition of poets being ‘dark’ in either appearance or temperament (see Clunies Ross 1978b; Finlay 2000). According to Styrmir Kárason (ÓH 1941, II, 688), the poet Sigvatr Þórðarson (Sigv) was a mikill vinr ‘great friend’ of Óttarr, and indeed Óttarr’s Hǫfuðlausn (Ótt Hfl) is greatly indebted to Sigvatr’s Víkingarvísur (Sigv Víkv, see Introduction to Hfl). Snorri Sturluson (ÍF 27, 144; ÓH 1941, I, 203) further describes Óttarr as Sigvatr’s maternal nephew, and if this is correct he would have been the grandson of Þórðr Sigvaldaskáld ‘Poet of Sigvaldi’ (see Biography of Sigvatr Þórðarson). Óttarr features in the various sagas of Óláfr Haraldsson, but the only major anecdote about him is the story surrounding his Hfl (see Introduction).

Skáldatal, in one or both of its recensions (SnE 1848-87, III, 252, 253, 258, 260, 261, 267, 269), lists Óttarr as having composed for six patrons: the Danes Sveinn tjúguskegg ‘Fork-beard’ Haraldsson and his son Knútr inn ríki Sveinsson (Cnut the Great); Óláfr sœnski ‘the Swede’ Eiríksson and his son Ǫnundr Óláfsson; and the Norwegian King Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson (S. Óláfr), and the Norwegian magnate Dala-Guðbrandr (‘Guðbrandr of the Dales’, on whom, see ÍF 27, 183-90; ÓH 1941, I, 271-82). For Sveinn and Dala-Guðbrandr, Óttarr is the only poet listed in Skáldatal. Panegyric poetry by Óttarr is certainly extant for three of these patrons: Óláfsdrápa (ÓldrIII) for Óláfr Eiríksson (preserved only in SnE and therefore edited in SkP III), Hfl for Óláfr Haraldsson, and Knútsdrápa (Knútdr) and Lv 2 for Knútr. It has, moreover, been suggested that one stanza in Knútdr may have been misplaced from an earlier poem for Sveinn (see Note to st. 9 [All]). No poetry survives for Ǫnundr or Dala-Guðbrandr. From all the evidence, it is likely that Óttarr visited, and composed, for, his patrons in this order: Sveinn until his death in 1014; Óláfr Eiríksson until his death c. 1021 (though ÓHLeg 1982, 130-1, has Óttarr, a young man fresh from Iceland, approaching him as his first patron), then his son Ǫnundr; Óláfr Haraldsson in the early 1020s, and Dala-Guðbrandr in the same period; Knútr by c. 1027 for an unknown period (Knútr died in 1035). For previous discussions of Óttarr’s career, see SnE 1848-87, III, 326-33, LH I, 574-7 and Poole (1993).

Hǫfuðlausn (‘Head-ransom’) — Ótt HflI

Matthew Townend 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Óttarr svarti, Hǫfuðlausn’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 739.

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Skj: Óttarr svarti: 2. Hǫfuðlausn, o. 1023 (AI, 290-6, BI, 268-72); stanzas (if different): 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20

in texts: FGT, Flat, Fsk, Gramm, Hkr, Knýtl, Orkn, ÓH, ÓHHkr, ÓHLeg, ÓHÆ, Skm, SnE

SkP info: I, 739

notes: incomplete list of mss

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-ligr (adj.) ‘-ly...’ligr 6/1

-ráðr (adj.) ‘-ful...’ráði 13/2

-vǫrpuðr (noun m.) ‘-thrower...’varpaði 4/6

-þorinn (adj.) ‘[bold, daring]...’þorinn 8/2

(unknown) (unclassified)Hjalt 20/4, Ját 13/8

aðal (noun n.) ‘inherited land; Æthel-...’ — 13/2

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 3/6, 4/3, 10/5, 15/6

al- ((prefix)) ‘very...’al 2/3

aldr (noun m.) [°aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar] ‘life, age...’aldri 10/7

all- ((prefix)) ‘very...’all 1/4, all 15/3

allr (adj.) ‘all...’allar 17/3

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 7/7, 18/3

angra (verb) [°-að-] ‘anger, trouble...’ — 14/6

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’annan 1/3

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 6/2, 7/1, 9/7, 13/4, 19/8, 20/1

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 9/1, 10/7

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 1/7, 2/2, 7/3, 8/3, 12/1

atganga (noun f.) [°·gǫngu/gangu] ‘[attack]...’Atgǫngu 10/1

3austr (adv.) [°compar. -ar, superl. -ast] ‘east, in the east...’ — 4/2, 7/7, 19/5, 20/7

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 3/1, 4/4, 5/3, 9/8, 12/4, 13/6, 14/7, 20/3, 20/5

áðan (adv.) ‘before...’ — 13/7

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 9/5, 15/7, 19/8, 20/6

1ár (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)] ‘oar...’ôr 4/8, ôrum 4/1

2átt (noun f.) [°; -ir (acc. sg. attvnna AnnaReyk 410⁹)] ‘lineage...’ — 13/7, 16/8

1bára (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘wave...’bôru 4/8

2beita (verb) [°-tt-] ‘beat, tack...’beittuð 15/7

1ben (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)] ‘wound...’ — 16/2

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’bôruð 4/3

1blakkr (noun m.) ‘horse...’blakki 3/2

blár (adj.) ‘black...’blás 1/2, Blá 16/1

blíðr (adj.) [°n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘gentle, happy...’ — 10/3

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’blóði 9/4

borð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘side, plank, board; table...’borðs 14/7

borg (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -; -ir] ‘city, stronghold...’ — 10/4

bragnar (noun m.) ‘men, warriors...’bragna 10/6

bragningr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘prince, ruler...’bragningar 19/4

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’branda 17/2, branda 18/2

brattr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘steep...’brǫttum 15/6

1braut (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘path, way; away...’ — 18/1

bráðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘quick(ly)...’ — 20/6

breiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘broad, wide...’Breið 19/5, breiða 10/3

brjóta (verb) [°brýtr; braut, brutu; brotinn] ‘to break, destroy...’brauzt 8/1

brjótandi (noun m.) ‘[breakers, breaker]...’brjótanda 2/2

1bryggja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur, gen. bryggna] ‘landing, bridge, gangway, quay...’bryggjur 8/2

bræðir (noun m.) ‘feeder...’ — 6/3, 16/1

2búa (verb) [°býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)] ‘prepare, ready, live...’bjótt 14/1, býr 7/6

bylgja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur, gen. bylgna] ‘wave...’bylgjur 5/2

2bægja (verb) [°-gð-] ‘contend...’ — 11/4

bǫð (noun f.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’bǫðvar 18/1

danr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘Dane...’Dan 3/4

dolg (noun n.) ‘battle, enemy...’ — 6/2

drengr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja] ‘man, warrior...’drengi 15/4

dreyri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’dreyra 3/3

drjúgr (adj.) [°compar. -ari (drýgari [$1033$] „ ms. 56v‰, superl. -astr] ‘very, excessive...’drjúg 6/1

drós (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘lady...’drósir 5/4

1drótt (noun f.) ‘troop...’ — 2/4, 6/1

dýrka (verb) [°-að-] ‘glorify, worship...’ — 1/7

dýrr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr] ‘precious...’ — 1/8, dýrum 3/3

dǫglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’dǫglinga 18/4, dǫglingi 11/6, dǫglings 1/7

3ef (conj.) ‘if...’ — 14/5

efla (verb) [°-fld-/-að-(RómvUpph¹ 382²⁴)] ‘strengthen...’efldr 13/4

Eið (noun f.) ‘Eið, Eiðar, Eids ...’Eiða 19/5

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’ôttuð 16/7

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 15/1

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’elda 19/7, 10/8

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 7/5, 8/7, 9/8, 15/5

4en (conj.) ‘than...’ — 18/7

2engi (pron.) ‘no, none...’ — 15/4, 20/5, engr 19/7

englar (noun m.) ‘English people...’Engla 9/7

2enn (adv.) ‘still, yet, again...’ — 8/1

enskr (adj.) ‘English...’enskrar 11/1

eptir (prep.) ‘after, behind...’ — 18/7

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 3/7, es 19/3, s 18/8, þaus 16/7

erring (noun f.) ‘courage, vigour...’erringar 14/8

2etja (verb) [°atti] ‘incite...’Ǫttuð 4/1

1ey (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar] ‘island...’eyjum 20/7

2eyða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘destroy...’ — 12/1

Eysýsla (noun f.) ‘[Saaremaa]...’Eysýslu 7/8

él (noun n.) [°; dat. -um] ‘storm...’éla 8/1

ér (pron.) [°gen. yðvar/yðar, dat./acc. yðr] ‘you...’ — 14/3, 15/2, 18/7

falla (verb) ‘fall...’fallinn 1/4

far (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘travel, vessel, trace, life, conduct...’fars 15/5

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’fóru 11/8, fóruð 3/7, fóruð 15/2

fasti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘flame, fire...’fasta 14/1

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 9/7

ferri (adv.) ‘far, further...’ — 9/2, 18/6

fimm (num. cardinal) ‘five...’ — 19/4

2finna (verb) ‘find, meet...’fannsk 18/3, finnum 1/3

firar (noun m.) ‘men...’ — 7/4

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’ — 15/6

flaustr (noun n.) ‘ship...’flaustum 4/2

flotnar (noun m.) ‘mariners...’flotna 7/2

flótti (noun m.) ‘flight, fleeing...’flótta 9/8

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’ — 19/3, folds 17/4

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 9/6

forðum (adv.) ‘formerly, once...’ — 17/6, 19/3

fors (noun m.) ‘torrent...’forsi 15/5

1fregna (verb) ‘hear of...’frák 3/7, frák 7/7, frák 9/1, frák 10/7, frák 11/7

friðr (noun m.) ‘peace...’frið 13/6

frægr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str] ‘famous, renowned...’ — 11/4

fundr (noun m.) ‘discovery, meeting...’ — 13/5

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 9/5, 16/8, 19/1

2fœra (verb) ‘bring...’fœrðuð 13/5

fǫr (noun f.) ‘journey, fate; movement...’ — 3/8, 6/2

1gagn (noun n.) ‘victory...’gagni 10/6, gagni 19/4

gamall (adj.) [°gamlan; compar. & superl. „ ellri adj.] ‘old...’gamlir 8/7

gangr (noun m.) ‘going, walking; course; success...’gang 8/7

2Garmr (noun m.) ‘[hound, Garmr]...’garms 1/5

gauti (noun m.) ‘man, Geat...’Gauta 1/5

1gegn (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str] ‘reliable...’ — 20/1

2geta (verb) ‘to beget, give birth to, mention, speak ...’getr 15/3

gildir (noun m.) ‘payer, supporter...’ — 7/1

gjald (noun n.) ‘payment, reward, return...’gjaldi 7/1, gjǫldum 11/2

1gjalda (verb) ‘pay, repay...’goldit 17/4, Guldut 11/5

gjalfr (noun n.) [°-s] ‘surge, waves...’gjalfrs 16/2

gjóðr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘osprey...’gjóða 16/1

2glaðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘cheerful, glad...’glað 1/6

glóð (noun f.) ‘ember...’ — 2/2

gnýr (noun m.) ‘din, tumult...’gný 9/6

2gnœgja (verb) ‘be sufficient...’gnœgðr 16/3

gotneskr (adj.) ‘[Gotland]...’gotneskum 7/2

góðr (adj.) ‘good...’Góð 2/1, góðra 20/2

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 2/4, 17/8

1grennir (noun m.) ‘feeder...’ — 16/6

grund (noun f.) ‘earth, land...’grundu 13/8

1guð (noun m.) [°***guðrs, guðis, gus] ‘(Christian) God...’goð 19/2

gull (noun n.) ‘gold...’goll 11/6

gumi (noun m.) [°-a; gumar/gumnar] ‘man...’gumnar 11/5

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle, Gunnr...’gunn 8/2, gunn 8/8, gunnar 2/1

2Gǫndull (noun m.) ‘Gǫndull...’Gǫndlar 19/6

gǫrva (adv.) ‘fully...’ — 3/8

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 17/5, hafið 14/3, hafið 18/1, hefr 3/3, hefr 8/3, hefr 17/1, Hǫfðu 8/5

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’haldið 20/3, heldu 19/3

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’þeira 18/3

Haraldr (noun m.) ‘Haraldr...’Haralds 15/8

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’ — 13/5, hart 8/5

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’háar 5/2, 16/4

hefta (verb) ‘restrain, end...’heptuð 18/7

heiðskr (adj.) ‘[Hedmark]...’heiðska 17/5

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 7/2, 9/2

herskorðandi (noun m.) ‘[Army-supporter]...’ — 17/6

hér (adv.) ‘here...’hérs 2/3

1hildr (noun f.) ‘battle...’ — 8/6

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’ — 10/3

hingat (adv.) ‘(to) here...’ — 16/6

2hlaða (verb) ‘heap, pile...’hlóð 9/4

hlunnr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘roller...’hlunns 5/4

2hlýða (verb) ‘hear, listen; be able...’Hlýð 1/1

hollr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘loyal...’hollum 11/6

1hreinn (noun m.) [°; hreinar] ‘reindeer...’hreini 5/3

1hrinda (verb) ‘launch, propell...’hratt 3/1, hratt 15/6

Hringmaraheiðr (noun f.) ‘[Ringmere Heath]...’Hringmaraheiði 9/3

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hringar 8/8

3hræða (verb) ‘fear, be afraid...’hrædduzk 15/1

2hungr (noun n.) ‘hunger...’ — 7/7

1húnn (noun m.) [°; húnar] ‘knob...’hún 5/3

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’ — 18/6

hvǫt (noun f.) [°; dat. -um] ‘boldness...’ — 3/6

hæfr (adj.) ‘splendid...’hæft 20/3

2hætta (verb) ‘risk...’hætt 14/3

ifli (noun m.) ‘hawk...’ifla 17/4

1inn (adv.) ‘in, inside...’ — 2/4

innan (prep.) ‘inside, within...’ — 14/7

2inni (adv.) ‘in, inside, indoors...’ — 2/3

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 4/2, 9/6, 13/1, 14/3

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’ — 16/7

járn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘iron, weapon...’ — 8/8

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfra 17/5, 12/2

jǫrð (noun f.) [°jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)] ‘ground, earth...’jǫrðu 9/7, jǫrðu 20/5

3kanna (verb) ‘know, be able...’kannk 1/2

kantari (noun m.) ‘Kent, Canter(-bury)...’Kantara 10/4

kaup (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘reward, purchase...’ — 14/6

kenna (verb) ‘know, teach...’kenndir 20/4

kennir (noun m.) ‘teacher...’ — 8/1

knǫrr (noun m.) [°knarrar, dat. knerri; knerrir, acc. knǫrru/knerri] ‘(a kind of) ship...’knǫrru 14/2

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’komt 7/1, Komt 13/1

konr (noun m.) [°-ar] ‘kind, descendant...’ — 10/6

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’konung 1/4, 3/2, 3/8, 18/6

krefja (verb) ‘request...’krafðir 8/5

1kyn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘kin...’konar 16/4

kǫstr (noun m.) [°dat. kesti; kestir, acc. kǫstu] ‘pile...’kǫstu 9/4

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’ — 4/4, 9/6, 13/1, landi 4/3, landi 12/4, landi 18/2, lands 13/6, lands 17/2, lǫnd 7/4, lǫnd 8/3, lǫnd 16/8, lǫnd 19/6

3laun (noun n.) [°-; -] ‘rewards...’ — 17/7

lauss (adj.) [°compar. lausari] ‘loose, free, without...’lausum 11/3

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’ — 13/2, láði 19/8

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’létti 9/5, lézt 17/5

3leika (verb) ‘play...’lék 5/3, Lék 10/5

2lenda (verb) ‘give land, put ashore...’lendir 13/1

lendingr (noun m.) ‘landsman...’lendingar 20/4

lengi (adv.) ‘for a long time...’ — 1/8

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’ — 7/8, 14/8

1lind (noun f.) ‘linden-shield, linden tree...’ — 4/3

linnr (noun m.) ‘snake...’linns 6/2, linns 8/3

ljótr (adj.) ‘ugly...’ljótu 17/1

Lundúnir (noun f.) ‘[London]...’Lundúna 8/4

1lúta (verb) ‘(strong)...’Laut 9/5

lýtandi (noun m.) ‘[spoilers, Harmer]...’ — 17/1

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’ — 7/5

manngǫfugr (adj.) ‘noble with retinue...’ — 1/1

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’ — 7/6, mǫrg 4/8, mǫrg 9/8

már (noun m.) ‘gull...’ 16/6

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 2/4, 4/2, 16/3

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’Máttit 11/1, máttit 16/7

mein (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘harm, injury...’meinum 17/7

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’meir 18/3

menni (noun n.) ‘-men...’mennis 2/1

miðja (noun f.) [°-u] ‘the middle...’miðjan 15/8

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’mikla 4/7, mikla 10/2, miklu 19/2

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’mitt 1/8

1minni (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘memory...’ — 1/1

3minni (adj. comp.) [°superl. minnstr] ‘less, least...’minna 7/5

2missa (verb) ‘lose, lack...’misstak 1/6

mjǫk (adv.) ‘very, much...’ — 4/7

morginn (noun m.) [°morgins, dat. morgni; morgnar] ‘morning...’morgin 10/4

1mund (noun f.) ‘hand...’mundar 13/8

mundang (noun n.) [°-s; gen. -a] ‘appropriate...’mundangs 17/7

2myrkr (adj.) [°-an/-jan/-van; compar. -(v)ari/-ri, superl. -(v)astr] ‘dark, murky...’myrk 1/2

mætr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘honoured, respected...’ — 17/8

1mǫrk (noun f.) [°merkr, dat. -u/-; merkr/markir] ‘mark (unit)...’markar 3/4

1 (verb) ‘reach, get, manage...’Nôðuð 12/1, nôðum 20/6, Næði 14/5

1nema (verb) ‘to take...’namt 6/3

nenninn (adj.) ‘vigorous...’nennin 2/3

nes (noun n.) [°-s; -, gen. -ja] ‘headland...’ — 6/4

neyta (verb) ‘use, enjoy...’neytt 15/7, Neyttuð 4/5

niðjungr (noun m.) ‘descendant...’ — 15/8

1niðr (noun m.) [°-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði] ‘son, kinsman, relative...’niðja 13/6

nistandi (noun m.) ‘feeder...’nistanda 1/6

njóta (verb) ‘enjoy, use...’ — 2/2

norðan (adv.) ‘from the north...’ — 3/5

2norðr (adv.) ‘north...’norðast 18/8

Noregr (noun m.) ‘Norway...’Nóreg 15/7

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 3/6, 19/1

nýta (verb) ‘enjoy, use...’naut 13/3

nýtligr (adj.) ‘[most successful]...’nýtligust 3/5

nýtr (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr] ‘useful, able...’nýtri 15/4

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 10/4

4of (particle) ‘(before verb)...’ — 7/5, 7/6, 8/5, 10/8, 15/3, 17/4, 18/5

ofan (adv.) ‘down...’ — 11/8

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 1/3, 1/5, 4/5, 10/8, 13/1, 16/2

opt (adv.) ‘often...’ — 14/4, 15/5

orð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘word...’ — 18/8

ógn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘terror, battle...’ — 12/2, 20/6

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 18/2

ótti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘fear...’ótta 14/3, 6/1

Peita (noun f.) ‘Poitou...’Peitu 12/2

rakkr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘bold...’ — 3/2

rann (noun n.) ‘house, hall...’rǫnn 10/5

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’réð 13/7, rétt 10/6, ræðr 19/1

ráðandi (noun m.) [°-a; ráðendr] ‘ruler...’rôðǫndum 17/2

3reiði (noun n.) [°-s] ‘tackle, rigging...’ — 16/4

2reka (verb) ‘drive, force...’rekna 18/4

rekkr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘man, champion...’rekka 13/3

2remma (verb) ‘strengthen...’remmir 19/2

2renna (verb) ‘run (strong)...’Rann 7/5

reykr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -i/-; -ir] ‘smoke...’ — 10/8

reyna (verb) ‘test, try, experience...’reynduð 12/3

2reyr (noun n.) ‘reed...’ — 18/8

ríki (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘kingdom, power...’ — 10/5, 13/4

ríkr (adj.) ‘mighty, powerful, rich...’ — 3/6

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rauð 9/3, rautt 10/3, 6/4

1rjóðr (noun m.) ‘reddener...’ — 18/2

2róa (verb) ‘row...’róin 4/7

rúni (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘confidant...’ — 13/3

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 12/3

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randa 9/6, randir 4/4, 12/4, rǫndu 7/4

salt (noun n.) [°-s] ‘sea, salt...’ — 4/2

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’Þat 1/5, þat 8/6, þá 16/2, þeiri 19/1, þess 3/7, þess 18/8, því 16/8

sás (conj.) ‘the one who...’ — 13/5, 20/7

segl (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sail...’segls 4/5

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 18/5

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’sér 15/6, 20/8

siklingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’siklinga 10/2

sitja (verb) ‘sit...’sat 18/8, sat 19/7

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 6/3

sjaldan (adv.) ‘seldom...’ — 11/5

sjalfr (adj.) ‘self...’sjalfa 16/2

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’ 15/2

skafa (verb) ‘plane, smoothe...’skǫfnu 5/1

skattr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘treasure, wealth...’skatti 16/3

skaut (noun n.) [°; -] ‘sail...’ — 5/2

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’ — 16/4

skera (verb) ‘cut...’Skôruð 5/1

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’ — 4/4, skipum 9/2, skipum 14/6

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skildir 8/6

skjǫldungr (noun m.) ‘king...’skjǫldunga 14/4, skjǫldunga 20/2

skreyta (verb) ‘adorn...’skreyttu 16/3, skreyttum 4/1

2slíkr (adj.) ‘such...’slíkri 3/6, slíku 13/4, slíku 19/8

slíta (verb) ‘to tear...’sleit 4/7

snúna (verb) ‘turn out, weave together...’snúnat 8/4

2spinna (verb) ‘[had spun]...’spunnu 5/4

springa (verb) ‘burst, spring apart...’sprungu 8/7

standa (verb) ‘stand...’ — 16/8, stœði 14/5

steina (verb) ‘to stain, colour, paint...’steinda 12/3

stórr (adj.) ‘large, great...’stór 11/8, stóran 15/2

strangr (adj.) ‘strong...’ — 14/6

straumr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘stream, current...’ — 14/5

strǫnd (noun f.) [°strandar, dat. -u/-; strandir/strendr] ‘border, edge, coast, shore...’strandar 11/7

stuðill (noun m.) [°; stuðlar] ‘pillar, prop...’ — 13/7

stundum (adv.) ‘at times, sometimes...’ — 4/6, 11/7

stýri (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘rudder...’ — 5/1

1støkkva (verb) ‘(str.) leap, spring; scatter...’Stǫkk 18/5

sund (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sound, strait; swimming...’ — 4/6

svanr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘swan...’svan 6/3

2svinnr (adj.) ‘wise...’svinnum 2/4

Svíþjóð (noun f.) ‘[Sweden]...’Svíþjóðar 6/4

sylgr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘drink, draught...’sylg 5/2

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sóttir 16/5

sætta (verb) ‘reconcile, settle...’sættuð 4/5, sættu 17/8

2taka (verb) ‘take...’tókt 11/2, tókt 16/1

teitr (adj.) ‘glad...’ — 12/2

telja (verb) ‘tell, count...’telk 1/5

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 3/7, 11/7, 19/5

tveir (num. cardinal) ‘two...’tváa 14/2

umstilling (noun f.) ‘[their plottings]...’umbstillingar 17/3

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 4/8, 19/6, 20/8

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ — 3/1, 12/1, 16/5

2unnr (noun f.) ‘wave...’unnum 14/7

valdr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 1/4, 15/3

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’val 9/4, Val 14/1

2varða (verb) ‘defend...’ — 7/3

vargr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’varga 7/6

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’óx 8/6

2veðr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weather, wind, storm...’ — 14/2

veldi (noun n.) ‘realm...’ — 20/3

vengi (noun n.) ‘land, field...’vengis 3/1

2venja (verb) ‘accustom, train...’vanðan 3/4

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’eru 19/5, eru 20/1, st 3/6, vas 6/1, vas 13/5

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’Varð 3/5, varð 15/5, varð 20/5

verk (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘deed...’ — 1/7

verri (adj. comp.) ‘worse, worst...’verra 14/8

vestan (prep.) ‘from the west...’ — 14/1, 20/7

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 5/3, 8/6, 10/5, 11/2, 11/4, 17/8

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’vannt 10/1, 8/3

1vit (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘wisdom, wit; visit...’ — 13/6

víðr (adj.) ‘far...’víð 11/4

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’ — 3/2

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’ — 11/3

vægð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘mercy...’vægðar 11/3

vǫrðr (noun m.) [°varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu] ‘guardian, defender...’ — 4/4, 13/2

1Yggr (noun m.) ‘Yggr...’Yggs 8/2

2ynglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king...’ — 20/8

Yngvi (noun m.) ‘Yngvi, prince...’ — 7/7, 10/1

yrkja (verb) ‘compose...’ — 1/2

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 13/8

þars (conj.) ‘where...’ — 11/2

þats (conj.) ‘that, which...’ — 5/4

þás (conj.) ‘when...’ — 17/7

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’þegnum 20/1

1þekkja (verb) ‘perceive, know...’þekkir 18/5

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’ — 1/8, 9/1

þeyja (verb) ‘[to be diminished]...’ — 7/8

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’ — 11/8, þinga 8/8, þings 16/6

þinn (pron.) [°f. þín, n. þitt] ‘your...’ — 9/2, 18/3, þinni 6/2, þín 3/8, þín 13/3

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 7/4, 18/5, 20/2

þofti (noun m.) ‘companions, benchmate...’þopti 14/4

þora (verb) ‘dare...’þorðut 7/3

þrek (noun n.) ‘courage, strength...’ — 3/3, 7/6

þrekr (noun m.) ‘powerful...’ — 18/4

þreytir (noun m.) ‘destroyer, wager, tester...’ — 18/1

þróttr (noun m.) ‘strength, might, valour...’Þróttar 16/5

þrøngva (verb) ‘press, throng...’þryngvi 20/8

þrøngvir (noun m.) ‘forcer...’ — 19/7

þungr (adj.) ‘heavy...’þunga 9/1

2þurfa (verb) ‘need, be necessary...’þarfk 2/1

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’yðr 1/3, yðr 9/5, þér 4/8, þér 7/3, þér 8/4, þér 11/4, þér 18/6, þér 19/6, þér 20/1, þér 20/6, þik 3/4, þik 17/8, þik 19/2, 3/3, 16/5, 19/1

þvít (conj.) ‘because, since...’ — 1/2

2ægir (noun m.) ‘ocean, sea...’ægi 15/1

1ætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘family...’ — 10/2, 19/6, ættar 11/1

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’aldar 10/7, aldar 15/3, 11/2

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ — 14/2

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