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Haraldr harðráði Sigurðarson (Hharð)

11th century; volume 2; ed. Kari Ellen Gade;

2. Lausavísur (Lv) - 15

See ‘Royal Biographies’ in Introduction to this volume.

Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300 > 8. Introduction > 5. Biographies > 1. Royal Biographies > 1. Kings of Norway > g. Haraldr III harðráði Sigurðarson (Hharð) (r. 1046-66)

Sagas: ÓH, MH, HSig (Ágr, Flat, Fsk, H-Hr, Hkr, Mork, Theodoricus).

Haraldr harðráði ‘Hard-rule’ Sigurðarson was the son of Sigurðr sýr ‘Sow’ and Ásta Guðbrandsdóttir (see Genealogy II.2.f in ÍF 28). He fought alongside his half-brother, Óláfr Haraldsson (S. Óláfr), at the battle of Stiklestad (29 July 1030) and escaped wounded from the battlefield to seek refuge in Russia. After spending some years in the service of Jaroslav of Novgorod, he proceeded from Russia to Byzantium, where he served as a mercenary in the Varangian army before his return to Norway via Russia and Sweden in 1045/46. From 1046 he ruled jointly with his nephew, Magnús inn góði, and after Magnús’s death (25 October 1047) Haraldr was the sole ruler of Norway until he fell at the battle of Stamford Bridge (on 25 September 1066). See Anon Nkt 38-9, Theodoricus (MHN 50-1, 54-7; McDougall and McDougall 1998, 38-9, 43-46), Ágr (ÍF 29, 36-40; Ágr 1995, 52-9), Mork (Mork 1928-32, 55-281; Andersson and Gade 2000, 129-274), Fsk (ÍF 29, 227-90; Finlay 2004, 181-232), ÓHHkr (ÍF 27, 107-8, 347-8, 364; Hollander 1991, 314-15, 488-9, 500-1), HSigHkr (ÍF 28, 68-202; Hollander 1991, 577-663), Flat (Flat 1860-8, III, 287-432), H-Hr (Fms 6, 127-432). See also Hem (Hb 1892-6, 331-49; Fellows-Jensen 1962, 1-64), , Knýtl (ÍF 35, 132-3, 151; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1986, 46-7, 60), Orkn (ÍF 34, 53-4, 75-8, 80, 86-7, 339; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1987, 56-7, 71-4, 77-8).

Events documented in poetry: The battle of Stiklestad (1030) and Haraldr’s escape to Sweden (Hharð Gamv 1; Hharð Lv 1, 2a-2b; ÞjóðA Sex 1); his journey to Russia and his Russian campaigns 1031-3 (ÞjóðA Run 1, 3; Bǫlv Hardr 1); his journey to Constantinople and his campaigns as a mercenary in the Varangian army 1034-42 (Hharð Gamv 2, 4; Hharð Lv 10-11; Þjóð Sex 2-8; ÞjóðA Lv 4; Ill Har 2-4; Bǫlv Hardr 2-6; ÞSkegg Hardr; Valg Hardr 1-4; Þfisk Lv 2-3; Stúfr Stúfdr 2-3); his return to Russia and marriage to Ellisif (Stúfr Stúfdr 4); his journey to Sweden and his harrying in Denmark with Sveinn Úlfsson (ÞjóðA Sex 9; Valg Hardr 5-9); his meeting and reconciliation with Magnús inn góði (ÞjóðA Sex 10; ÞjóðA Frag 1; Bǫlv Hardr 7); his dealings with Magnús (Mgóð Lv 1; Hharð Lv 3); his return to Norway after Magnús’s death in Denmark in 1047 (Valg Hardr 10-11); his first naval campaign against Sveinn Úlfsson and the Danes in 1048 (Hharð Lv 4; ÞjóðA Lv 2; Bǫlv Hardr 8; Grani Har 1-2; Anon (HSig) 1); subsequent campaigns in Denmark against Sveinn (Hharð Lv 5, 10; ÞjóðA Lv 3-4; Arn Hardr 1; Þfagr Sveinn 2-9; Stúfr Stúfdr 5-6; Anon (HSig) 2, 5); the slaying of Einarr þambarskelfir and other enemies (Hharð Lv 6-8; Arn Hardr 1); the desertion of Norwegian magnates to Sveinn in Denmark (ÞjóðA Sex 12); the battle of the Nissan against Sveinn in 1062 (ÞjóðA Sex 13-18; ÞjóðA Har 1-7; Arn Hardr 2-4; Stúfr Stúfdr 7; Steinn Nizv; Steinn Úlffl); the peace treaty between Haraldr and Sveinn in 1064 (ÞjóðA Sex 23; Halli XI Fl); Haraldr’s campaign against Hákon Ívarsson (ÞjóðA Lv 9); his dealing with Norwegian insurrection (ÞjóðA Sex 19-22; Arn Hardr 5-6); the events leading up to the English campaign in 1066 (Hjǫrtr Lv 1-3; Úlfr Lv; Anon (HSig 6-9); the battles of Fulford and Stamford Bridge (Hharð Lv 13-14; ÞjóðA Lv 10-11; Arn Hardr 7-16; Stúfr Stúfdr 8; Steinn Óldr 1-3; Anon Harst). For þættir and smaller anecdotes involving Haraldr and other poets, see Haraldr Lv 9, 12; ÞjóðA Lv 4-8; SnH Lv; Þfisk Lv; Anon (HSig) 3-4.

Lausavísur — Hharð LvII

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Haraldr harðráði Sigurðarson, Lausavísur’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 42-6.

stanzas:  1   2a   2b   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14 

Skj: Haraldr Sigurðarson harðráði: Lausavísur (AI, 356-61, BI, 328-32); stanzas (if different): 2/1-4 | 2/5-8 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19

in texts: Flat, Fsk, H-Hr, Hb, , Hkr, HSig, MH, Mork, Orkn, ÓH, ÓHHkr, ÓHLeg, Skm, SnE, Snegl

SkP info: II, 42-6

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 1/3, 2b/1, 11/1

akkeri (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘[anchor, anchors]...’ — 4/4

aligás (noun f.) ‘[tame goose]...’ — 12/7

allr (adj.) ‘all...’allra 8/1, allt 12/5

alvaxinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[a full-grown]...’ — 12/3

1armr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘arm...’arm 1/1

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 1/7, 5/1, 9/2, 13/8, 14/3

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 3/3, 6/6

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 12/8, 12/10

1auka (verb) [°eykr; jók, jóku/juku] ‘(str. intrans.) increase...’ — 8/8

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 1/8, 6/7, 10/3, 11/3

árna (verb) [°-að-] ‘gain, travel...’árnar 12/5

Baldr (noun m.) ‘[Baldr, Baldur]...’ — 5/1, Baldri 5/1

barn (noun n.) [°-s; bǫrn/barn(JKr 345³), dat. bǫrnum/barnum] ‘child...’Bǫrn 12/5

1ben (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)] ‘wound...’benjar 2a/1

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’ — 14/6

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bað 14/5

bíða (verb) [°bíðr; beið, biðu; beðit] ‘wait, suffer, experience...’bíðr 6/5

bjóða (verb) [°býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)] ‘offer, order, invite...’bauð 14/3

blár (adj.) ‘black...’bláar 13/4

blik (noun n.) ‘gleam...’bliks 7/2

blíðr (adj.) [°n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘gentle, happy...’ — 1/6

blœða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘bleed...’ — 2a/1

borð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘side, plank, board; table...’ — 11/6

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’branda 10/6

brynjulauss (adj.) ‘[without byrnies]...’brynjulausir 13/3

brǫkun (noun f.) ‘[crash]...’ — 14/2

bugr (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i] ‘hollow, bend...’bug 14/4

búþegn (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘farmer, landowner...’búþegna 2a/2

bǫð (noun f.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’ — 2a/4

danr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘Dane...’Dani 10/2

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’drífr 6/6

dyggr (adj.) [°dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str] ‘trustworthy...’dyggvir 10/1

1egg (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)] ‘edge, blade...’eggjar 13/4

eggja (verb) [°-að-] ‘urge...’eggjumk 8/2

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’átt 12/2, átt 12/4, átt 12/6, átt 12/8, átt 12/10

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 14/2

eik (noun f.) [°eikr/eikar; eikr] ‘oak...’ — 4/2

Einarr (noun m.) ‘Einarr...’Einar 6/2, 7/3

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’eina 12/7

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’mér 11/6, mik 14/5

1ekkja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur, gen. ekkna] ‘widow, woman...’ekkju 1/2

ellifu (num. cardinal) ‘eleven...’ — 8/1

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 2a/1, 8/5, 10/4, 10/8, 11/8

England (noun n.) ‘England...’ — 11/5

2enn (adv.) ‘still, yet, again...’ — 8/3, 11/5

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 1/4, es 8/6, es 10/5, þars 1/6, þars 14/5, þats 12/5

faðir (noun m.) ‘father...’ — 3/4

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’ferr 8/6

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fekk 2a/3

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 10/3

2finna (verb) ‘find, meet...’finnk 6/6

fjarri (adv.) ‘far, far from it, unlikely...’ — 10/5

fjǫlmennr (adj.) ‘with many men...’fjǫlmennan 6/4

flótti (noun m.) ‘flight, fleeing...’flótta 10/3

flœðr (noun f.) ‘high tide; ocean...’flœði 11/3

forðum (adv.) ‘formerly, once...’ — 14/6

fóstr (noun n.) ‘foster-...’ — 10/6

fram (adv.) ‘out, forth, forwards, away...’framm 9/2, framm 10/4, framm 11/4, Framm 13/1

frægr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str] ‘famous, renowned...’ — 2b/4

2fullafli (adj.) ‘[powerful one]...’ — 6/5

fylking (noun f.) ‘troop...’fylkingu 13/2

fylla (verb) ‘fill...’fyllar 6/5

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 1/8, 11/4, 11/5, 14/1

fyrr (adv.) ‘before, sooner...’ — 10/5

galdr (noun m.) ‘chant, incantation...’galdrs 4/4

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’ — 6/4, gekk 11/3, Gengra 1/5, gǫngum 13/1

garðr (noun m.) ‘enclosure, yard...’garði 10/7

Gerðr (noun f.) ‘Gerðr...’ — 4/3

ginn (noun n.) ‘vast, mighty...’ — 8/5

1gjalda (verb) ‘pay, repay...’ — 12/2, 12/4, 12/6, 12/8, 12/10

gnýr (noun m.) ‘din, tumult...’gný 14/8

Goðnarfjǫrðr (noun m.) ‘[Randersfjord]...’Goðnarfirði 4/3

grand (noun n.) ‘injury...’ — 2a/4

grautr (noun m.) ‘[porridge]...’Graut 9/3

gráleikr (noun m.) ‘[ill will]...’gráleik 8/5

greppr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘poet, man...’ — 1/5

gull (noun n.) ‘gold...’golls 8/6

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle...’gunn 1/6

gæfr (adj.) [°compar. -ari/-ri, superl. -astr] ‘pleasing...’gæft 8/8

1gǫrr (adj.) ‘ample, perfect...’ — 9/4

gǫrva (adv.) ‘fully...’gørva 9/3

hafa (verb) ‘have...’hefkat 13/6, hefr 5/1

hald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘support...’ — 14/4

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’ — 4/4

Halli (noun m.) ‘Halli...’ — 9/1

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’harða 10/1

hauss (noun m.) [°hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar] ‘skull...’hausar 14/7

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’Hôtt 14/5

2heiðr (noun m.) ‘honour - gen. -ar...’heiðar 2b/2

2heita (verb) ‘be called, promise...’héti 3/3

2herða (verb) ‘strengthen...’ — 1/7

2heyra (verb) ‘hear...’heyrðak 3/3

hér (adv.) ‘here...’ — 6/1

2Hildr (noun f.) ‘Hildr...’ — 14/3

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’hilmis 6/7

hirðmaðr (noun m.) ‘retainer...’hirðmenn 10/2

1hjaldr (noun m.) ‘battle...’hjaldri 14/3

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjalm 14/8, Hjalmar 13/5

hleypa (verb) ‘impell, make run...’Hleypk 9/2

hljóta (verb) ‘alot, gain...’Hlautk 11/1

2hlýr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘cheek, bow...’hlýri 11/2

2Hlǫkk (noun f.) ‘Hlǫkk...’Hlakkar 14/7

hrauðung (noun f.) ‘[empty fleet]...’ — 11/1

húskarl (noun m.) ‘retainer...’húskarla 6/8

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’ — 2b/3, Hvert 9/1

Hvinngestr (noun m.) ‘Thief-guest...’ — 3/4

1hæll (noun m.) [°hǽls, dat. hǽli; hǽlar] ‘heel...’hæl 1/8, hæla 6/7

hǫggva (verb) ‘to strike, put to death, cut, hew...’Hjoggu 10/1

2inn (art.) ‘the...’Hitt 10/5, in 11/2, 1/5, 6/1, 7/4

inna (verb) ‘to pay, discharge, relate, tell; to anno...’ — 8/5

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 1/4, 2a/4, 4/3, 10/7, 11/7, 13/2, 14/4, 14/8

íss (noun m.) [°íss; dat. ísi/ís; ísar] ‘ice...’ — 14/7

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’jarli 6/8

kenna (verb) ‘know, teach...’Kennir 12/1

krjúpa (verb) ‘creep, kneel...’Krjúpum 14/1

kunna (verb) ‘know, can, be able...’kann 6/2

kveða (verb) ‘say, recite...’ — 8/7

kyrtill (noun m.) [°dat. kyrtli; kyrtlar] ‘shirt...’kyrtil 12/1

kyssa (verb) ‘kiss...’kyssi 7/3

kýr (noun f.) [°kýr, dat. kú; kýr] ‘cow...’ 12/2

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landi 7/2, landi 10/6

langr (adj.) [°compar. lengri, superl. lengstr] ‘long...’lǫngu 10/8, lǫngu 11/8

laukr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘leek, mast...’lauki 8/8

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’ — 9/3, Lôtum 4/1, lætk 2b/1

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’ — 2a/3, 6/8

liggja (verb) ‘lie...’liggr 13/7

1lind (noun f.) ‘linden-shield, linden tree...’lindar 2a/3

lirla (verb) ‘[lulls]...’lirlar 4/1

líf (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘life...’lífs 2a/4

lín (noun n.) ‘linen; headband...’ — 4/2

lítill (adj.) [°lítinn] ‘little...’lítit 8/7

ljúga (verb) ‘lie...’Logit 5/1

lýtandi (noun m.) ‘[spoilers, Harmer]...’lýtendr 8/7

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’manna 8/3, manna 12/9, menn 1/7

malmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘metal...’malma 14/8

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’Margar 12/9

matr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir] ‘food...’ — 9/4

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 8/6

meðan (conj.) ‘while...’ — 4/1

megna (verb) ‘strengthen...’ — 2a/2

2men (noun n.) [°; dat. menjum] ‘neck-ring...’ — 14/6

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’minna 6/6, mína 13/6

1morð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘killing, battle...’ — 8/4, morði 1/7

mosi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘moss, bog...’mosa 12/10

1mót (noun n.) [°; -] ‘meeting...’ — 1/8

1muna (verb) ‘remember...’mank 8/3

munnr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘mouth...’munn 7/4

munr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i] ‘mind, pleasure...’ — 1/2

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mun 7/1, munk 1/1, munt 9/3

mær (noun f.) [°meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar] ‘maiden...’ — 11/2

2nema (conj.) ‘unless...’ — 2b/3, 7/3

niðri (adv.) ‘below...’ — 13/8

norðan (adv.) ‘from the north...’ — 11/6

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 2b/1, 8/1, 13/7

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 2b/4

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 8/2, 12/3, 12/5, 12/7, 12/10, 14/7

opt (adv.) ‘often...’ — 6/6

orð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘word...’ — 14/4

oxi (noun m.) [°-a; yxn/øxn/oxar] ‘ox...’oxa 12/3

ógegn (adj.) ‘[an unreliable]...’ — 3/2

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 7/2

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’Réðk 2a/1, 7/1

ráðbani (noun m.) ‘[death-instigator]...’ — 8/4

2reiði (noun f.) [°-] ‘anger...’ — 1/3

1ríða (verb) ‘ride...’ — 1/6

rísta (verb) ‘carve, raise...’ristin 11/7

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rauðk 10/6, rjóðum 1/3

rjóðandi (noun m.) ‘reddener...’ — 7/1

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randa 7/2, 1/4

rǫng (noun f.) ‘frame, rib...’ — 11/8

2rǫst (noun f.) [°; gen. rasta] ‘current...’rǫstum 11/7

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’þann 1/1, þanns 6/2, þat 9/4, þat 10/4, þat 10/8, þat 11/4, þat 11/8, þats 1/2, þau 8/3

2serkr (noun m.) [°; gen. -ja] ‘Saracen...’Serkja 10/7

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sínum 4/2

1síð (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘um síðir: in the end...’síðir 2b/4

1sjá (pron.) [°gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir] ‘this...’þenna 12/1

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sák 2a/2, sék 6/1

2skeina (verb) ‘scratch...’ — 6/2

skelfir (noun m.) ‘terrifier...’skelfi 6/3

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’skipum 13/8

skína (verb) ‘shine...’ — 13/5

1skjalfa (verb) ‘shake - intrans....’skalf 11/7

skjóta (verb) ‘shoot...’ — 11/1

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skjaldar 14/4

skjǫldungr (noun m.) ‘king...’skjǫldungi 12/2, skjǫldungi 12/4, skjǫldungi 12/6, skjǫldungi 12/8, skjǫldungi 12/10

skolli (noun m.) [°-a] ‘fox, trickery...’ — 8/6

skorð (noun f.) ‘prop...’ — 14/6

skógr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘forest...’skóg 2b/1, skógi 2b/1

skreiða (verb) ‘slink, creep...’skreiðask 2b/2

skrúð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[armour]...’ — 13/7

skyrkaup (noun n.) ‘[buy curds]...’skyrkaupi 9/2

skýrr (adj.) ‘clear...’skýra 11/2

skǫmmu (adv.) ‘recently...’ — 10/4, 11/4

slag (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘weapon...’slǫg 1/6

smyrva (verb) ‘[buttered]...’smjǫrvan 9/4

spjót (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘spear...’spjótum 1/8

stallr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘seat, stall, support...’stall 14/8

standa (verb) ‘stand...’ — 1/4, 2a/4

stilla (verb) ‘control...’stillir 9/1

stirðr (adj.) ‘stiff...’stirða 10/2

1stóll (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘seat, throne...’stóls 6/7

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 11/5

súð (noun f.) [°-ar; gen. -a] ‘planking, ship...’ — 11/3

svá (adv.) ‘so, thus...’ — 14/3

svát (conj.) ‘so that, so as...’ — 8/3

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’ — 10/7

svín (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘swine, pig...’ — 12/7

syngja (verb) ‘sing...’sǫng 10/8

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sótti 10/3

teigr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ar, acc. -a/-u] ‘field, land...’teigs 14/2

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 8/8

tveir (num. cardinal) ‘two...’tveggja 8/2

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 11/6, 13/4

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ungi 1/5

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 6/1

vaða (verb) ‘advance, wade...’óð 11/6

2valr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘falcon...’val 14/2

váði (noun m.) [°-a] ‘danger...’ — 2a/3

vápn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weapon...’vápna 14/1

várr (pron.) [°f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir] ‘our...’várt 13/7

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’emk 8/1, eru 12/9, es 9/4, est 3/2, ro 8/3, vas 10/4, vas 10/5, vas 10/8, vas 11/4, vas 11/8

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’verðak 2b/3

3verja (verb) ‘defend...’ — 1/1

1verr (noun m.) [°[-s; -ar/ir]] ‘man...’veri 4/2

1vél (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar/-ir] ‘deceit, trick; device...’vélar 12/9

vér (pron.) [°gen. vár, dat./acc. oss] ‘we, us, our...’oss 7/3, 1/3, 4/1, 13/1, 14/1

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’orðinn 8/4

1vita (verb) ‘know...’veit 2b/3

1víða (adv.) ‘widely...’ — 2b/4

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’vígs 8/2

þang (noun n.) [°-s] ‘seaweed, kelp...’þangs 6/4

þegja (verb) ‘be silent...’Þegi 3/1

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’ — 3/2

þinn (pron.) [°f. þín, n. þitt] ‘your...’ — 3/4

þjalfi (noun m.) ‘Þjálfi, enclosure ...’þjalfa 6/3

þora (verb) ‘dare...’ — 1/1

Þórir (noun m.) ‘Þórir...’ — 3/1

þunnr (adj.) ‘slender, thin...’þunna 7/4

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’ — 3/1, 9/1

þǫmb (noun f.) ‘[Tomma, þambar]...’þambar 6/3

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ǫrva 6/1

øx (noun f.) [°øxar/exar, dat. øxi/exi, acc. øxi/øx; -ar] ‘axe...’øxar 7/4

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated