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Runic Dictionary

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Einarr Skúlason (ESk)

12th century; volume 2; ed. Kari Ellen Gade;

III. 2. Fragments (Frag) - 18

We know very little about the life of Einarr Skúlason (ESk). He is called prestr ‘priest’ and is mentioned in a catalogue (c. 1220) of priests of noble birth who were alive in western Iceland in 1143 (Stu 1878, II, 502). It is likely that he came from Borg, belonged to the Mýrar family and was a direct descendant of Þorsteinn Egilsson and a brother of Snorri Sturluson’s maternal grandfather (LH 1894-1901, II, 62-3; ÍF 3, 51 n. 3). He was probably born c. 1090. In 1153, he recited the poem Geisli ‘Light-beam’ (ESk GeislVII) in Kristkirken in Trondheim. He was marshal (stallari) at King Eysteinn Magnússon’s court, and he composed poetry in praise of the Norw. kings Sigurðr jórsalafari ‘Jerusalem-farer’ and Eysteinn Magnússon, Haraldr gilli(-kristr) ‘Servant (of Christ)’, Magnús inn blindi ‘the Blind’ Sigurðarson, Haraldr gilli’s sons, Ingi, Sigurðr munnr ‘Mouth’, and Eysteinn, and about the Norw. chieftain Grégóríus Dagsson (see SnE 1848-87, III, 254-5, 263-4, 269, 276-7, 286). According to Skáldatal, he also honoured the Norw. magnate Eindriði ungi ‘the Young’ Jónsson as well as Sørkvir Kolsson and Jón jarl Sørkvisson of Sweden and King Sveinn Eiríksson of Denmark (SnE 1848-87, III, 252, 258, 260, 268-9, 272, 283, 286). About the latter he recited a poem for which he received no reward (see ESk Lv 3; ÍF 35, 275). The extant portion of his poetic oeuvre consists of the following poems (excluding lvv.): Sigurðardrápa I (Sigdr I, five extant sts about Sigurðr jórsalafari); Haraldsdrápa I (Hardr I, two extant sts about Haraldr gilli); Haraldsdrápa II (Hardr II, five extant sts about Haraldr gilli); Haraldssonakvæði (Harsonkv, two extant sts about the sons of Haraldr gilli); Sigurðardrápa II (Sigdr II, one extant st. about Sigurðr munnr Haraldsson); Runhenda (Run, ten extant sts about Eysteinn Haraldsson); Eysteinsdrápa (Eystdr, two extant sts about Eysteinn Haraldsson); Ingadrápa (Ingdr, four extant sts about Ingi Haraldsson); Elfarvísur (Elfv, two extant sts about Grégóríus Dagsson); Geisli (GeislVII, seventy-one sts about S. Óláfr); Øxarflokkr (ØxflIII, ten extant sts about the gift of an axe).

It must be emphasised that, although the poetry included in the royal panegyrics below clearly belongs to poems of that genre, with two exceptions (Hardr II and Elfv), all the names of the poems are modern constructs (notably by Jón Sigurðsson and Finnur Jónsson). That also holds true for the assignment of sts to the individual poems. In some cases, sts were assigned to a particular poem for metrical reasons (so Run), in other cases because of the content or the named recipients of the praise. For the sake of convenience, the names of the poems and the sts assigned to them as found in Skj have been retained in the present edn. In addition to the royal encomia, a number of fragments and lvv. attributed to Einarr are preserved in SnE, TGT and LaufE (see ESk Frag 1-18III; ESk Lv 7-15III). These have been edited separately in SkP III. Six lvv. are transmitted in the kings’ sagas and edited below.

Fragments — ESk FragIII

Kari Ellen Gade 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Einarr Skúlason, Fragments’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 151.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18 

Skj: Einarr Skúlason: 12. Ubestemmelige vers, tilhørende forskellige fyrstedigte eller lausavísur (AI, 479-82, BI, 451-4)

in texts: LaufE, Skm, SnE

SkP info: III, 151

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-snúinn (adj.) ‘[twisted]...’snúinn 16/3

almr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘bow, elm-bow...’alm 16/4

andr (noun m.) [°; andrar] ‘ski...’ǫndri 12/2

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 17/1

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 3/1, 5/1, 14/4, 15/3, 18/3

barð (noun n.) ‘prow, stern (of a ship)...’bǫrðum 13/2

bál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘fire...’ — 1/2, báls 3/4

1beita (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘food, meal...’beitu 8/2

Beiti (noun m.) ‘Beiti...’Beita 1/1

1ben (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)] ‘wound...’benjum 7/3

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’ — 11/1, berr 2/1

bif (noun n.) ‘quivering...’ — 14/4

2bjóðr (noun m.) ‘inviter...’ — 3/3

1blakkr (noun m.) ‘horse...’ — 9/3

blár (adj.) ‘black...’blá 7/4

2bleikja (verb) [°-kð-] ‘[goes white]...’bleikir 14/3

blik (noun n.) ‘gleam...’ — 6/4

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’ — 7/3

Blóðughadda (noun f.) ‘Blóðughadda...’ — 17/5

borg (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -; -ir] ‘city, stronghold...’borgar 1/1

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’bregðr 6/3

brim (noun n.) ‘surf...’ — 15/2

brimsolginn (adj.) ‘[sea-swollen]...’brimsolgin 17/6

bruna (verb) [°-að-] ‘speed...’brunar 5/3

bræddr (adj.) ‘tarred, tar-painted ...’Brædd 17/5

bǫl (noun n.) [°-s, dat. bǫlvi] ‘evil...’ — 14/3

dolgr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ar] ‘enemy, battle...’Dolg 6/1

dorg (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar] ‘trolling-line, fishing-line...’dorgar 10/1

2drekka (verb) [°drekkr; drakk, drukku; drukkinn/drykkinn] ‘drink...’drekkr 7/3

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’drífr 4/4, drífr 10/1

2dúfa (noun f.) ‘dove...’ — 17/4

dúkr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir(DN IV (1348) 263²⁹)] ‘dress, cloth...’dúks 14/3

dynstrǫnd (noun f.) ‘[roaring beach]...’ — 10/2

dýrr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr] ‘precious...’ — 6/2, dýrum 6/1

dœgr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘day and night; 24h period...’dægr 16/2

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 7/1, 10/1, 15/1

él (noun n.) [°; dat. -um] ‘storm...’ — 16/3

élvindr (noun m.) ‘[storm-wind]...’ — 9/2

fagr (adj.) [°fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr] ‘fair, beautiful...’fagrir 15/1

faldr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘headdress...’fald 2/1

falla (verb) ‘fall...’fell 18/4, fellr 17/6

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’ferk 3/3

faxi (noun m.) ‘steed...’faxa 8/4

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fekksk 8/3

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 11/2

1ferma (noun f.) ‘[food]...’fermu 6/3

2finna (verb) ‘find, meet...’fundu 18/1

firar (noun m.) ‘men...’fira 10/4

1fjall (noun n.) ‘mountain...’fjalli 2/4

fjǫrðr (noun m.) ‘fjord...’fjarð 3/4

fjǫturr (noun m.) ‘fetter...’ — 11/3

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’ — 15/1

2flóð (noun n.) ‘flood...’flóðs 15/2

flugastraumr (noun m.) ‘[violent current]...’flugastraumi 14/2

flœð (noun f.) ‘flood, sea...’flœðar 3/3

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 2/2

frami (noun m.) ‘success...’frama 2/3

framlyndr (adj.) ‘ambitious...’framlyndir 18/1

frá (prep.) ‘from...’ — 9/1

frœkn (adj.) ‘brave, bold...’frœknu 2/1

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 2/3, 13/2

fyrr (adv.) ‘before, sooner...’ — 18/2

2Garmr (noun m.) ‘[hound, Garmr]...’Garmi 6/4

geð (noun n.) ‘mind...’ — 2/4

Geri (noun m.) ‘Geri...’Gera 8/2

gjǫrð (noun f.) ‘girdle...’ — 13/2

glóð (noun f.) ‘ember...’glóðum 15/2

glymja (verb) ‘resound...’ — 15/4

glymr (noun m.) ‘noise...’ — 17/3

glymvindr (noun m.) ‘[roaring wind]...’Glymvindi 4/1

gnesta (verb) ‘emit crashing sound...’gnestr 4/2

grafa (verb) ‘to dig, earth, bury...’grefr 16/3

gránn (adj.) ‘grey...’Gráns 11/1

greipr (noun m.) ‘grip, hands...’greipum 10/4

1grennir (noun m.) ‘feeder...’grenni 17/3

greppr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘poet, man...’ — 2/3

grimmr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘fierce...’grimmustum 1/2

grund (noun f.) ‘earth, land...’ — 9/4, 14/4

grǫn (noun f.) ‘mouth...’ — 8/4

gullinn (adj.) ‘golden...’gollna 11/1

gumi (noun m.) [°-a; gumar/gumnar] ‘man...’gumnum 2/3

gǫfugr (adj.) [°gǫfgan/gǫfugan; compar. gǫfgari/gǫfugri, superl. gǫfgastr/gǫfugstr/gǫfugastr] ‘noble, glorious...’gǫfug 11/2

2Gǫndul (noun f.) ‘Gǫndul...’Gǫndlar 4/1, Gǫndlar 17/4

hafa (verb) ‘have...’hefr 9/1

haflauðr (noun n.) ‘[sea-foam]...’ — 17/8

hagl (noun n.) [°-s; dat. *-um] ‘hail...’hagli 4/3

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’ — 9/1

1harmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sorrow, grief...’harmi 6/3, 6/4

haustkaldr (adj.) ‘[autumn-cold]...’Haustkǫld 12/1

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’hôr 1/3

hefring (noun f.) ‘hefring...’ — 17/7

heilagr (adj.) [°helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘holy, sacred...’helga 5/3

heimr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘home, abode; world...’heims 1/4

Heiti (noun m.) ‘Heiti...’Heita 11/3

héldr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘rime-covered...’héldum 12/1

2Hildr (noun f.) ‘Hildr...’Hildar 4/3

himinglæva (noun f.) ‘himinglæva...’ — 17/2

2hjaldr (noun n.) ‘battle...’ — 7/1

hjarta (noun n.) [°-; *-u] ‘heart...’ — 7/4

hjǫrr (noun m.) ‘sword...’ — 4/2

1hlið (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; -ar] ‘side...’ — 15/3

hlymja (verb) ‘[roars]...’hlymr 15/4

2hlýr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘cheek, bow...’ — 17/7

hnossvinr (noun m.) ‘[treasure-friend]...’hnossvin 1/3

holmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘island, islet...’holm 11/3, holm 12/2

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’hrafni 11/4

hraustr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘strong, valiant...’ — 4/4, hraustum 17/1

1hrinda (verb) ‘launch, propell...’hrindr 14/3, hrundit 9/4

hrægjarn (adj.) ‘[corpse-eager]...’hrægjǫrn 5/4

1Huginn (noun m.) ‘Huginn...’Hugins 6/3

hugr (noun m.) ‘mind, thought, courage...’hug 7/2

hvargi (adv.) ‘[Neither, wherever]...’Hvargis 1/1

hvass (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘keen, sharp...’hvasst 17/1

hvatr (adj.) [°-ari, -an; -astr] ‘keen, brave...’hvatt 5/3

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hvára 15/3

hvé (conj.) ‘how...’ — 3/3

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’hykkat 18/2

hǫlðr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘man...’hauldar 7/1

Hǫrðar (noun m.) ‘the Hǫrðar...’Hǫrða 2/2

2inn (art.) ‘the...’ins 5/3

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 5/4, 9/3, 10/2, 14/1

ítrserkr (noun m.) ‘[splendid shirt]...’ítrserki 3/2

jast (noun n.) ‘yeast...’jastar 3/1

járn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘iron, weapon...’Jarn 8/4, jǫrnum 8/3

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfri 11/2, jǫfri 16/3

jǫrð (noun f.) [°jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)] ‘ground, earth...’jǫrðu 9/1

kaldr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘cold...’ — 16/1

1keipr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘[rowlock]...’ — 10/4

knega (verb) ‘to know, understand, be able to...’kná 6/1

kolga (noun f.) ‘breaker, wave...’ — 17/6

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’konungs 2/2, konungs 7/4

2kyrra (verb) ‘[calmed]...’kyrrðu 18/2

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landa 13/1, lǫndum 10/2

1 (noun f.) [°; -r] ‘surf...’ 18/2

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’lætr 4/1, lætr 9/3

1leygr (noun m.) ‘flame...’Leyg 5/1

logi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘flame...’ — 1/4

1lúta (verb) ‘(strong)...’ — 7/2

lǫgr (noun m.) [°lagar, dat. legi] ‘sea...’ — 15/1

magnandi (noun m.) ‘strengthener...’ — 6/2

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’ — 10/1, mart 16/2

1marr (noun m.) ‘sea...’ — 16/1

matr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir] ‘food...’ — 8/3

1mál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘speech, matter...’máli 3/4

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’mestum 4/2

merkja (verb) ‘mark, signify...’merkðan 3/2

mildr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘mild, gentle, gracious, generous...’mildum 16/1

Muninn (noun m.) ‘Muninn...’ — 7/3

Mǫn (noun f.) ‘Man...’Manar 16/4

1nema (verb) ‘to take...’nemi 3/3

(conj.) ‘nor...’ — 18/1

næst (adv.) ‘next...’ — 3/1

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 1/3, 2/1, 3/4, 17/8

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 17/4

ormr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘serpent...’orm 3/1

Óláfr (noun m.) ‘Óláfr...’Óláfs 5/2

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 7/3

Rakni (noun m.) ‘Rakni...’Rakna 14/1

rammr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘mighty...’ramr 14/1

rauðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘red...’rauðan 17/8

2reka (verb) ‘drive, force...’rek 14/2

3rif (noun n.) ‘reef in a sail...’rifjum 14/4

rísa (verb) ‘rise, raise...’ríss 10/1

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rauð 8/1, rýðr 5/1

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’ — 12/2

saumr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘nail, seam...’ — 14/2

Saxa (noun f.) ‘Saxa...’sǫxu 8/4

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ 11/2, þat 3/4

sámleitr (adj.) ‘[swarthy]...’Sámleitum 8/1

segl (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sail...’ — 4/3

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sék 3/1

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’sær 15/3, sær 18/3, sævar 17/2

skáli (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘hall...’skála 1/2

skári (noun m.) ‘[sea-gull, gull]...’skára 6/1

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’skipa 5/2, skipi 9/4

skjóta (verb) ‘shoot...’skýtr 11/3

2skota (verb) ‘[shoves]...’skotar 12/1

2skúfr (noun m.) ‘[skua]...’skúfs 17/4

skǫr (noun f.) [°skarar; skarir] ‘hair, planking...’skarar 2/4

slíta (verb) ‘to tear...’sleit 8/2

snákr (noun m.) ‘snake...’Snáks 2/1

snekkja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘warship...’snekkju 11/4

snjallr (adj.) ‘quick, resourceful, bold...’ — 2/4

snjór (noun m.) ‘snow...’snæ 9/4

sog (noun n.) [°; sagir] ‘[keels, sea]...’ — 9/3

sorg (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘sorrow, affliction...’ — 16/4

sól (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘sun...’sólar 5/2, sólar 6/4

spán (noun f.) ‘[plates, wood-chip]...’spônu 11/1

2spenna (verb) ‘span, surround...’spend 10/3

spor (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘track...’ — 5/4

springa (verb) ‘burst, spring apart...’springr 13/1

stafn (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘prow...’stafnar 11/4

stag (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘forestay, stay...’ — 14/4, stǫg 10/3

stirðr (adj.) ‘stiff...’ — 10/4

stórr (adj.) ‘large, great...’stórum 18/4

strengr (noun m.) [°-jar; -ir] ‘string, rope, bow-string...’strengjar 4/4

strind (noun f.) ‘land...’strindar 9/2

strýkja (verb) ‘[strokes]...’strýkr 17/5

stundum (adv.) ‘at times, sometimes...’ — 10/3

stýra (verb) ‘steer, control...’ — 6/2

stœra (verb) ‘increase, strengthen...’stœrir 17/7

sundr (adv.) ‘(a)sunder...’ — 13/1

svalr (adj.) ‘cool...’svalra 13/1

svanr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘swan...’svana 9/2

svartr (adj.) ‘black...’svarta 16/2, 7/4

sveima (verb) ‘surge...’sveimar 1/4

sveiti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’sveita 8/1

1svella (verb) ‘swell...’svellr 7/2

sverra (verb) ‘swirl, seethe...’sverri 13/2

svig (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘[curve, bays]...’ — 10/2

1søkkva (verb) ‘sink, strong intrans....’ — 9/3

2taka (verb) ‘take...’ — 4/2

telja (verb) ‘tell, count...’telr 2/3

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 16/1

Unnr (noun m.) ‘Unnr...’Unnar 17/3

vafr- ((prefix)) ‘[flickering]...’vafr 1/4

1varr (noun m.) ‘wake...’varra 18/3, varar 12/2

vaska (verb) ‘[cleanses]...’vaskar 15/2

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’vex 17/3

várr (pron.) [°f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir] ‘our...’óra 18/4, órum 1/3

veðrviti (noun m.) ‘weather-vane...’veðrvitar 15/4

vel (adv.) ‘well, very...’ — 3/2

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’es 11/2

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’ — 10/3

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 7/1

1viðr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i] ‘wood, tree...’við 17/8, við 18/3, viðu 16/2

2vikna (verb) ‘[flexes]...’Viknar 14/1

vinr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir] ‘friend...’vini 18/4

vǫrðr (noun m.) [°varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu] ‘guardian, defender...’ — 2/2

ylgr (noun f.) [°acc. -i] ‘she-wolf...’ — 5/3

þars (conj.) ‘where...’ — 4/3, 7/1, 14/3, 15/3, 17/7, 18/3

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’ — 4/4

þjalmi (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘[enclosure]...’þjalma 16/4

þrútinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘swollen...’þrútit 7/2

1þvá (verb) ‘wash...’þvær 15/1, þvær 16/1

2ægir (noun m.) ‘ocean, sea...’ægi 5/1

œsa (verb) ‘surge...’Œsir 17/1

1ætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘family...’ — 5/1

1ǫrn (noun m.) [°arnar, dat. erni; ernir, acc. ǫrnu] ‘eagle...’arnar 8/3, 8/2, ǫrnum 5/4

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ǫrt 9/1

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