Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson (Arn)

11th century; volume 2; ed. Diana Whaley;

4. Þorfinnsdrápa (Þorfdr) - 25

Skj info: Arnórr Þórðarson jarlaskáld, Islandsk skjald, 11. årh. (AI, 332-54, BI, 305-27).

Skj poems:
1. Rǫgnvaldsdrápa
2. Hrynhenda, Magnúsdrápa
3. Magnúsdrápa
4. Et digt om Hermundr Illugason
5. Þórfinnsdrápa
6. Erfidrápa om kong Harald hårdråde
7. Vers af ubestemmelige digte, samt én lausavísa

Arnórr jarlaskáld ‘Jarls’-poet’ came from Hítarnes in western Iceland, the son of the prosperous farmer and poet Þórðr Kolbeinsson (ÞKolbI, born 974) and Oddný eykyndill ‘Island-candle’ Þorkelsdóttir, who was the subject of the long-running personal and poetic rivalry between Þórðr and Bjǫrn Hítdœlakappi (BjhítV) which is commemorated in Bjarnar saga Hítdœlakappa. According to that saga chronology, Arnórr would have been born c. 1011/12, and he features as a boy in ch. 23 of the saga, and in ch. 60 of Grettis saga. He went abroad, probably in his early twenties, for he is named in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 258, 267) among the skalds of King Knútr inn ríki (Cnut the Great) (d. 1035). From the evidence of the memorial poems Rǫgnvaldsdrápa (Arn Rǫgndr), especially st. 2, and Þorfinnsdrápa (Arn Þorfdr), especially sts 3, 4 (cf. Lv 1), he spent several years in the Orkney Islands as poet and intimate of the jarls Rǫgnvaldr (d. c. 1045) and Þorfinnr (d. c. 1065). It is to this that his nickname refers. Arnórr was in Norway during the brief joint rule of Magnús Óláfsson and Haraldr Sigurðarson (c. 1045-6), and his performance of Hrynhenda (Arn Hryn) for Magnús and Blágagladrápa ‘The drápa of Dark Geese (= Ravens (?))’ for Haraldr is the subject of a spirited anecdote (Mork 1928-32, 116-18, Flat 1860-8, III, 321-3, Fms 6, 195-8; referred to below as ‘the Mork anecdote’). The later part of Arnórr’s career is obscure, but there is a second, memorial poem for Magnús, Magnússdrápa (Arn Magndr), and his composition of a Haraldsdrápa (Arn Hardr) in memory of Haraldr (d. 1066) suggests continuing links of some kind with Norway, though he also composed about Icelanders: a fragmentarily preserved poem for Hermundr Illugason (d. c. 1055; Arn HermIII) and a poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (d. 1073) of which Arn Frag 1III might be a remnant. For further outlines of Arnórr’s life and works, see Hollander 1945, 177-83; Turville-Petre 1968, 5-10, 1976, 93-4; Whaley 1998, 41-7.

The majority of Arnórr’s surviving oeuvre takes the form of memorial encomia (erfidrápur) for rulers of Norway or Orkney in the dróttkvætt metre: ten ll. only of Rǫgndr and longer fragments of Magnússdrápa (Magndr), Þorfdr and Hardr. His greatest contribution to the development of skaldic poetry, however, is his authorship of the first known encomium in the hrynhent metre: the Hrynhenda which, since it apostrophises Magnús góði, must predate the memorial Magndr. Arn Frag 1III is in the same metre but probably unconnected (see above). It is possible that Arn Frag 4III is in praise of Knútr inn ríki and the non-royal dedicatees of Herm and Frag 1 have been mentioned above. Arnórr also appears in one recension of Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 262) as a poet of Óláfr kyrri ‘the Quiet’ Haraldsson (d. 1093), and the pres. tense praise of Arn Frag 3III could have been addressed to him, or alternatively to Haraldr in Blágagladrápa. Only one st., Arn Lv 1, seems clearly to be a lv.; it was spoken during a civil conflict in the Orkneys. Herm and the eight other Fragments are printed in SkP III since they are preserved in SnE and LaufE and cannot be certainly assigned to any of the poems in the present volume.

The principal eds consulted in the course of editing Arnórr’s poetry for SkP are listed for each st., and are of two main types: eds of the skaldic corpus (Finnur Jónsson’s in Skj AI, 332-54, BI, 305-27, BI, and E. A. Kock’s in Skald I, 155-65, supported by numerous NN) and eds of the various prose works in which the poetry is preserved. Extracts are also included in anthologies, articles and other works including (with ten or more sts): Munch and Unger 1847, 119-20; CPB II, 184-98; Wisén 1886-9, I, 44-6, 141-2, 199-200 (Hryn only); Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 48-53; Hollander 1945,177-88 (annotated translations only, mainly Hryn); and (with five sts): Turville-Petre 1976, 93-7. Other works containing comment on the poetry are cited as appropriate in the Notes.

files
file 2006-01-11 - Arnórr Þ reconstructions
file 2007-07-04 - Arnórr mss ordering

Þorfinnsdrápa (‘Drápa about Þorfinnr’) — Arn ÞorfdrII

Diana Whaley 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Þorfinnsdrápa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 229-60.

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Skj: Arnórr Þórðarson jarlaskáld: 5. Þórfinnsdrápa (AI, 343-8, BI, 316-21); stanzas (if different): 1 | 3 | 4 | 12 | 13 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18

in texts: Flat, Fsk, H-Hr, Hkr, LaufE, LaufE, Mork, Orkn, ÓH, ÓHHkr, Skm, SnE

SkP info: II, 229-60

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-hugaðr (adj.) ‘-minded...’hugaðs 1/1

-ligr (adj.) ‘-ly...’lig 16/8

(non-lexical) (unclassified)* 14/1

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 13/5

alkostigr (adj.) ‘[excellent]...’ — 2/2

allr (adj.) ‘all...’Al 1/3, allan 2/1, 24/4, ǫllu 22/4

allríkr (adj.) ‘very powerful...’allríks 25/2

allvaldr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘mighty ruler...’ — 19/6

1ari (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘eagle...’ara 17/4

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 6/7, 7/1, 10/2, 17/1, 18/2, 21/3, 24/1, 24/5

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 8/2, 13/7

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 5/5, 19/4, 20/3

1auðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-] ‘wealth...’auð 21/4

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 6/4

Austri (noun m.) ‘Austri...’Austra 24/3

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 3/3, 7/2, 11/6, 21/2, 21/6, 21/7, 24/4

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 5/3, 8/5, 24/5

ám (noun f.) ‘[dark]...’ômu 7/3

ástmaðr (noun m.) [°·manns, dat. ·manni; ·menn] ‘[dear friends]...’ástmenn 20/5

Baldr (noun m.) ‘[Baldr, Baldur]...’ — 14/3

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’bar 10/1, bar 13/5, bar 17/1, 4/1

2berja (verb) [°barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn] ‘fight...’barðisk 9/7, bǫrðusk 20/4

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bað 17/3, biðk 25/2

2bifa (verb) [°-að-] ‘shudder, tremble...’bifðusk 7/7

bíta (verb) [°bítr; beit, bitu; bitinn] ‘bite...’beit 7/6, Bitu 16/5

bjartr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bright...’bjartir 7/8, Bjǫrt 24/1

2blanda (verb) [°blendr; blett, blendu; blandinn] ‘mix, blend (strong)...’blezk 21/5

blár (adj.) ‘black...’blôu 19/6

blástr (noun m.) [°blástrar, dat. blǽstri/blástri/blástr/blǽsti/blásti] ‘breath, blast...’blôstr 18/3

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’blóði 7/4, blóði 21/8

borg (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -; -ir] ‘city, stronghold...’borga 18/1

ból (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘dwelling...’ — 11/1

bragnar (noun m.) ‘men, warriors...’bragna 12/4

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’branda 8/8, branda 12/2

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’brá 18/5, bráskat 11/2

2brenna (verb) [°brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn] ‘(strong, intransitive)...’brann 14/4, 10/8

3brenna (verb) [(weak, transitive)] ‘to burn (weak, intr.)...’brenndi 11/1

1bresta (verb) [°brestr; brast, brustu; brostinn] ‘burst, split...’brestr 24/3

brezkr (adj.) ‘British...’brezkar 14/3, brezkum 10/6

brim (noun n.) ‘surf...’ — 1/4

broddr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of spear or arrow...’broddi 10/4, 7/7

1brynja (noun f.) [°-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur] ‘mailcoat...’brynju 6/2

2bægja (verb) [°-gð-] ‘contend...’ — 15/4

bœtir (noun m.) ‘amender...’bœti 25/1

dolgr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ar] ‘enemy, battle...’ — 17/8

2drekka (verb) [°drekkr; drakk, drukku; drukkinn/drykkinn] ‘drink...’drakk 2/1, drakk 3/3

drepa (verb) [°drepr; drap, drápu; drepinn] ‘kill, strike...’drapa 7/5

dreyri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’ — 21/5

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’dreif 21/5

1drífr (noun m.) ‘[strewer]...’ — 16/4

1drótt (noun f.) ‘troop...’ — 14/2, 15/1, 17/6, dróttar 24/6

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’dróttin* 22/8, 8/4, 10/1, 10/5, dróttins 13/4

drýgja (verb) [°-gð-] ‘cause, practise...’drýgði 2/3

1dúfa (noun f.) [°-u; -ur, gen. -na] ‘billow, wave...’ — 19/7

Dyflinn (noun f.) ‘[Dublin]...’Dyflinnar 23/4

dyggr (adj.) [°dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str] ‘trustworthy...’dyggvan 6/6

dýrð (noun f.) [°-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir] ‘glory...’ — 12/3

Dýrnes (noun n.) ‘[Deerness]...’ — 6/4

dýrr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr] ‘precious...’dýrum 25/3

dœgr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘day and night; 24h period...’ — 11/2

døkkr (adj.) [°-van; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr] ‘dark...’ — 21/6, døkkvan 24/2

eða (conj.) ‘or...’ — 14/3

3ef (conj.) ‘if...’ — 22/5

1egg (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)] ‘edge, blade...’eggjar 5/2, eggjar 9/1

egghríð (noun f.) ‘edge-storm...’ — 16/2

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 15/3

eimr (noun m.) ‘fire, smoke...’eim 17/7

Einarr (noun m.) ‘Einarr...’Einars 5/7, Einars 25/4

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’einu 11/6, eitt 9/2

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’Ek 19/1, mér 1/2, mik 4/1

Ekkjáll (noun m.) ‘[Oykell]...’Ekkjal 9/6

eldhríð (noun f.) ‘[sword-blizzard]...’ — 20/6

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’ — 11/4, 14/4

ellifu (num. cardinal) ‘eleven...’ — 6/8

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 7/6, 16/5, 17/2, 17/7, 18/7, 21/5, 25/2

endi (noun m.) ‘end...’enda 4/2

Endill (noun m.) ‘Endill...’Endils 22/5

endr (adv.) ‘formerly, once, again...’ — 6/1, 20/2

2engi (pron.) ‘no, none...’engr 5/8

englar (noun m.) ‘English people...’Engla 16/1, Engla 17/1

2enn (adv.) ‘still, yet, again...’ — 16/1

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 9/7, es 19/2, es 20/6, s 18/5, sás 12/4, þars 9/2, þars 13/1, þars 18/3, þars 20/4

erfiði (noun n.) [°-s] ‘hardship...’ — 24/3

1ey (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar] ‘island...’eyjar 19/5, Eyjum 24/5

faðir (noun m.) ‘father...’fǫður 1/3

falla (verb) ‘fall...’fell 7/2, fell 14/2, fellu 8/5

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’fór 5/3

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fekk 12/1, fekk 20/7, fekk 22/3, fengu 11/7, fengusk 19/3

fellir (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i] ‘slayer, feller...’felli 2/1

fen (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘fen...’ — 2/2

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ferðar 10/4

2festa (verb) ‘fasten, betrothe, promise...’fezk 19/8

fet (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘paw, step...’ — 5/4

fimm (num. cardinal) ‘five...’ — 6/5

fimmtán (num. cardinal) ‘fifteen...’ — 5/3

2firra (verb) ‘keep (from), remove...’firr 25/1

1fjall (noun n.) ‘mountain...’fjǫllum 24/4

fjǫrðr (noun m.) ‘fjord...’firði 21/2

fljúga (verb) ‘fly...’fló 7/7

flótti (noun m.) ‘flight, fleeing...’flótta 8/4, flótta 17/6

flugstyggr (adj.) ‘flight-shunning...’ — 6/6

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’ — 24/2

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 16/8

frammi (adv.) ‘forth...’ — 6/5

frá (prep.) ‘from...’ — 23/2

2fránn (adj.) ‘bright, shining...’fránar 9/4

fríðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘beautiful, fair...’fríðri 24/5

frœkn (adj.) ‘brave, bold...’ — 5/6

frændi (noun m.) ‘kinsman, male relative...’ — 10/7

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 6/4, 8/7, 9/6, 16/6, 19/5, 20/8

2fœða (verb) ‘to feed, give food to, bring up, bear, g...’fœðask 24/8

1gagn (noun n.) ‘victory...’ — 12/4

gamall (adj.) [°gamlan; compar. & superl. „ ellri adj.] ‘old...’gamla 16/8, gǫmlu 22/1

geð (noun n.) ‘mind...’ — 5/6

gegnum (prep.) ‘through...’gǫgnum 2/4

geirr (noun m.) ‘spear...’geira 10/2

geymir (noun m.) ‘guardian, keeper...’geymi 24/7

1gína (verb) ‘gape...’gínði 13/7

gjafi (noun m.) ‘giver...’gjafa 3/2, gjafa 21/4

1gjalda (verb) ‘pay, repay...’galt 11/5

gjalla (verb) ‘to scream, shriek; to repay, return, pay...’Gall 8/5, gullu 7/5

glymja (verb) ‘resound...’glymr 24/4

góðr (adj.) ‘good...’góðar 3/3

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 15/4, 3/3, 22/1, grams 8/5, grams 12/3

grár (adj.) [°gráan/grán] ‘grey...’ — 13/8

greppr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘poet, man...’ — 12/3

greypr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘cruel...’greypum 18/6

grund (noun f.) ‘earth, land...’ — 5/5

1guð (noun m.) [°***guðrs, guðis, gus] ‘(Christian) God...’goð 24/7, goð 25/4

gunnbráðr (adj.) ‘[battle-hasty]...’ — 22/2

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle, Gunnr...’gunn 8/6

gœðingr (noun m.) ‘chieftain...’ — 24/8

gǫrla (adv.) ‘quite, fully...’ — 13/7

1gǫrr (adj.) ‘ample, perfect...’ — 5/5

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 22/6, hafði 19/7

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’ — 8/7, 22/3, þeir 11/7

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’hǫrð 7/4, hǫrð 20/4

1harri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘lord...’harra 9/8, 12/1

háligr (adj.) ‘noble...’hôligt 20/3

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’Hátt 10/1, hôr 16/3

háski (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘danger...’haska 13/2, 11/2

hegja (noun f.) ‘[condition, events]...’hegju 19/4

2heita (verb) ‘be called, promise...’heitir 9/2, heitir 13/1, Hétk 3/1

helmingr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘unit, troop...’helming 16/3

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 8/6, her 10/8, her 17/6, her 18/6, 7/2, 22/7, 23/2

1hildr (noun f.) ‘battle...’hildi 18/2

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’ — 5/1

himinn (noun m.) [°himins, dat. himni; himnar] ‘heaven, sky...’himni 17/8

hirð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)] ‘retinue...’ — 21/2

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjalm 10/2, hjalm 22/8, hjalma 5/1

1hjalpa (verb) ‘help...’hjalpi 24/7

hjalt (noun n.) [°; *-] ‘hilt...’ — 12/2

hjaltr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ar] ‘Shetlander...’Hjalta 10/1, Hjalta 22/7

hjarta (noun n.) [°-; *-u] ‘heart...’ — 7/8

hlutr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -i/-u] ‘part, thing...’hlut 11/8

2hlýða (verb) ‘hear, listen; be able...’ — 23/1

hlýri (noun m.) ‘brother...’hlýra 5/7

Hlǫðvir (noun m.) ‘Hlǫðvir...’Hlǫðvis 10/7

hnekkja (verb) ‘drive off, reject...’hnekkðu 19/1

hníga (verb) ‘sink, fall...’ — 20/3

horn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘horn...’horna 18/3

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’hrafns 3/2, hrǫfnum 19/3

hregg (noun n.) ‘storm...’hreggi 5/2

hreggsvalr (adj.) ‘[snow-cold]...’hreggsvǫl 19/7

1hrinda (verb) ‘launch, propell...’hratt 17/7

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hring 16/4

hringstríðir (noun m.) ‘[ring-harmer]...’Hringstríði 23/1

hrista (verb) ‘shake...’hristisk 18/3

hrím (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘rime frost...’hrími 19/8

hrosti (noun m.) ‘[malt, mash]...’hrosta 1/4, hrosta 2/2

hræ (noun n.) [°; -] ‘corpse, carrion...’ — 18/8, 19/3

1Huginn (noun m.) ‘Huginn...’Hugins 5/4

hugr (noun m.) ‘mind, thought, courage...’hug 6/6

hugsterkr (adj.) ‘[stout-hearted]...’hugsterks 18/4

hvárrtveggi (pron.) ‘both...’Hvárntveggja 21/1

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hvern 3/1, hverri 12/1

hvé (conj.) ‘how...’ — 15/1, 23/3

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’hykk 1/1, hykk 6/1

hyrr (noun m.) ‘fire...’ — 17/5

hœgri (adj. comp.) ‘higher, highest...’hæstr 12/4

hǫggva (verb) ‘to strike, put to death, cut, hew...’ — 21/1

1hǫll (noun f.) [°hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir] ‘hall...’hallir 17/5

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’hendi 10/7

1inn (adv.) ‘in, inside...’ — 24/6

2inn (art.) ‘the...’in 11/3, in 20/7, ins 16/8

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 2/4, 5/1, 7/3, 10/4, 11/3, 12/1, 13/2, 24/2

ílendr (adj.) ‘land-restored...’ílendra 22/5

írar (noun m.) ‘Irishmen...’Írum 10/3

írskr (adj.) ‘Irish...’írsk 14/2

ítr (adj.) ‘glorious...’ítran 25/1

jafn (adj.) [°comp. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘even, just...’jǫfn 19/3

jafnan (adv.) ‘always...’ — 3/2

jalmr (noun m.) ‘screech, noise...’jalmi 10/2

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’ — 17/1, jarla 15/2, jarla 19/2, jarlar 20/4, jarls 1/4

járn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘iron, weapon...’jôrn 7/3, jôrn 18/7

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfur 6/2, jǫfurs 18/4

2Karl (noun m.) ‘Karl...’Karli 6/1

kenna (verb) ‘know, teach...’kenndi 20/2, kennds 4/2, kenndu 6/1

kind (noun f.) [°-ar; -r] ‘offspring, race...’ — 16/7

kløkkr (adj.) ‘flexible, humble...’kløkkva 21/6

knega (verb) ‘to know, understand, be able to...’knætti 22/6

knýja (verb) ‘press forward, urge, drive...’ — 17/3

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’koma 16/4, 22/4

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’ — 15/2

1kostr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -i/-u] ‘choice, food, goods, good quality...’kostu 1/4

kund (noun f.) ‘son, intimate friend ...’kundar 6/3

kyndómr (noun m.) ‘[monstrous verdict]...’kyndóm 6/2

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’ — 6/3, lands 12/2

lauss (adj.) [°compar. lausari] ‘loose, free, without...’laust 6/4

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’láði 22/2

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’lézk 5/5

leggja (verb) ‘put, lay...’lǫgðu 7/1

létta (verb) ‘to relieve, lighten...’léttir 1/2

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’ — 22/8

1lim (noun f.) [°; -ar] ‘limb...’ — 17/8

líð (noun n.) ‘drink...’ — 3/3

líkn (noun f.) [°-ar; gen. -a] ‘grace, mercy...’líkna 25/2

lím (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[mortar, mast]...’líma 19/8

ljómi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘light, beam...’ljóma 17/7

2ljósta (verb) ‘strike...’laust 17/7

lofðungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, leader...’lofðungs 6/3

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’mann 22/4, mannr 5/8, menn 8/5, menn 10/8, mǫnnum 11/5

mannkyn (noun n.) ‘mankind...’mannkyns 13/3

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’ — 18/1, mǫrg 20/8, mǫrgum 20/2

1marr (noun m.) ‘sea...’mar 24/2

mánadagr (noun m.) ‘Monday...’mánadag 9/4

már (noun m.) ‘gull...’môr 8/6

máttr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. mǽtti/mátt; mǽttir, dat. -um] ‘power...’máttar 10/5

mein (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘harm, injury...’ — 4/4, 11/6, 20/7, 21/3, meinum 25/4

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’meira 16/3, 21/3

1merki (noun n.) [°-s: -] ‘banner, sign...’ — 13/4, 18/4

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’miklu 22/3, miklum 13/2

mildingr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘ruler, generous one...’ — 18/2

mildr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘mild, gentle, gracious, generous...’milda 20/7, 10/6

millum (prep.) ‘between...’ — 18/1

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’ — 8/4, 10/5, mínir 4/1, mínn 21/4, míns 13/3

1minna (verb) ‘remind, remember, recall...’minnir 16/1

3minni (adj. comp.) [°superl. minnstr] ‘less, least...’minna 8/3, minna 11/8, minna 22/3

1morð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘killing, battle...’ — 4/2

morðkennir (noun m.) ‘[battle-master]...’ — 11/5

morginn (noun m.) [°morgins, dat. morgni; morgnar] ‘morning...’morgin 13/6, morgin 18/8

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’myni 24/8, mun 16/2, myndi 22/1

mætr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr] ‘honoured, respected...’ — 8/3

Mǫn (noun f.) ‘Man...’ — 16/6

nár (noun m.) [°-s; -ir] ‘corpse...’ 13/8

1nema (verb) ‘to take...’Nemi 15/1

neyti (noun n.) ‘company...’ — 8/3

(conj.) ‘nor...’ — 16/2

1niðr (noun m.) [°-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði] ‘son, kinsman, relative...’ — 2/4

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 1/1

nýta (verb) ‘enjoy, use...’naut 10/5

nær (adv.) ‘near, almost; when...’ — 20/5

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’odd 10/4, oddar 7/7

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 4/1, 4/3, 8/6, 13/8, 19/8, 22/7

ofvæginn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[to over-powering]...’ofvægjan 15/4

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 5/6, 10/8

ormr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘serpent...’Orms 2/1

1óðr (noun m.) ‘poem...’óð 7/4

ógnstœrir (noun m.) ‘sweller of battle-dread ...’ — 10/3

óskepna (noun f.) ‘[monstrous thing]...’ — 20/1

2rak (noun n.) [°; *-] ‘omen, lore...’ — 17/6

rammr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘mighty...’ram 16/8

Rauðabjǫrg (noun n.) ‘Rauðabjǫrg...’Rauðabjǫrgum 20/8

rauðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘red...’ — 11/4

1rausn (noun f.) ‘magnificence...’ — 2/3

rausnarmaðr (noun m.) ‘[man of splendour]...’rausnarmannr 6/7

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’réð 6/5, réðusk 20/5

4reiðr (adj.) [°superl. -astr] ‘angry...’ — 6/8

2reka (verb) ‘drive, force...’rak 8/4

2renna (verb) ‘run (strong)...’rann 7/6

2reynir (noun m.) ‘tester...’reyni 13/3

1reyr (noun f.) ‘reed...’ — 11/3

3réttr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘right, straight, direct...’rétt 23/3

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rauð 5/1, rauð 9/1, rauð 10/3, rauð 17/2, ruðu 8/8

1rjóðr (noun m.) ‘reddener...’ — 5/4

rjúka (verb) ‘smoke, reek...’roknu 11/3

róg (noun n.) [°-s] ‘strife, slander...’ — 20/3

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 2/3, ræsis 6/7

rǫgn (noun n.) ‘the gods (in names)...’ — 2/4

Rǫgnvaldr (noun m.) ‘Rǫgnvaldr...’Rǫgnvalds 16/7

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randir 16/7

Sandvík (noun f.) ‘Sandwick...’ — 8/8

saumfǫr (noun f.) ‘[nail-row]...’ — 21/6

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ — 14/1, 22/1, sús 16/1, þat 8/2, þat 9/4, þat 11/2, þeim 24/7, þess 4/3, því 9/3

sárr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘sore, painful; wounded...’sôrum 8/6, sôrum 13/8

segja (verb) ‘say, tell...’segik 23/3, 1/1, 19/4

sessi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘bench-mate...’sessa 4/3

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’ — 8/7

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’ — 22/2

siklingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’ — 9/7

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sína 21/4

2sinni (noun n.) [°-s;] ‘time, occasion; company, following...’sinnum 11/8

sitja (verb) ‘sit...’sôtum 3/1

2síð (adv.) ‘late...’ — 1/2

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 16/2, 20/6

síz (conj.) ‘since...’ — 19/1

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sák 13/7, sák 21/1

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’ 15/1, Sær 21/5, sær 24/4

skammr (adj.) ‘short...’skemmri 8/1

skati (noun m.) [°-a; -nar] ‘chieftan, prince...’skatnar 7/1

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’skeiðum 6/8, skeiðum 13/5

skelkingr (noun m.) ‘sword...’skelkings 5/2

sker (noun n.) [°-s; -, gen. -ja] ‘skerry...’skerjum 23/2

1skilja (verb) ‘separate, understand...’skilit 7/2

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’ — 7/1, skipa 3/4

skjaldborg (noun f.) ‘shield-wall...’ — 13/6

skjaldrim (noun f.) ‘[shield-rail]...’ — 21/7

1skjalfa (verb) ‘shake - intrans....’skulfu 18/7

skjóta (verb) ‘shoot...’skaut 21/7

2skjótr (adj.) ‘quick(ly)...’skjótt 8/2, skjótt 13/5

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skildi 10/6

skokkr (noun m.) ‘bottom-board...’ — 21/8

skotaveldi (noun n.) ‘[Scots’ realm]...’ — 11/4

Skotland (noun n.) ‘[Scotland]...’Skotlands 9/8

skotr (noun m.) ‘Scot...’Skota 7/4, Skota 14/4

skýrann (noun n.) ‘cloud-hall...’skýranni 5/8

1slíðr (noun f.) [°; slíðrir/slíðrar] ‘[tough, sheath]...’ — 1/1

slíta (verb) ‘to tear...’Sleit 19/5

snarlyndr (adj.) ‘quick-witted...’ — 15/2

snarr (adj.) ‘gallant, bold...’ — 9/8

snekkja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘warship...’snekkjum 6/5

sonr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni] ‘son...’synir 4/4

sól (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘sun...’ — 24/1

2spjall (noun n.) [°; -*] ‘destruction, loss...’spjall 22/4

spjót (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘spear...’spjótum 8/2

stallr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘seat, stall, support...’Stall 7/5

1stál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘steel, weapon, prow...’ — 7/6

stokkinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘spattered, splattered...’ — 21/8

strengr (noun m.) [°-jar; -ir] ‘string, rope, bow-string...’strengir 7/5

1stríða (noun f.) [°-u] ‘[anguish]...’ — 1/2

stund (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘time, hour...’stundu 17/2

1støkkva (verb) ‘(str.) leap, spring; scatter...’stǫkk 11/3

stǫng (noun f.) [°stangar, dat. -u; stangir/stengr] ‘pole...’ — 17/1

sumar (noun n.) [°-s; sumur/sumar] ‘summer...’sumri 11/6

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 8/7, 9/6, 16/6

svartr (adj.) ‘black...’svartri 24/1

sveiti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’sveita 21/7, 7/6

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’ — 9/7, 16/5

svima (verb) ‘[swam]...’svômu 7/3

syngja (verb) ‘sing...’Sungu 9/5

sýn (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘sight...’ — 4/1

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’ — 5/6, sótti 14/2, sótti 15/1

sætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘settlement...’ — 19/2

sǫgn (noun f.) [°sagnar; sagnir] ‘narrative, message; troop, men...’sagnir 3/4

1søkkva (verb) ‘sink, strong intrans....’søkkr 24/2

2taka (verb) ‘take...’ — 4/2, tók 10/8

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 5/6, 9/5, 23/4

tjald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘tent, awning...’tjaldi 19/6

torf (noun n.) [°-s;-] ‘turf, sod; peat...’ — 25/4

Torfnes (noun n.) ‘Tarbatness (Torfnes) ...’ — 9/2

trauðr (adj.) ‘reluctant...’trauðr 19/4

trúr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘faithful...’trúra 25/3

tugga (noun f.) [°-u] ‘[mouthful]...’tuggu 9/1

tunga (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘tongue, language...’tungu 17/4

tyggi (noun m.) ‘prince, sovereign...’tyggja 25/3

tyggja (verb) ‘[chewed]...’tuggu 18/8

týna (verb) ‘lose, destroy...’Týndusk 11/1

uggr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘fear...’uggs 18/8

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’ulfar 18/7, 13/8, Ulfs 9/1

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 5/8, 10/6, 16/7, 22/2

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ungir 4/4, 9/3

2unnr (noun f.) ‘wave...’unnar 14/1

uppi (adv.) ‘up, up in...’ — 20/1

útan (prep.) ‘outside, without...’ — 19/5

valda (verb) ‘cause...’olli 9/3

valdr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’valds 2/4

vargsteypir (noun m.) ‘[thief-feller]...’vargsteypis 18/6

Vatnsfjǫrðr (noun m.) ‘Vatnsfjǫrðr...’ — 13/1

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’óx 17/5

3 (verb) ‘[won]...’ — 8/7

várr (pron.) [°f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir] ‘our...’ór 21/3, órir 20/5

veldi (noun n.) ‘realm...’ — 14/4

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’em 19/1, vas 8/1, vas 8/2, vas 9/4, vas 12/4, vas 16/1, vas 18/1, vas 21/8, vasa 6/3, vask 13/2, væri 5/3

verð (noun n.) [°-s; dat. -um] ‘worth, price...’ — 3/2

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’varð 20/1, varð 20/6, varð 23/1, verðr 24/1

verðung (noun f.) ‘troop, retinue...’ — 17/4

3verja (verb) ‘defend...’ — 5/5

verk (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘deed...’verka 13/4

vetr (noun m.) [°vetrar/vetrs(HómHauksb³ 173²³), dat. vetri; vetr] ‘winter...’ — 3/1, vetra 5/4

2 (noun n.) [°; -] ‘banner, standard...’ — 17/3

véla (verb) ‘betray, trick...’vélti 22/7

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 6/6, 8/3, 9/8, 11/7, 13/3, 15/3, 16/3

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vill 12/3

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’vann 14/1

1vita (verb) ‘know...’Veitk 13/1

vígljóss (adj.) ‘light enough for battle ...’vígljóst 18/5

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’ — 17/3

vætr (noun n.) ‘not a trace, nothing...’Vætr 18/5

vætta (verb) ‘expect...’vættik 19/2

yppa (verb) ‘extol, lift up...’ — 12/3

ýmiss (adj.) ‘various, alternate...’Ýmisst 14/1

ýtr (noun m.) ‘man; launcher...’ýtar 19/1, ýtum 1/3

þangat (adv.) ‘there, thither...’þingat 16/4

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 9/5, 16/5, 17/6

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 2/3

þás (conj.) ‘when...’ — 3/1, 11/1, 14/2, 20/2

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’þengil 11/7, 9/3, þengils 4/3, þengils 7/8

1þilja (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘planking, decking...’þiljur 7/2

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’þinga 9/5

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 13/5, 23/3

þjóta (verb) ‘roar...’þýtr 1/3

Þórfinnr (noun m.) ‘Þorfinnr...’Þórfinni 24/6, 23/4

þrennr (adj.) ‘three(fold)...’þrimr 11/8

þrima (noun f.) ‘battle...’ — 8/1

þrífa (verb) ‘grab, grasp; thrive (refl.)...’þrifusk 21/3

þrjóta (verb) [str. 2; þrýtr, þraut, þrutu, þrotinn] ‘end, fail...’þraut 15/3

þróttr (noun m.) ‘strength, might, valour...’Þrótta 22/8

1þruma (noun f.) [°; -ur] ‘thunder-clap...’þrumu 12/2

þrøngva (verb) ‘press, throng...’þrǫng 18/2

þungr (adj.) ‘heavy...’þung 4/4

þunngǫrr (adj.) ‘[Slender-wrought]...’þunngǫr 16/6

þunnr (adj.) ‘slender, thin...’þunn 9/6

þurs (noun m.) [°þurs, dat. þursi/þurs; þursar] ‘giant, ogre, monster...’Þursa 23/2

1þverra (verb) ‘diminish...’þurru 17/5

þvígit (adv.) ‘[for that]...’ — 8/1

2þykkja (verb) ‘seem, think...’þótti 18/5, þótti 23/3

þyrja (verb) ‘race, rush, rage...’þurði 16/5

2ægir (noun m.) ‘ocean, sea...’ægi 15/3

1ætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘family...’ — 25/1

ættgrund (noun f.) ‘[native soil]...’ — 17/2

ættstafr (noun m.) ‘[kin-stave]...’ — 22/6

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’aldir 14/3, 20/7

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