Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson (Arn)

11th century; volume 2; ed. Diana Whaley;

3. Magnússdrápa (Magndr) - 19

Skj info: Arnórr Þórðarson jarlaskáld, Islandsk skjald, 11. årh. (AI, 332-54, BI, 305-27).

Skj poems:
1. Rǫgnvaldsdrápa
2. Hrynhenda, Magnúsdrápa
3. Magnúsdrápa
4. Et digt om Hermundr Illugason
5. Þórfinnsdrápa
6. Erfidrápa om kong Harald hårdråde
7. Vers af ubestemmelige digte, samt én lausavísa

Arnórr jarlaskáld ‘Jarls’-poet’ came from Hítarnes in western Iceland, the son of the prosperous farmer and poet Þórðr Kolbeinsson (ÞKolbI, born 974) and Oddný eykyndill ‘Island-candle’ Þorkelsdóttir, who was the subject of the long-running personal and poetic rivalry between Þórðr and Bjǫrn Hítdœlakappi (BjhítV) which is commemorated in Bjarnar saga Hítdœlakappa. According to that saga chronology, Arnórr would have been born c. 1011/12, and he features as a boy in ch. 23 of the saga, and in ch. 60 of Grettis saga. He went abroad, probably in his early twenties, for he is named in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 258, 267) among the skalds of King Knútr inn ríki (Cnut the Great) (d. 1035). From the evidence of the memorial poems Rǫgnvaldsdrápa (Arn Rǫgndr), especially st. 2, and Þorfinnsdrápa (Arn Þorfdr), especially sts 3, 4 (cf. Lv 1), he spent several years in the Orkney Islands as poet and intimate of the jarls Rǫgnvaldr (d. c. 1045) and Þorfinnr (d. c. 1065). It is to this that his nickname refers. Arnórr was in Norway during the brief joint rule of Magnús Óláfsson and Haraldr Sigurðarson (c. 1045-6), and his performance of Hrynhenda (Arn Hryn) for Magnús and Blágagladrápa ‘The drápa of Dark Geese (= Ravens (?))’ for Haraldr is the subject of a spirited anecdote (Mork 1928-32, 116-18, Flat 1860-8, III, 321-3, Fms 6, 195-8; referred to below as ‘the Mork anecdote’). The later part of Arnórr’s career is obscure, but there is a second, memorial poem for Magnús, Magnússdrápa (Arn Magndr), and his composition of a Haraldsdrápa (Arn Hardr) in memory of Haraldr (d. 1066) suggests continuing links of some kind with Norway, though he also composed about Icelanders: a fragmentarily preserved poem for Hermundr Illugason (d. c. 1055; Arn HermIII) and a poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (d. 1073) of which Arn Frag 1III might be a remnant. For further outlines of Arnórr’s life and works, see Hollander 1945, 177-83; Turville-Petre 1968, 5-10, 1976, 93-4; Whaley 1998, 41-7.

The majority of Arnórr’s surviving oeuvre takes the form of memorial encomia (erfidrápur) for rulers of Norway or Orkney in the dróttkvætt metre: ten ll. only of Rǫgndr and longer fragments of Magnússdrápa (Magndr), Þorfdr and Hardr. His greatest contribution to the development of skaldic poetry, however, is his authorship of the first known encomium in the hrynhent metre: the Hrynhenda which, since it apostrophises Magnús góði, must predate the memorial Magndr. Arn Frag 1III is in the same metre but probably unconnected (see above). It is possible that Arn Frag 4III is in praise of Knútr inn ríki and the non-royal dedicatees of Herm and Frag 1 have been mentioned above. Arnórr also appears in one recension of Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 262) as a poet of Óláfr kyrri ‘the Quiet’ Haraldsson (d. 1093), and the pres. tense praise of Arn Frag 3III could have been addressed to him, or alternatively to Haraldr in Blágagladrápa. Only one st., Arn Lv 1, seems clearly to be a lv.; it was spoken during a civil conflict in the Orkneys. Herm and the eight other Fragments are printed in SkP III since they are preserved in SnE and LaufE and cannot be certainly assigned to any of the poems in the present volume.

The principal eds consulted in the course of editing Arnórr’s poetry for SkP are listed for each st., and are of two main types: eds of the skaldic corpus (Finnur Jónsson’s in Skj AI, 332-54, BI, 305-27, BI, and E. A. Kock’s in Skald I, 155-65, supported by numerous NN) and eds of the various prose works in which the poetry is preserved. Extracts are also included in anthologies, articles and other works including (with ten or more sts): Munch and Unger 1847, 119-20; CPB II, 184-98; Wisén 1886-9, I, 44-6, 141-2, 199-200 (Hryn only); Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 48-53; Hollander 1945,177-88 (annotated translations only, mainly Hryn); and (with five sts): Turville-Petre 1976, 93-7. Other works containing comment on the poetry are cited as appropriate in the Notes.

files
file 2006-01-11 - Arnórr Þ reconstructions
file 2007-07-04 - Arnórr mss ordering

Magnússdrápa (‘Drápa about Magnús’) — Arn MagndrII

Diana Whaley 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Magnússdrápa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 206-29.

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Skj: Arnórr Þórðarson jarlaskáld: 3. Magnúsdrápa (AI, 338-43, BI, 311-15); stanzas (if different): 13 | 14

in texts: Flat, Fsk, H-Hr, Hkr, LaufE, MGóð, MH, ÓH, Skm, SnE

SkP info: II, 206-29

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 4/7, 8/6, 11/2, 13/2, 13/3

afkárligr (adj.) ‘[prodigious]...’Afkarlig 5/1

afkárr (adj.) ‘difficult, distraught...’afkart 3/4

aldri (adv.) ‘never...’ — 19/1

allfrekr (adj.) ‘[most ravenous]...’ — 8/8

allnátt (noun f.) ‘[ever prowling]...’allnôtt 11/6

allr (adj.) ‘all...’allar 14/2, allra 1/5, allri 7/2

allvaldr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘mighty ruler...’ — 17/2

almr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘bow, elm-bow...’almi 13/4

1angr (noun m.) [°angrs, dat. angri/angr] ‘grief...’ — 5/4

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’annan 18/5, 7/5

arfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(Frost— 215¹²); -ar] ‘inheritance...’arf 16/2, arfi 4/8

1ari (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘eagle...’ara 2/4, ara 15/8, ara 17/6

1armr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘arm...’arm 4/4

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 2/8, 6/5, 8/3, 15/2

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 5/5, 11/5, 12/1

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 7/4

1auðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-] ‘wealth...’auðar 17/7

auðvinr (noun m.) ‘[treasure-friend]...’auðvin 4/3

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 2/6, 3/3

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 3/1, 8/7, 9/1, 13/4, 16/4, 18/1, 19/2

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 7/6

ámr (adj.) ‘dark...’of ôm 8/3

ballr (adj.) ‘very bold, baleful ...’ — 14/2

bani (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘death, killer...’ — 8/8

2banna (verb) [°-að-] ‘forbid, refuse...’bannat 15/6

barnungr (adj.) ‘child-young...’ — 7/8

1barr (noun n.) ‘barley...’barri 11/2

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’bar 2/3, bar 6/2, bôru 2/7

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bað 3/7, bað 12/5

bíða (verb) [°bíðr; beið, biðu; beðit] ‘wait, suffer, experience...’beið 3/5

bjóða (verb) [°býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)] ‘offer, order, invite...’bauð 2/1

2bjóðr (noun m.) ‘inviter...’ — 6/5

bjǫrn (noun m.) [°bjarnar, dat. birni; birnir, acc. bjǫrnu] ‘bear, Bjǫrn...’Bjarnar 14/1

blár (adj.) ‘black...’blôum 18/6

blóðigr (adj.) [°blóðgan/blóðugan (f. dat. sg. bloðre Gulᴵ 82³⁴)] ‘bloody...’blóðugr 8/6

borð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘side, plank, board; table...’borðs 6/4

bragningr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘prince, ruler...’bragnings 7/7

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’branda 6/8, branda 9/4

bráðla (adv.) ‘[suddenly, swiftly]...’ — 8/5

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’bráskat 7/7

breiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘broad, wide...’breiða 10/1, breiðu 6/5

brim (noun n.) ‘surf...’ — 2/7

broti (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘breaker...’brotar 1/3

bróðir (noun m.) [°bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---] ‘brother...’bróður 14/1

2brúnn (adj.) ‘brown, dark...’brún 2/8

1brynja (noun f.) [°-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur] ‘mailcoat...’brynju 10/4

brynþing (noun n.) ‘byrnie-assembly...’brynþings 6/6

bræðir (noun m.) ‘feeder...’bræðis 2/4

búkr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘body...’Búk 8/5, búk 15/7

búss (noun m.) ‘box-tree...’ — 12/6

dagr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. degi/dag/dagi(Thom¹ 332¹‡n.); -ar] ‘day...’dag 3/5

dan (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -] ‘Dane...’Dǫnum 17/2

Danmǫrk (noun f.) ‘[Denmark]...’ — 5/8, 7/2

2draga (verb) [°dregr; dró, drógu; dreginn/droget(Hirð NKS 1642 4° 146v²⁹; cf. [$962$])] ‘drag, pull, draw...’dregr 15/5, dró 8/5

drengr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja] ‘man, warrior...’drengja 7/3, drengja 13/1

drjúgspakr (adj.) ‘[ever-wise]...’ — 13/2

1drótt (noun f.) ‘troop...’dróttar 18/2

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’ — 5/2, dróttins 3/5, dróttins 7/3

dyggr (adj.) [°dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str] ‘trustworthy...’dygg 3/6

dýrr (adj.) [°compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr] ‘precious...’ — 7/4

dǫrr (noun m.) ‘spear...’ — 13/1

eða (conj.) ‘or...’ — 5/8

efnd (noun f.) [°; -ir, gen. -a] ‘fulfilment...’efnð 5/3

1egg (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)] ‘edge, blade...’ — 2/2, eggja 1/4

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’ — 5/8

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 17/1

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’eina 3/2

ekl (adj.) ‘lacking...’eklu 17/1

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’ — 13/3

elgr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir/-ar] ‘elk...’elgi 12/2

ellifu (num. cardinal) ‘eleven...’ — 1/5

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 10/5, 17/5

2engi (pron.) ‘no, none...’Engr 7/5

2enn (adv.) ‘still, yet, again...’ — 18/1

enni (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘forehead, brow...’ — 8/7

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 3/2, þars 12/2

err (adj.) ‘spirited, bold...’ert 18/7

faðir (noun m.) ‘father...’fǫður 4/8

falla (verb) ‘fall...’ — 5/7, 17/3

Falstr (noun n.) ‘[Falster]...’ — 17/4

1fasta (noun f.) ‘fast, fasting...’fǫstu 15/8

feigr (adj.) [°compar. -ari/ri] ‘fated to die, fey, dead...’ — 5/8

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ — 3/6

fetilstingr (noun m.) ‘sword-belt stabbers...’fetilstinga 6/6

fimr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘agile, deft...’fim 2/3

firar (noun m.) ‘men...’fira* 11/4

Fjón (noun n.) ‘[Fyn]...’Fjóni 18/1

fljóta (verb) ‘flow, float...’ — 15/4

fljúga (verb) ‘fly...’ — 13/2, flugu 13/7

flýja (verb) ‘to flee, take flight...’Flýði 4/1

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’ — 18/2

fram (adv.) ‘out, forth, forwards, away...’framm 5/5, framm 10/2

framr (adj.) [°compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr] ‘outstanding, foremost...’ — 4/2

frá (prep.) ‘from...’ — 18/3

2fránn (adj.) ‘bright, shining...’frôn 18/1

fremð (noun f.) ‘honour...’ — 3/2

frægr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str] ‘famous, renowned...’frægi 12/3

fullhugaðr (adj.) ‘[high-mettled]...’ — 17/3

fúss (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘eager, willing...’fús 6/7, 5/7, 9/1

2fylgja (verb) ‘follow, accompany...’fylgði 5/3

fylkir (noun m.) ‘leader...’ — 4/1

fylla (verb) ‘fill...’fylldi 18/8

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 4/3, 9/3, 15/3, 17/7

fýsa (verb) ‘desire, encourage...’fýstisk 3/3

fýst (noun f.) ‘[urgently, desire]...’ — 3/7

fǫlr (adj.) [°fǫlvan] ‘pale...’fǫlva 10/7

fǫrull (adj.) ‘[by night]...’ — 11/6

gamall (adj.) [°gamlan; compar. & superl. „ ellri adj.] ‘old...’gǫmlum 19/3

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’Gekk 3/1

Garðar (noun m.) ‘Russia...’Gǫrðum 1/8

gegnum (prep.) ‘through...’ — 12/8, gǫgnum 13/6

gellir (noun m.) ‘howler...’ — 4/4

1gera (verb) ‘do, make...’gerði 16/3

2geta (verb) ‘to beget, give birth to, mention, speak ...’gat 18/7

geystr (adj.) ‘violent...’geystu 3/7

1gífr (noun n.) ‘troll-woman...’gífrs 3/8

1gjalda (verb) ‘pay, repay...’galt 18/3, 17/2

2Glammi (noun m.) ‘Glammi...’Glamma 9/2

gleðja (verb) ‘gladden, rejoice...’glœddi 13/3

glóð (noun f.) ‘ember...’glóðum 8/6

gnógr (adj.) [°compar. gnógari/gnǿgri, superl. gnógastr/gnǿgstr] ‘abundant...’gnóg 19/4, gnóga 16/2, gnógu 7/6

gnýr (noun m.) ‘din, tumult...’gný 5/5

grafningr (noun m.) ‘graven shield...’grafnings 5/6

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 4/6, gram* 3/7, 6/8, 9/4, 14/4, 18/2, grams 19/3

1grennir (noun m.) ‘feeder...’grenni 17/6

grimmr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘fierce...’grimmum 5/5

gǫrva (adv.) ‘fully...’ — 1/2

hafa (verb) ‘have...’hefk 12/1, hefr 7/5

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’helt 12/7

3hallr (adj.) ‘tilting, awry...’ — 6/3

1hamla (noun f.) [°*-u; *-ur] ‘rowing position...’hǫmlu 2/3

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’ — 4/7, hônum 18/3

harðr (adj.) [°comp. -ari; superl. -astr] ‘hard, harsh...’harðara 13/8

1harri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘lord...’ — 13/1

hati (noun m.) ‘hater...’ — 1/6, 4/4

hauss (noun m.) [°hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar] ‘skull...’hausa 10/7, hausi 19/4

haustnátt (noun f.) ‘[autumn night]...’haustnôtt 12/8

hála (adv.) ‘vastly...’hôla 17/5

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’hôvan 11/1

2heita (verb) ‘be called, promise...’heiti 12/1

1hel (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju] ‘death, Hel, hell...’ — 10/7

Helganes (noun n.) ‘[Helgenæs]...’ — 12/2

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 2/4, her 18/8, 18/3

herskip (noun n.) ‘warship...’ — 1/7

2heyja (verb) ‘fight, wage (battle)...’háit 9/2

2heyra (verb) ‘hear...’heyrt 12/1

2héla (verb) ‘cover with rime...’héltum 2/5

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’hilmi 10/3, 13/5, 16/3, 18/7

himinn (noun m.) [°himins, dat. himni; himnar] ‘heaven, sky...’himins 10/6

hirð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)] ‘retinue...’ — 2/3

hirðmaðr (noun m.) ‘retainer...’hirðmenn 17/6

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjalma 13/4

hjarta (noun n.) [°-; *-u] ‘heart...’ — 3/4, 18/7

hjǫrdynr (noun m.) ‘[a sword-clash]...’ — 10/4

hjǫrþeyr (noun m.) ‘sword-wind...’hjǫrþey 16/4

2hlaða (verb) ‘heap, pile...’hlóð 11/1, Hlóð 17/5

hlé (noun n.) ‘[lee]...’ — 6/4

hlífa (verb) ‘protect...’ — 3/8

hljóta (verb) ‘alot, gain...’hlaut 5/2

hneitir (noun m.) ‘sword...’hneiti 13/5, hneitis 1/4

hrafn (noun m.) [°hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar] ‘raven...’hrafni 5/6, hrafni 18/6

hraustr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘strong, valiant...’ — 1/7, 2/6

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hringum 14/4

hringserkr (noun m.) ‘ring-shirt...’hringserks 18/4

hrím (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘rime frost...’hrími 6/3

1hrjóða (verb) ‘clear, destroy...’hrauð 12/4

hrósa (verb) ‘praise...’hrósak 11/3

hræ (noun n.) [°; -] ‘corpse, carrion...’ — 8/4, 15/4

hrækǫstr (noun m.) ‘corpse-mound...’hrækǫst 11/4

hugfullr (adj.) ‘high-mettled...’hugfulls 11/3

húfr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘hull...’húfi 2/5

hvar (adv.) ‘where...’ — 15/4

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’ — 18/5

hvé (conj.) ‘how...’ — 6/1

2hyggja (verb) ‘think, consider...’hykk 1/1

Hǫgni (noun m.) ‘[Hǫgni, Högni]...’Hǫgna 13/6

1hǫll (noun f.) [°hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir] ‘hall...’hallar 8/8

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’hendr 10/8

hǫrðr (noun m.) ‘the Hǫrðar...’Hǫrða 1/8, Hǫrða 10/3, Hǫrða 16/3

1illvirki (noun m.) ‘[evil-doers]...’illvirkja 8/4

2inn (art.) ‘the...’ — 2/1, 12/3

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 3/7, 5/5, 13/6, 15/7

jaðarbyggvi (noun m.) ‘[people Jæren]...’Jaðarbyggva 3/6

jafn (adj.) [°comp. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘even, just...’ — 18/6

jafnmildr (adj.) ‘equally bounteous...’ — 19/2

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’jarla 5/1

járn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘iron, weapon...’jôrn 13/7

Jóm (noun n.) ‘[Wollin, Jómsborg]...’Jómi 8/3

jóti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘one of the Jótar...’Jót 6/8

Jótland (noun n.) ‘Jutland, Jylland...’ — 15/4

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’ — 10/8

jǫrð (noun f.) [°jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)] ‘ground, earth...’jǫrðu 10/6

klífa (verb) ‘climb...’ — 11/8

kljúfa (verb) ‘cleave...’klauf 10/7

kló (noun f.) [°-; klǿr] ‘claw...’ — 5/6

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’ — 8/2, konungs 4/2

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landi 6/8

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’láði 7/6

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’lét 9/1, lét 13/1, lét 17/3, Létat 4/5, Létat 13/5, lézk 5/7

leggja (verb) ‘put, lay...’ — 12/6

lengi (adv.) ‘for a long time...’ — 4/6

lið (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘retinue, troop...’ — 17/4

liggja (verb) ‘lie...’ 11/7

lituðr (noun m.) ‘colourer...’ — 18/4

1lík (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘body, shape...’ — 15/2

log (noun n.) [°; -] ‘flame...’logs 2/7

lóga (verb) ‘part with...’lógandi 16/2

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’manna 15/1

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’marga 12/4

2marr (noun m.) ‘horse...’ — 11/8

máttr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. mǽtti/mátt; mǽttir, dat. -um] ‘power...’môttr 7/3

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 10/1, 14/4

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’máttit 11/6

1merki (noun n.) [°-s: -] ‘banner, sign...’ — 18/4

1minna (verb) ‘remind, remember, recall...’minnir 8/1, Minnisk 18/5

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’munk 6/1

1mæla (verb) ‘speak, say...’ — 5/4

1 (verb) ‘reach, get, manage...’Náði 7/1

nátt (noun f.) [°náttar/nǽtr, dat. -/-u; nǽtr] ‘night...’Nôtt 3/5

njóta (verb) ‘enjoy, use...’ — 4/5

norðan (adv.) ‘from the north...’ — 6/4

Noregr (noun m.) ‘Norway...’Nóregi 7/4, Nóregs 4/5

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 1/1

nýtr (adj.) [°compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr] ‘useful, able...’ — 4/6

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’oddum 13/3

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 10/3, 10/5

4of (particle) ‘(before verb)...’ — 8/1

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 3/5, 6/3, 7/2, 10/4

orðgnótt (noun f.) ‘wealth of words...’ — 5/2

ormsetr (noun n.) ‘[reptile home]...’ormsetrs 1/6

ódæsinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[unsluggish]...’ — 10/2

Óláfr (noun m.) ‘Óláfr...’Ôleifs 3/3, Ôleifs 15/6

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 1/8, 15/5

óskírðr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[unbaptised]...’óskírð 8/7

rammr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘mighty...’ramm 9/2, ramma 4/2

1rausn (noun f.) ‘magnificence...’ — 19/4

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’réð 5/4, réð 17/1

rán (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘plunder, plundering...’ráns 18/3

regg (noun n.) ‘boat, vessel...’ — 12/6

regn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘rain...’regni 12/8

1reiða (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘chariot, equipment...’reiðu 1/1

2reiði (noun f.) [°-] ‘anger...’ — 4/1

2reka (verb) ‘drive, force...’rak 4/7, rekr 15/1

2renna (verb) ‘run (strong)...’rann 8/7

1 (noun f.) ‘Rügen...’ — 9/1

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’rauð 9/3, rauð 18/1

rjóðandi (noun m.) ‘reddener...’rjóðanda 1/1, 2/2

2róa (verb) ‘row...’røri 14/3

róg (noun n.) [°-s] ‘strife, slander...’ — 1/2, 12/7

rýgr (noun f.) ‘housewife...’rýgjar 12/7

rýrir (noun m.) ‘diminsher, destroyer...’rýri 2/7

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 5/7, 9/1, 10/2

røkkr (noun n.) [°-s] ‘[twilight]...’Røkr 12/5

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randir 12/5

salt (noun n.) [°-s] ‘sea, salt...’ — 2/5

saman (adv.) ‘together...’ — 12/6

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’sús 5/2, þeirar 14/3, þess 19/3, þvís 5/3

seggr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘man...’seggjum 1/4

segja (verb) ‘say, tell...’ — 1/3, 6/1

2seimr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘gold...’seim 1/3

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 13/7

setja (verb) ‘place, set, establish...’Setti 6/5

Sigtúnir (noun f.) ‘Sigtuna...’Sigtúnum 2/8

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’sér 3/8, 7/8

siklingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’ — 7/1, 11/1

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sínum 4/7

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 7/1, 8/2

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’sér 15/3

1skap (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘mind, fate...’ — 10/6

skapt (noun m.) [°; *-] ‘°(Fr def. 5 “en af de Stænger hvormed Væ...’ — 10/5

Skáney (noun f.) ‘Skåne...’Skáneyju 16/4

skánungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘one of the Skánungar...’Skônungum 14/2

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’Skeiðr 14/1

skera (verb) ‘cut...’skar 2/5

skilda (verb) ‘[a shield-hung]...’skildan 19/2

skipta (verb) ‘share, divide, exchange...’skipti 10/5

skjǫldungr (noun m.) ‘king...’ — 19/1

skyldir (noun m.) ‘commander...’ — 18/8

ský (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘cloud...’skýja 12/7

slíta (verb) ‘to tear...’slítr 15/7

snarfengr (adj.) ‘sturdy...’snarfengjan 6/2

snarr (adj.) ‘gallant, bold...’ — 11/2

snjallr (adj.) ‘quick, resourceful, bold...’ — 7/2

sonr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni] ‘son...’sonar 3/4, 15/6

sókndjarfr (adj.) ‘battle-brave...’ — 4/8

spenja (verb) ‘entice...’spendi 10/8

steikja (verb) ‘[roasted]...’steikðan 8/5

stillir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 8/4

stíga (verb) ‘step...’stígr 19/1

strǫnd (noun f.) [°strandar, dat. -u/-; strandir/strendr] ‘border, edge, coast, shore...’strǫndum 15/2

stýra (verb) ‘steer, control...’ — 7/4

1støkkva (verb) ‘(str.) leap, spring; scatter...’stǫkk 4/3

sunnan (adv.) ‘(from the) south...’ — 15/1

svá (adv.) ‘so, thus...’ — 7/6, 11/1

2Sveinn (noun m.) ‘Sveinn...’Svein 4/7, Sveins 3/2, Sveins 15/1

svell (noun n.) [°; -] ‘ice...’svells 4/4

1svella (verb) ‘swell...’sollinn 6/3

1svik (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘deceit, treachery; poison...’ — 17/1

1svíða (verb) ‘cause pain, burn...’sveið 8/3

Svíþjóð (noun f.) ‘[Sweden]...’ — 3/1

sygn (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘one of the Sygnir...’Sygna 6/1

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sótti 18/2

søkkvi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘queller, enemy...’ — 3/1

sǫndugr (adj.) ‘[Sandy]...’sǫndug 15/2

2taka (verb) ‘take...’tók 6/7, tók 14/1

teitir (noun m.) ‘gladdener...’ — 12/4

tigr (noun m.) [°-ar/-s(DN II (1309) 80¹², etc.); -ir, acc. -u] ‘a ten of, a decade; a ten of, a decade...’tøg 18/8

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 2/3

1tíð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘time...’tíðar 14/3

tjá (verb) ‘to put in order, prepare...’tœðu 17/5

tveir (num. cardinal) ‘two...’tvær 10/8

tyggi (noun m.) ‘prince, sovereign...’ — 17/4

tælir (noun m.) ‘[beguiler]...’ — 5/4

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’ulfa 11/2

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 5/6, 7/8, 19/3

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’ungi 2/1, 17/8, 19/1

1uppganga (noun f.) ‘advance ashore...’Uppgǫngu 16/1

út (adv.) ‘out(side)...’ — 2/1

útan (prep.) ‘outside, without...’ — 15/3

vaða (verb) ‘advance, wade...’Óð 10/1

valkǫstr (noun m.) ‘corpse-pile...’valkǫst 15/8, valkǫstu 17/8

valskr (adj.) ‘foreign, French...’valska 9/3

vargr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’varg 12/4, 8/6, 15/7

vatn (noun n.) [°-s; -*] ‘water, lake...’vatni 15/5

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’óx 7/3

váð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘clothes...’væðr 2/4

vágr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘sea, wave...’vágs 12/3

vápnhríð (noun f.) ‘weapon-blizzard...’ — 8/2

2veðr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weather, wind, storm...’ — 2/8, 13/6, veðri 3/8

venðr (noun m.) ‘Wend...’ — 8/1

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’vas 19/3, Vasat 1/5

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’varð 5/1, varð 10/3

1verpa (verb) ‘to throw, cast (up)...’varp 10/4

vestland (noun n.) ‘vestland...’Vestlandi 9/4

vetr (noun m.) [°vetrar/vetrs(HómHauksb³ 173²³), dat. vetri; vetr] ‘winter...’vetra 1/6

vér (pron.) [°gen. vár, dat./acc. oss] ‘we, us, our...’okkrum 4/3

1við (noun f.) [°[; -jar]] ‘tie, rope...’ — 19/2

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 6/7

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’vildi 11/7

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’vann 3/2, Vann 8/1, vann 15/6, vann 16/1

vinr (noun m.) [°-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir] ‘friend...’ — 1/8

1vita (verb) ‘know...’veitk 1/2

vitnir (noun m.) ‘wolf...’ — 15/5

víðr (adj.) ‘far...’víða 12/3, víðu 9/3, vítt 11/7, Vítt 12/1, vítt 15/3

víf (noun n.) ‘woman, wife...’vífs 11/8

vík (noun f.) ‘bay...’víkum 15/7

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’vísa 11/3

vísundr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘bison...’visundr 6/4

vǫrðr (noun m.) [°varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu] ‘guardian, defender...’ — 10/6

yfir (prep.) ‘over...’ — 11/8

1Yggr (noun m.) ‘Yggr...’Yggjar 11/5

ylgr (noun f.) [°acc. -i] ‘she-wolf...’ylgjar 5/3

Ymir (noun m.) ‘Ymir...’Ymis 19/4

Yngvi (noun m.) ‘Yngvi, prince...’ — 16/1

þangat (adv.) ‘there, thither...’þingat 14/4

þarfr (adj.) ‘necessary, useful...’ — 18/6

þás (conj.) ‘when...’ — 1/7, 8/1, 10/5

þegja (verb) ‘be silent...’þegi 1/3

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’þengil 6/2, 4/6, 7/5

þél (noun f.) [°; -ar] ‘file...’ — 13/8

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’ — 2/1, 9/2

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 4/2, 14/3, þjóðum 2/2

þjóðkonungr (noun m.) ‘mighty king...’ — 2/6

1þorn (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘thorn...’ — 17/7

þótt (conj.) ‘although...’ — 11/7

þrekr (noun m.) ‘powerful...’þrek 13/2

þroski (noun m.) [°-a] ‘manly deed, manhood...’ — 7/7

þrøngva (verb) ‘press, throng...’þrungit 7/8

þungr (adj.) ‘heavy...’þunga 17/8

þvít (conj.) ‘because, since...’ — 1/2

2þykkr (adj.) ‘thick...’þykkt 13/7

þyrnir (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘thorns, bramble...’ — 13/7

œsir (noun m.) ‘flinger, impeller, inciter...’œsi 6/7

ævi (noun f.) [°-/-ar] ‘life...’ — 11/4

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’ — 6/7, 11/7, 15/3, 18/5

ǫndurr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘front, onset...’ǫndurt 12/5

1ǫrn (noun m.) [°arnar, dat. erni; ernir, acc. ǫrnu] ‘eagle...’ǫrnu 17/7

ǫrr (adj.) ‘generous, brave...’ǫrs 1/2

øx (noun f.) [°øxar/exar, dat. øxi/exi, acc. øxi/øx; -ar] ‘axe...’øxi 10/1

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