Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson (Arn)

11th century; volume 2; ed. Diana Whaley;

2. Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa (Hryn) - 20

Skj info: Arnórr Þórðarson jarlaskáld, Islandsk skjald, 11. årh. (AI, 332-54, BI, 305-27).

Skj poems:
1. Rǫgnvaldsdrápa
2. Hrynhenda, Magnúsdrápa
3. Magnúsdrápa
4. Et digt om Hermundr Illugason
5. Þórfinnsdrápa
6. Erfidrápa om kong Harald hårdråde
7. Vers af ubestemmelige digte, samt én lausavísa

Arnórr jarlaskáld ‘Jarls’-poet’ came from Hítarnes in western Iceland, the son of the prosperous farmer and poet Þórðr Kolbeinsson (ÞKolbI, born 974) and Oddný eykyndill ‘Island-candle’ Þorkelsdóttir, who was the subject of the long-running personal and poetic rivalry between Þórðr and Bjǫrn Hítdœlakappi (BjhítV) which is commemorated in Bjarnar saga Hítdœlakappa. According to that saga chronology, Arnórr would have been born c. 1011/12, and he features as a boy in ch. 23 of the saga, and in ch. 60 of Grettis saga. He went abroad, probably in his early twenties, for he is named in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 258, 267) among the skalds of King Knútr inn ríki (Cnut the Great) (d. 1035). From the evidence of the memorial poems Rǫgnvaldsdrápa (Arn Rǫgndr), especially st. 2, and Þorfinnsdrápa (Arn Þorfdr), especially sts 3, 4 (cf. Lv 1), he spent several years in the Orkney Islands as poet and intimate of the jarls Rǫgnvaldr (d. c. 1045) and Þorfinnr (d. c. 1065). It is to this that his nickname refers. Arnórr was in Norway during the brief joint rule of Magnús Óláfsson and Haraldr Sigurðarson (c. 1045-6), and his performance of Hrynhenda (Arn Hryn) for Magnús and Blágagladrápa ‘The drápa of Dark Geese (= Ravens (?))’ for Haraldr is the subject of a spirited anecdote (Mork 1928-32, 116-18, Flat 1860-8, III, 321-3, Fms 6, 195-8; referred to below as ‘the Mork anecdote’). The later part of Arnórr’s career is obscure, but there is a second, memorial poem for Magnús, Magnússdrápa (Arn Magndr), and his composition of a Haraldsdrápa (Arn Hardr) in memory of Haraldr (d. 1066) suggests continuing links of some kind with Norway, though he also composed about Icelanders: a fragmentarily preserved poem for Hermundr Illugason (d. c. 1055; Arn HermIII) and a poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (d. 1073) of which Arn Frag 1III might be a remnant. For further outlines of Arnórr’s life and works, see Hollander 1945, 177-83; Turville-Petre 1968, 5-10, 1976, 93-4; Whaley 1998, 41-7.

The majority of Arnórr’s surviving oeuvre takes the form of memorial encomia (erfidrápur) for rulers of Norway or Orkney in the dróttkvætt metre: ten ll. only of Rǫgndr and longer fragments of Magnússdrápa (Magndr), Þorfdr and Hardr. His greatest contribution to the development of skaldic poetry, however, is his authorship of the first known encomium in the hrynhent metre: the Hrynhenda which, since it apostrophises Magnús góði, must predate the memorial Magndr. Arn Frag 1III is in the same metre but probably unconnected (see above). It is possible that Arn Frag 4III is in praise of Knútr inn ríki and the non-royal dedicatees of Herm and Frag 1 have been mentioned above. Arnórr also appears in one recension of Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 262) as a poet of Óláfr kyrri ‘the Quiet’ Haraldsson (d. 1093), and the pres. tense praise of Arn Frag 3III could have been addressed to him, or alternatively to Haraldr in Blágagladrápa. Only one st., Arn Lv 1, seems clearly to be a lv.; it was spoken during a civil conflict in the Orkneys. Herm and the eight other Fragments are printed in SkP III since they are preserved in SnE and LaufE and cannot be certainly assigned to any of the poems in the present volume.

The principal eds consulted in the course of editing Arnórr’s poetry for SkP are listed for each st., and are of two main types: eds of the skaldic corpus (Finnur Jónsson’s in Skj AI, 332-54, BI, 305-27, BI, and E. A. Kock’s in Skald I, 155-65, supported by numerous NN) and eds of the various prose works in which the poetry is preserved. Extracts are also included in anthologies, articles and other works including (with ten or more sts): Munch and Unger 1847, 119-20; CPB II, 184-98; Wisén 1886-9, I, 44-6, 141-2, 199-200 (Hryn only); Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 48-53; Hollander 1945,177-88 (annotated translations only, mainly Hryn); and (with five sts): Turville-Petre 1976, 93-7. Other works containing comment on the poetry are cited as appropriate in the Notes.

files
file 2006-01-11 - Arnórr Þ reconstructions
file 2007-07-04 - Arnórr mss ordering

Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa (‘Falling/flowing metre, Drápa about Magnús’) — Arn HrynII

Diana Whaley 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 181-206.

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Skj: Arnórr Þórðarson jarlaskáld: 2. Hrynhenda, Magnúsdrápa, 1046 (AI, 332-8, BI, 306-11); stanzas (if different): 1 | 2 | 3

in texts: Flat, FoGT, Gramm, H-Hr, Hkr, Knýtl, LaufE, LaufE, MGóð, MH, Mork, ÓH, Skm, SnE, SnEW, TGT

SkP info: II, 181-206

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-ligr (adj.) ‘-ly...’ligr 10/3

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 4/1, 11/3

aldr (noun m.) [°aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar] ‘life, age...’ — 16/4

aldri (adv.) ‘never...’ — 11/5, 16/7, 20/1

allr (adj.) ‘all...’allan 8/2, 3/8, allra 6/1, ǫll 15/5

allvaldr (noun m.) [°-s; -ar] ‘mighty ruler...’ — 14/7

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 3/7, 13/7

1annarr (pron.) [°f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir] ‘(an)other, second...’annan 3/2, 8/3, 20/1

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 12/4, 14/2, 19/2

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 11/6, 19/1

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 6/7

auðinn (adj.) [°compar. auðnari] ‘fated, decreed...’auðit 9/3, auðit 12/2

1auka (verb) [°eykr; jók, jóku/juku] ‘(str. intrans.) increase...’aukask 14/4

austan (adv.) ‘from the east...’ — 5/5, 6/1

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 4/3, 10/1, 14/6, 16/2

2áll (noun m.) ‘channel...’álar 10/6

1ár (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)] ‘oar...’ôr 2/2

barð (noun n.) ‘prow, stern (of a ship)...’bǫrð 11/4

bági (noun m.) [°-a] ‘adversary...’ — 17/1

1bára (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘wave...’ — 2/2, 4/7

1ben (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)] ‘wound...’benja 6/6

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’berr 16/5, bôruð 5/1, bôruð 11/1

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bað 9/5

2bifa (verb) [°-að-] ‘shudder, tremble...’bifðisk 10/2, bifðusk 4/5, bifðusk 10/6

bjartr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘bright...’bjǫrtum 12/8

blágammr (noun m.) ‘[dark vulture]...’blágamms 6/5

blóðigr (adj.) [°blóðgan/blóðugan (f. dat. sg. bloðre Gulᴵ 82³⁴)] ‘bloody...’blóðugt 15/4

borð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘side, plank, board; table...’ — 1/2

borgarmaðr (noun m.) [°acc. ·mann; ·menn] ‘[in townsmen]...’borgarmǫnnum 12/7

brandr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘sword, prow; fire...’brands 7/4

breiða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘open, grow...’Breiðask 6/5

breiðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘broad, wide...’breiðu 12/6

2brenna (verb) [°brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn] ‘(strong, intransitive)...’brenni 17/8

broddr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of spear or arrow...’broddi 17/4

buðlungr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, prince...’ — 12/7

búningr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘[array]...’ — 17/6

byggð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘dwelling, settlement...’byggðir 5/2, byggðir 6/2

2byggja (verb) [°byggir/byggvir; byggði; byggðr] ‘inhabit, dwell; build, found...’byggvisk 15/2

danaveldi (noun n.) ‘realm of the Danes...’ — 10/8

dauði (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘death...’dauða 12/2

digr (adj.) [°digran; compar. digrari, superl. digrastr] ‘fat, large...’digra 13/6

dolgr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ar] ‘enemy, battle...’dolgar 6/6, 17/8

2draga (verb) [°dregr; dró, drógu; dreginn/droget(Hirð NKS 1642 4° 146v²⁹; cf. [$962$])] ‘drag, pull, draw...’drótt 11/3

2drekka (verb) [°drekkr; drakk, drukku; drukkinn/drykkinn] ‘drink...’ — 14/3

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’dreif 10/1, drifnu 16/4

dróttinn (noun m.) [°dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar] ‘lord, master...’ — 3/5

1dúfa (noun f.) [°-u; -ur, gen. -na] ‘billow, wave...’dúfu 1/1

dǫglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’ — 11/6

dǫrr (noun m.) ‘spear...’ — 5/8

eða (conj.) ‘or...’ — 16/3, 17/8

3eigi (adv.) ‘not...’ — 5/3, 17/1

eigna (verb) [°-að-] ‘acquire...’Eignask 8/1

eiki (noun n.) ‘oak, oak ship...’ — 9/7, 16/8

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’einum 14/6

ek (pron.) [°mín, dat. mér, acc. mik] ‘I, me...’ — 3/2

eldr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar] ‘fire...’eldi 10/8, eldi 12/1, eldi 12/8

elgr (noun m.) [°-s; -ir/-ar] ‘elk...’elgjum 16/1

ella (adv.) ‘otherwise...’ — 16/3

2elska (verb) [°-að-] ‘love...’ — 19/1

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 4/5, 4/6, 4/7, 6/3, 11/5, 15/7

1engill (noun m.) [°engils; englar] ‘angel...’engla 18/4

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’es 13/3, es 17/7, es 18/1, þats 9/1, þats 15/1

eyðandi (noun m.) ‘clearer, destroyer...’Eyðendr 19/1

eyðir (noun m.) ‘destroyer...’ — 7/1

él (noun n.) [°; dat. -um] ‘storm...’ — 10/7

falma (verb) [°-að-] ‘falter...’ — 6/4

far (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘travel, vessel, trace, life, conduct...’ — 16/8

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’fórt 12/1

fastr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘firm, fast...’fast 10/3

2 (verb) [°fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn] ‘get, receive...’fekktu 15/5, fengins 16/3, fenguð 13/3, fenguð 14/1

ferð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)] ‘host, journey...’ferðar 5/5

fjándmaðr (noun m.) ‘enemy...’fjandmenn 6/3, fjandmenn 6/8

fjórir (num. cardinal) ‘four...’Fjórar 14/5

fjǫðr (noun f.) ‘feather...’fiðri 6/3, fiðri 15/4

fjǫr (noun n.) ‘life...’fjǫrvi 6/7

flaust (noun n.) ‘ship...’ — 15/8

flaustr (noun n.) ‘ship...’flaustum 11/7

fleiri (adj. comp.) [°superl. flestr] ‘more, most...’ — 11/8, flestan 16/4

2fljótr (adj.) ‘quick...’fljótu 3/4

floti (noun m.) ‘fleet...’flota 9/2

flotnar (noun m.) ‘mariners...’flotnum 12/2

2flóð (noun n.) ‘flood...’ — 11/7

flýja (verb) ‘to flee, take flight...’flýrðu 17/3

fold (noun f.) ‘land...’foldar 15/6

folk (noun n.) ‘people...’ — 12/6

forða (verb) ‘escape, avoid...’ — 6/7

framr (adj.) [°compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr] ‘outstanding, foremost...’fremra 3/2

1fregna (verb) ‘hear of...’frák 7/1, frák 11/5, fregnk 19/1

fríðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘beautiful, fair...’fríðra 16/7

frægr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str] ‘famous, renowned...’ — 13/3

frœkn (adj.) ‘brave, bold...’ — 14/8

1fura (noun f.) ‘fir vessel...’fúru 10/3

fylkir (noun m.) ‘leader...’fylki 16/7, fylki 18/4

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 7/4

fyrir (prep.) ‘for, before, because of...’ — 10/6

fýri (noun n.) ‘fir-tree...’fýris 10/4

2fœða (verb) ‘to feed, give food to, bring up, bear, g...’fœðask 20/2, fœðið 16/3

fœðir (noun m.) ‘feeder, nourisher...’ — 6/5

fǫrnuðr (noun m.) [°farnaðar] ‘prosperity...’ — 13/4

garmr (noun m.) ‘dog...’ — 10/4

geimi (noun m.) ‘ocean...’geima 19/4

1gera (verb) ‘do, make...’gervik 14/2, gǫrvar 14/8

2geta (verb) ‘to beget, give birth to, mention, speak ...’gaztu 5/3

2geysa (verb) ‘surge...’geyst 4/2, geystisk 4/7

geystr (adj.) ‘violent...’geystri 10/3

girzkr (adj.) ‘Greek; Russian...’girzku 4/4, girzkum 9/8

Gjúki (noun m.) ‘Gjúki...’Gjúka 9/7

gleðja (verb) ‘gladden, rejoice...’glóðu 10/7

glíkr (adj.) [°-jan/-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘like, alike...’glík 10/8, Glíkan 16/5

glæsa (verb) ‘adorn...’glæsir 17/7

goð (noun n.) ‘(pagan) god...’goði 19/3

gotnar (noun m.) ‘men...’gotna 8/2

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 3/4, 3/6, 8/4, 20/2, grams 13/6

gráðr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘greed, hunger...’gráðar 7/2

gríma (noun f.) [°-u] ‘night, darkness...’grímur 4/8

grund (noun f.) ‘earth, land...’grundar 11/2

grœði (noun n.) ‘swell...’ — 16/2, 19/3

gull (noun n.) ‘gold...’goll 10/2, golls 16/3

gǫfugr (adj.) [°gǫfgan/gǫfugan; compar. gǫfgari/gǫfugri, superl. gǫfgastr/gǫfugstr/gǫfugastr] ‘noble, glorious...’gǫfugt 9/7

hafa (verb) ‘have...’hefr 14/5, hǫfð 19/2

1hafna (verb) ‘abandon, reject...’ — 17/2

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’helzt 10/5

1hamla (noun f.) [°*-u; *-ur] ‘rowing position...’hǫmlu 9/5

hanki (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘cleat, hank...’hanka 2/1

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’þeira 3/7, þeira 7/2, þeira 11/8, þeira 15/8

harða (adv.) ‘very...’ — 4/1

1haukr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘hawk...’hauka 14/4, hauki 16/5, 3/5

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’hæri 13/5, hæstum 6/1

hefnir (noun m.) ‘avenger...’ — 14/1

heiðinn (adj.) ‘heathen...’heiðit 12/6

4heiðr (adj.) ‘bright...’heiði 17/6

heimr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘home, abode; world...’heimi 19/4, heimrinn 15/2

Helganes (noun n.) ‘[Helgenæs]...’ — 15/4

helmingr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘unit, troop...’helming 13/4

heppinn (adj.) [°comp. heppnari, superl. heppnastr] ‘fortunate...’ — 11/3

herskip (noun n.) ‘warship...’ — 4/1, 17/7

herskjǫldr (noun m.) ‘war-shield...’herskjǫld 11/1

2heyra (verb) ‘hear...’ — 11/1

hélugr (adj.) ‘rime-spread, frosted ...’hélug 11/4

hilmir (noun m.) ‘prince, protector...’hilmis 11/2

himinn (noun m.) [°himins, dat. himni; himnar] ‘heaven, sky...’ — 3/8, himna 18/4

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjalma 9/8, hjalmi 6/4

hjarta (noun n.) [°-; *-u] ‘heart...’hjǫrtu 12/8

hlenni (noun m.) ‘robber, thief...’hlenna 12/3, hlenna 17/3, hlenna 17/8

2hlébarðr (noun m.) ‘bear...’hlébarðs 2/1

1hlíð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘slope...’hlíðir 18/2

hlunnr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘roller...’Hlunna 17/5, hlunni 4/2, hlunni 11/3

2hlýða (verb) ‘hear, listen; be able...’hlýð 3/1

2hlýr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘cheek, bow...’ — 4/7

2Hlǫkk (noun f.) ‘Hlǫkk...’Hlakkar 14/3

hnika (verb) ‘[drove against]...’hnikaði 2/2

hníga (verb) ‘sink, fall...’hneigði 10/3

hollvinr (noun m.) ‘loyal friend...’ — 16/6

1hringr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ar] ‘ring; sword...’hringum 15/5

hrista (verb) ‘shake...’hristi* 4/7

hríð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘time, storm...’hríðir 14/8

hrím (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘rime frost...’hrími 4/8

hrósa (verb) ‘praise...’hrósak 17/7

3hræða (verb) ‘fear, be afraid...’hræddir 6/7, hræðask 9/6

hrælǫgr (noun m.) ‘[corpse-sea]...’hrælǫg 14/3

1hrøkkva (verb) ‘coil...’hrǫkk 4/6

húfr (noun m.) [°dat. -i] ‘hull...’húf 4/4

hvass (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘keen, sharp...’hvǫssum 16/5

hvárgi (pron.) ‘neither...’hvártki 17/3

1hvergi (adv.) ‘nowhere...’ — 12/5

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’ — 3/6, hverrar 9/5

hvé (conj.) ‘how...’ — 11/1

hvítr (adj.) [°-an; -ari, -astr] ‘white...’hvíta 5/6

hyrr (noun m.) ‘fire...’hyr 17/4, hyrjar 12/4

hœgri (adj. comp.) ‘higher, highest...’hæstan 12/3

2hætta (verb) ‘risk...’ — 16/1

1hǫll (noun f.) [°hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir] ‘hall...’hallir 12/5

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’handa 5/4

hǫrðr (noun m.) ‘the Hǫrðar...’Hǫrða 3/5

2inn (art.) ‘the...’in 1/2, in 2/2, in 5/8, ins 13/6, it 4/2, it 10/2, it 19/3

innan (prep.) ‘inside, within...’ — 16/6

inndrótt (noun f.) ‘retinue...’ — 19/2

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 1/1, 3/4, 4/2, 6/2, 10/8, 11/4, 12/6, 15/3, 16/6, 17/4, 17/6, 19/4

jafnt (adv.) ‘constantly, always...’ — 18/3

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’ — 15/6

Jóm (noun n.) ‘[Wollin, Jómsborg]...’Jómi 12/4

jóti (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘one of the Jótar...’Jóta 3/4

jǫfurr (noun m.) ‘ruler, prince...’jǫfra 17/1

kalla (verb) ‘call...’kallaðr 14/7

1kappi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘champion...’ — 3/3

kaupfǫr (noun f.) ‘[a trading voyage]...’ — 1/1

keppa (verb) ‘compete...’Keppinn 15/1

klífa (verb) ‘climb...’ — 13/8

kljúfa (verb) ‘cleave...’ — 1/1

klæði (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘clothes...’ — 9/6

knǫrr (noun m.) [°knarrar, dat. knerri; knerrir, acc. knǫrru/knerri] ‘(a kind of) ship...’knarra 1/2

kolga (noun f.) ‘breaker, wave...’kolgu 6/6

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’komt 6/1

kundr (noun m.) ‘descendant...’ — 11/2

kunna (verb) ‘know, can, be able...’kunnuð 16/1

kunnr (adj.) ‘known (?)...’kunnr 13/7, 5/6, 15/7

2kveðja (verb) ‘say, greet...’kvôðu 6/4

kvæði (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘poem...’ — 3/4, 14/4

1kyn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘kin...’ — 17/2

kynda (verb) ‘kindle...’kynduð 12/3

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’landa 8/4, landi 7/4

landsfolk (noun n.) ‘people of the country...’ — 5/4

lauðr (noun n.) ‘foam, surf...’lauðri 10/2

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’láði 9/1

lágr (adj.) [°comp. lǽgri, superl. lǽgstr] ‘low...’lágan 5/3

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’létk 1/1, létuð 17/1, lézt 13/1, lætr 14/3

liðskostr (noun m.) ‘[pick of troops]...’liðskost 5/3

liggja (verb) ‘lie...’ 13/5

líta (verb) ‘look, see; appear...’lízk 18/1

lítill (adj.) [°lítinn] ‘little...’lítt 4/5

ljómi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘light, beam...’ljóma 12/4

2ljósta (verb) ‘strike...’lostins 19/3

ljótr (adj.) ‘ugly...’ljóta 2/2, Ljótu 10/1

lyfting (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u, acc. -] ‘after-deck...’lypting 10/1, lypting 16/6

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’mann 17/2, menn 5/8, menn 9/6, Mǫnnum 18/1

2Magnús (noun m.) ‘Magnús...’ — 3/1

malmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘metal...’malm 17/4, malmi 9/8

manngi (pron.) ‘no...’ — 3/2, 8/3

2marr (noun m.) ‘horse...’mars 10/7

1mál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘speech, matter...’môlum 14/2

már (noun m.) ‘gull...’môs 6/2

máttigr (adj.) [°compar. -ari/-ri, superl. -astr] ‘mighty...’máttigs 3/1

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 4/4, 5/6, 6/1, 7/3, 9/1, 15/5

meðan (conj.) ‘while...’ — 15/2

mega (verb) ‘may, might...’mætti 13/8

meiri (adj. comp.) [°meiran; superl. mestr] ‘more, most...’meira 15/8, 3/7

Meiti (noun m.) ‘Meiti...’Meita 18/2

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’miklum 9/2

mildingr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘ruler, generous one...’ — 8/3, 18/1

minn (pron.) [°f. mín, n. mitt] ‘my...’ — 1/2, 16/6

1minni (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘memory...’minnum 19/2

3minni (adj. comp.) [°superl. minnstr] ‘less, least...’minna 13/4

2missa (verb) ‘lose, lack...’ — 15/6

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mun 14/4, mun 15/1, mun 20/1

1mœrr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘pl. Mœrir...’Mœra 8/4

nafn (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘name...’nafni 17/2

1nema (verb) ‘to take...’nam 4/6, namtu 8/1

(conj.) ‘nor...’ — 17/4

3niðr (adv.) ‘down...’ — 4/6

norðan (adv.) ‘from the north...’ — 9/4, 10/5

Noregr (noun m.) ‘Norway...’Nóreg 8/2

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 14/4

nærri (adj. comp.) [°superl. nǽstr] ‘near, nearer, next...’næsta 19/3

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 5/2, 12/1

4of (particle) ‘(before verb)...’ — 9/3, 11/7, 13/8, 14/8

ofvægr (adj.) ‘invincible, overwhelming...’ — 14/7

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 5/8, 10/4

óðal (noun n.) [°-s, dat. óð(a)li/óðrli; óðul, dat. óðlum/óðrlum] ‘(hereditary) property...’ — 8/1, óðals 11/8

1óðr (noun m.) ‘poem...’óðar 3/1

Óláfr (noun m.) ‘Óláfr...’Ôleifs 14/2

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 7/4

ósamr (adj.) ‘[with him]...’ósamt 18/3

ótti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘fear...’ — 16/1

óþjóð (noun f.) ‘evildoer, evil tribe...’ — 12/1

Peita (noun f.) ‘Poitou...’Peitu 9/8

rauðr (adj.) [°compar. -ari] ‘red...’rauða 10/2, Rauðar 5/1

ráð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘advice, plan, control, power...’ráði 7/2

ráða (verb) ‘advise, rule, interpret, decide...’rôðumk 3/3

1reið (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir/-ar] ‘riding; chariot...’reiðar 17/6

3reiði (noun n.) [°-s] ‘tackle, rigging...’reiði 4/4

2reka (verb) ‘drive, force...’reknu 5/8

2renna (verb) ‘run (strong)...’renni 17/5, renni 18/3, rennir 18/1, runnin 13/7

3renna (verb) ‘let run (weak)...’renndi 9/4

1reyr (noun f.) ‘reed...’reyrar 14/6

3réttr (adj.) [°compar. -ari, superl. -astr] ‘right, straight, direct...’ — 3/5

rifna (verb) ‘to tear apart...’rifnar 3/8

rimma (noun f.) [°-u] ‘battle...’rimmu 5/2, rimmu 15/3

rísta (verb) ‘carve, raise...’ristit 11/7

1rjóðr (noun m.) ‘reddener...’ — 5/7, 6/3

2ryðja (verb) ‘to clear (free) land...’ryðr 8/3

rýrir (noun m.) ‘diminsher, destroyer...’ — 14/5

rǫðull (noun m.) [°dat. rǫðli] ‘heavenly body...’ — 17/5

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randa 14/5, randir 5/1

safna (verb) ‘gather...’Samnask 9/5

salt (noun n.) [°-s] ‘sea, salt...’ — 4/2

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ — 13/3

seinkun (noun f.) ‘delay...’ — 2/1

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 17/5, 18/3

setr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘seat, abode...’setrs 14/6

sigr (noun m.) [°sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar] ‘victory...’ — 13/6, sigri 15/8

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’ — 15/6

siklingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’ — 9/2

3sinn (pron.) [°f. sín, n. sitt] ‘(refl. poss. pron.)...’sína 6/8

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 5/1, 9/1, 15/7

1sjá (pron.) [°gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir] ‘this...’þessum 19/4

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’sævar 18/2

2skaka (verb) ‘shake...’skók 15/3

2skapa (verb) ‘form...’skapaðr 13/6

1skeið (noun f.) [°-ar; -r/-ar/-ir] ‘ship...’skeiðar 4/4, skeiðar 7/4, skeiðar 10/4

skelfa (verb) ‘cause to shake...’skelfðan 16/2

skildir (noun m.) ‘shield-giver...’ — 7/3

skip (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ship...’ — 11/8

skíð (noun n.) [°; -] ‘ski...’skíði 18/2

skíði (noun m.) ‘ski (?)...’ — 9/3

2skírr (adj.) ‘pure, bright...’skíra 13/1

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skjǫldu 5/6

skjǫldungr (noun m.) ‘king...’ — 4/3, 12/1, 13/1, 20/1

1skorða (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘prop...’skorðu 9/4

skotborgará (noun f.) ‘Kongeå...’Skotborgarô 13/2

skriðr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -] ‘motion, speed...’skriðar 9/3

skríða (verb) ‘creep, glide...’skríðr 16/7

skulu (verb) ‘shall, should, must...’skalt 11/1

skœðr (adj.) ‘dangerous...’skœðan 7/3

skǫr (noun f.) [°skarar; skarir] ‘hair, planking...’skǫrum 4/3

sléttr (adj.) ‘level, smooth...’sléttum 11/3

2slíkr (adj.) ‘such...’slíkt 14/2

1snarla (adv.) ‘quickly...’ — 16/8

sorg (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘sorrow, affliction...’ — 11/6, sorgum 13/2

sól (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir] ‘sun...’sólu 20/2

spenja (verb) ‘entice...’spenði 11/6

spjalli (noun m.) ‘confidant...’ — 8/2

Stafangr (noun m.) ‘Stavanger...’ — 10/5

stalldræpr (adj.) ‘[terror-struck]...’stalldræp 12/8

1stál (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘steel, weapon, prow...’stôlum 10/6

stefjamél (noun n.) ‘[a refrain-section]...’stefjaméli 11/4

stétta (verb) ‘step, board...’stétt 4/3

stinnr (adj.) ‘stiff, firm...’stinnu 1/2, stinnum 4/1

stirðr (adj.) ‘stiff...’Stirðum 10/5

stórr (adj.) ‘large, great...’stóru 3/6

styrr (noun m.) [°dat. -] ‘battle...’styrjar 17/4

stýri (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘rudder...’ — 10/4

1støkkva (verb) ‘(str.) leap, spring; scatter...’stǫkk 7/3, stokkin 4/8

sunnr (adv.) ‘south...’ — 9/1, 12/4

sœkja (verb) ‘seek, attack...’sótti 5/4

sœnskr (adj.) ‘Swedish...’sœnskar 5/2

1søkkva (verb) ‘sink, strong intrans....’ — 4/6

2taka (verb) ‘take...’teknir 5/8, tókt 15/7

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 3/1, 5/4, 5/7, 8/4, 9/5, 11/2, 11/8

tírr (noun m.) [°-s] ‘glory, honour...’tírar 5/7

tjald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘tent, awning...’tjaldi 16/4

tunga (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘tongue, language...’tungu 5/7

typpi (noun n.) ‘[mast-heads]...’ — 10/7

1ulfr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’ulfa 5/5, ulfa 7/2

1um (prep.) ‘about, around...’umb 10/5

1und (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘wound...’ — 16/7

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 16/4, 20/2

ungr (adj.) ‘young...’œri 8/4, Ungan 7/1

2unnr (noun f.) ‘wave...’unnir 18/3

2unz (conj.) ‘until...’ — 3/8

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 17/6

uppi (adv.) ‘up, up in...’ — 10/7, 15/1

útan (prep.) ‘outside, without...’ — 10/1

valda (verb) ‘cause...’valdið 11/5, valdit 13/1

valkǫstr (noun m.) ‘corpse-pile...’ — 13/5

3Valr (noun m.) [°; -ir] ‘Valr, ?horse...’Vals 19/4

2varða (verb) ‘defend...’ — 12/5

vargr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘wolf...’varga 13/8

varta (noun f.) [°; *-ur] ‘[prow, gate]...’varta 4/6

vápn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weapon...’vápna 15/3

1vári (noun m.) ‘defender...’ — 13/5

2veðr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weather, wind, storm...’ — 15/2

2vefja (verb) ‘wrap...’Vafðir 4/5

venðr (noun m.) ‘Wend...’Venða 11/2, Venða 11/6, Venða 13/2

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’es 3/6, es 17/5, es 19/2, estu 3/5, estu 14/7, vas 9/1, vas 9/3, vas 12/2, vas 13/3, vas 13/6

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’urðu 6/7, varð 2/1, varð 11/7, verði 3/7

verri (adj. comp.) ‘worse, worst...’ — 3/6

vesǫlð (noun f.) [°vesalðar; vesalðir] ‘[wretchedness]...’vesǫld 6/8

vetr (noun m.) [°vetrar/vetrs(HómHauksb³ 173²³), dat. vetri; vetr] ‘winter...’vetri 14/6

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 1/2, 9/6, 13/1, 13/4, 15/8, viðr 15/4

2vinna (verb) ‘perform, work...’unnuð 12/7, vannt 4/1, vannt 15/1

virðr (noun m.) ‘man...’virðum 13/7

virki (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘stronghold...’ — 12/6

1vita (verb) ‘know...’veit 3/2, vissi 15/6, vissu 6/5

viti (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘marker...’vitar 17/8

1víða (adv.) ‘widely...’ — 13/7

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’ — 11/5

vísundr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘bison...’Visundr 9/4, Visundr 16/8

vǫndr (noun m.) [°vandar, dat. vendi/vǫnd; vendir, acc. vǫndu/vendi] ‘rod, want, mast...’vendir 4/5

yðvarr (pron.) [°f. yður; pl. yðrir] ‘your...’yðra 6/3, yðrir 6/6, yðru 3/3, yðru 17/2

1Yggr (noun m.) ‘Yggr...’Yggjar 6/2, Yggjar 15/2, 5/2

Yngvi (noun m.) ‘Yngvi, prince...’ — 13/3, 15/5

yppa (verb) ‘extol, lift up...’ — 3/3

yrkisefni (noun n.) ‘material for a poem...’ — 14/1

ýta (verb) ‘launch...’ýtti 9/2

þar (adv.) ‘there...’ — 13/5

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 9/3, 11/7, 12/2

þás (conj.) ‘when...’ — 2/1

þegn (noun m.) [°dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘thane, man, franklin...’þegna 8/1

þengill (noun m.) ‘prince, ruler...’þengils 18/4

þing (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘meeting, assembly...’þinga 5/7

þinn (pron.) [°f. þín, n. þitt] ‘your...’ — 3/7, 13/4, þín 19/2, þínir 6/8

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’þjóðir 19/1, þjóðum 15/7

þokkr (noun m.) ‘thought, disposition...’þokka 7/3

þora (verb) ‘dare...’þorði 12/5

þreytir (noun m.) ‘destroyer, wager, tester...’ — 17/3

þrifnuðr (noun m.) [°þrifnaðar, dat. þrifnaði] ‘prosperity...’ — 3/8

þrýstir (noun m.) ‘crusher...’ — 12/3

þrœnzkr (adj.) ‘from Trøndelag...’þrœnzkar 6/2

þrøngva (verb) ‘press, throng...’ — 7/1

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’þér 3/6, þér 5/4, þér 7/4, þér 8/3, þér 13/6, þér 20/1, þik 7/1, þik 16/5, 14/3, 14/5, 15/7

1þverra (verb) ‘diminish...’þurðuð 5/5

því (adv.) ‘therefore, because...’ — 17/7

2þykkja (verb) ‘seem, think...’þótti 9/7

2æ (adv.) ‘always, forever...’ — 15/1

œðiveðr (noun n.) ‘[raging gale]...’œðiveðrs 16/2

œðri (adj. comp.) ‘nobler, higher...’ — 20/2

œgir (noun m.) ‘terrifier...’œgis 6/4

1ætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘family...’ — 13/8, ættar 9/6

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’ǫldum 5/6

ǫr (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar] ‘arrow...’ǫrva 14/8

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