Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (ÞjóðA)

11th century; volume 2; ed. Diana Whaley;

4. Sexstefja (Sex) - 32

Skj info: Þjóðolfr Arnórsson, Islandsk skjald, d. 1066. (AI, 361-83, BI, 332-53).

Skj poems:
[untitled]
1. Magnúsflokkr
2. Runhent digt om Harald hårdråde
3. Sexstefja
4. Lausavísur

Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (ÞjóðA) is listed in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 254, 262) among the poets of Magnús inn góði ‘the Good’ Óláfsson and Haraldr harðráði ‘Hard-rule’ Sigurðarson, and virtually all his extant poetry seems to have been composed in honour of them, or in association with them; hence it dates from the period 1035-1066. The text of Skáldatal in AM 761 a 4°ˣ (SnE 1848-87, III, 259) also credits Þjóðólfr with poetry for Haraldr Þorkelsson, son of Þorkell inn hávi ‘the Tall’ and one of the Dan. magnates present in Norway during the reign of Sveinn Álfífuson (1030-35). No identifiable fragments of this remain, but if true the tradition would suggest that Þjóðólfr was born not much later than 1010. Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar (Hem) has him die at the battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, and there is no record of him after that date, though Lv 11 has the air of being composed after the battle. Þjóðólfr was, according to Skáldatal and Fsk (ÍF 29, 245), the brother of another skald, Bǫlverkr Arnórsson (Bǫlv), and according to Sneglu-Halla þáttr (Snegl) in Flat (1860-8, III, 415), was from an undistinguished family in Svarfaðardalur, northern Iceland. The same þáttr (p. 421) names his father not as Arnórr but as Þorljótr, in the context of a scurrilous anecdote told against Þjóðólfr by Sneglu-Halli (SnH), who also taunts him with having composed the otherwise unknown Sorptrogsvísur ‘Dustbin Vísur’. The þáttr nevertheless describes him as accomplished (menntr vel) and courteous (kurteis maðr), highly favoured by King Haraldr and chief of his poets (haufutskꜳlld sitt, p. 415). Þjóðólfr’s poetry, rich in allusion and imagery, has continued to be widely admired, and it gains colour and vigour from the fact that he participated in many of the campaigns he depicts. It undoubtedly also reflects the fact that he was one of an exceptional circle of poets patronised by Haraldr (see Turville-Petre 1968), and much of his poetry shares topics and imagery with that of his contemporary Arnórr jarlaskáld (Arn), though there is no account of the dealings between these two. Þjóðólfr figures in several anecdotes centring on poetic composition: see Contexts to Lv 2-6, though we have no way of knowing whether he was so touchy about his reputation as the Context to Lv 4, and Snegl, would suggest; he also features as a go-between figure in Brands þáttr ǫrva, which cites no poetry. For brief biographies of Þjóðólfr see, e.g. SnE 1848-87, III, 578-9; LH 1894-1901, I, 627-32; Hollander 1945, 189-96.

In addition to the works edited here as Þjóðólfr’s, there have been further attributions to him. Þfagr Sveinn 7 is attributed to Þjóðólfr in Mork (1928-32, 165-6) and Flat (1860-8, III, 341), but to Þorleikr fagri in other sources; ÞKolb Eirdr 17I is attributed to Þjóðólfr in the U ms. alone, and Þfisk Lv 3 is attributed to him in F. Further, Flat, by citing Okík Magn 1 after ÞjóðA Magnfl 18 without announcing a change of skald implicitly assigns the latter to Þjóðólfr. We might perhaps also imagine Þjóðólfr having a hand in Anon (HSig) 2, the st. collaboratively composed by Haraldr’s men. A further set of six sts presented are anonymous in the medieval sources but are presented in this edn as Halli XI Fl (for reasons explained in Halli Biography below). These are printed among Þjóðólfr’s works in CPB II, 210-11 and listed under his name in SnE 1848-87, III, 583-4; Poole also finds ‘the ascription to Þjóðólfr Arnórsson … tempting, on stylistic grounds’ (1991, 75).

Preserved mainly in the kings’ sagas, above all in Hkr, Þjóðólfr’s oeuvre presents exceptional problems of reconstruction, which are discussed at some length in the Introductions to the individual poems or sets of sts. The chief problem is that Þjóðólfr certainly composed a major dróttkvætt poem for each of his patrons Magnús (Magnússflokkr, Magnfl) and Haraldr (Sexstefja, Sex), but that in each case there is also a set of sts that may or may not belong in the main encomium. The decision has been taken here to print them separately: fourteen sts depicting the aftermaths of Magnús’s major battles at Århus (Áróss) and Helgenæs (Helganes) are presented as ‘Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi’ (Magn), and seven describing the launch of Haraldr’s great levied fleet from Nidelven (the river Nið) as ‘Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr’ (Har). As a reference aid, the arrangement of Þjóðólfr’s oeuvre in SkP and Skj is shown here.

Magnússflokkr (ÞjóðA Magnfl)
SkP Skj
1-141-14
15Náði jarl at eyða 19
16Rǫnn lézt, ræsir Þrœnda,20
17Hizig laut, es heitir 21
18Flýði jarl af auðu, 22
19Háðisk heilli góðu25
Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi (ÞjóðA Magn)
SkPSkj
1Hrauð leifs mǫgr áðan Magnfl 15
2Misst hafa Sveins at sýnu, Magnfl 16
3Gær sák grjóti stóru Lv 1
4Spurði einu orði Magnfl 17
5Saurstokkinn bar svíra Magnfl 18
6Hrindr af hrókalandi Lv 2
7Menn eigu þess minnask, Lv 3
8Skjǫld bark heim frá hjaldri Magnfl 23
9Bauð leifs sonr áðan Magnfl 24
10Nú taka Norðmenn knýja,Lv 4
11Brum jǫrn at œrnuLv 5
12Svíðr of seggja búðirLv 6
13Fjǫrð lét fylkir verðaLv 7
14Ek hef ekki at drekkaLv 8
Runhent poem about Haraldr (ÞjóðA Run)
SkPSkj
1-41-4
Sexstefja (ÞjóðA Sex)
SkPSkj
1-51-5
6Þjóð veit, at hefr háðar7
7Stólþengils lét stinga6
8Ok hertoga hneykir25
9Reist eikikjǫlr austan8
10Vatn lézt, vísi, slitna,9
11Gegn skyli herr, sem hugnar10
12Frn hefr sveit við Sveini11
13Lét vingjafa veitir12
14Fast bað fylking hrausta13
15Alm dró upplenzkr hilmir14
16Flest vas hirð, sús hraustum15
17Sogns kvðu gram gegnan16
18Sveinn át sigr at launa17
19Nús of verk, þaus vísi,18
20Létu lystir sleitu19
21Tók Holmbúa hneykir20
22Gagn brann greypra þegna; 21
23Fœrði fylkir Hǫrða,22
24Áræðis naut eyðir23
25Refsir reyndan ofsa24
26Mǫrk lét veitt fyr verka26
27Ǫrð sær Yrsu burðar27
28Lét hræteina hveiti32
29Blóðorra lætr barri30a
30Geirs oddum lætr greddir30b
31Gera vas gisting byrjuð29
32Hár skyli hirðar stjóri35
Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr (ÞjóðA Har)
SkPSkj
1Skeið sák framm at flœði, Lv 18
2Slyngr laugardag lǫngu Lv 19
3Rétt kann rœði slíta Lv 20
4Sorgar veit, áðr slíti Lv 21
5Eigu skjól und skógi Lv 22
6Hléseyjar lemr hvan Lv 23
7Haraldr þeysti nú hraustla Lv 24
Fragments (ÞjóðA Frag )
SkPSkj
1 Nús valmeiðum víðisLv 9
2Jarl/Ǫrr lætr, odda skúrar Sex 28
3Ganga él of Yngva Sex 31
4Snart við sæþráð kyrtat Sex 33
5Útan bindr við enda Sex 34
Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Lausavísur (ÞjóðA Lv)
SkPSkj
1Leiða langar dauða Lv 10
2Sumar annat skal sunnar Lv 11
3[Logit hefr Baldr at Baldri]
brynþings fetilstingar
Lv 12
4Mildingr rauð í móðu Lv 13
5Varp ór þrætu þorpi Lv 14
6Sigurðr eggjaði sleggju Lv 15
7Haddan skall, en Halli Lv 16
8Út stendr undan báti Lv 17
9Ǫld es, sús jarli skyldi Lv 25
10Skalka frá, þótt fylkir Lv 26
11Ǫld hefr afráð goldit Lv 27

Reconstructions of the Þjóðólfr corpus are offered by Finnur Jónsson in SnE 1848-87, III, 579-90, which is the basis (almost unchanged) for Skj (AI, 361-83, BI, 332-53), and the Skj ordering is retained in Skald (I, 168-77); other major contributions are by Guðbrandur Vigfússon in CPB (II, 198-212) and by Fidjestøl (1982, 133-43, 172).

The principal eds consulted in the course of re-editing Þjóðólfr’s poetry for SkP are listed for each st., and are of two main types: eds of the skaldic corpus (Finnur Jónsson’s in Skj AI, 361-83; BI, 332-53 and Ernst Albin Kock’s in Skald I, 168-77, supported by numerous NN) and eds of the various prose works in which the poetry is preserved. Extracts are also included in anthologies, articles and other works including (with ten or more sts): CPB II, 198-212; Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 57-60; Hollander 1945,190-6 (annotated translations only), Poole 1991, 59-63; and (with seven sts) Turville-Petre 1976, 97-102. Such works as these, together with others containing comment on the poetry, are cited as appropriate in the Notes.

notes

Sexstefja — ÞjóðA SexII

Diana Whaley 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 108-47.

 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32 

Skj: Þjóðolfr Arnórsson: 3. Sexstefja, o. 1065 (AI, 369-77, BI, 339-46); stanzas (if different): 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 28 | 29 | 30/1-4 | 30/5-8 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35

in texts: Flat, Fsk, Gramm, H-Hr, H-Hr, , Hkr, HSig, LaufE, LaufE, MH, Mork, ÓH, Skm, SnE, TGT

SkP info: II, 108-47

notes: Reallocated - only 10 short stanzas in SnE

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

1 Hvasst frák Haugi it næsta
hlífél á gram drífa,
en Bolgara brennir
brœðr sínum vel tœði.
Skilðisk hann, ok hulði
hjalmsetr gamall vetra
tyggi tolf ok þriggja,
trauðr við Ôleif dauðan.
I learned that a shield-storm [BATTLE] drove sharp against the ruler next to Haug, and the burner of Bulgars [= Haraldr] supported his brother well. He parted, reluctant, from the dead Óláfr, and the prince twelve and three years [lit. winters] old concealed his helmet-stand [HEAD].
2 Tøgu má tekna segja
(tandrauðs) á Serklandi
(ungr hætti sér) átta
(ormtorgs hǫtuðr) borga,
áðr herskorðuðr harðan
Hildar leik und skildi
Serkjum hættr í sléttri
Sikileyju gekk heyja.
One can say that eighty strongholds were captured in the land of the Saracens (Serkland)—the young hater of the flame-red dragon-square [GOLD > RULER] put himself in danger—, before the troop-supporter [WARRIOR], dangerous to the Saracens (Serkir), advanced to wage the harsh sport of Hildr <valkyrie> [BATTLE] behind his shield in level Sicily.
3 Dolgljóss, hefir dási
darrlatr staðit fjarri
endr, þás elju Rindar
ómynda tók skyndir.
Vasat Afríka jǫfri
Ánars mey fyr hônum
haglfaldinni at halda
hlýðisamt né lýðum.
The spear-lazy sluggard stood far away at that time, when the speeder of battle-light [SWORD > WARRIOR] seized the rival of Rindr <giantess> lacking bride-payment [= Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]. It was not possible for the prince of Africans or his people to hold the hail-coifed maiden of Ánarr <dwarf> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)] against him.
4 Lét, þás lypt vas spjótum,
liðs hǫfðingi kviðjat,
enn, þeirs undan runnu,
ulfs grôð, friðar bôðu.
Hann hefr fyr sæ sunnan
— svá finnask til minni —
opt með oddi keyptan
auð, þars leitt vas blauðum.
The commander of the host put a ban on the wolf’s hunger, as spears were raised up, and those who ran away begged for a truce. He has often purchased riches with his spear-point, south of the sea, where it was unpleasant for cowards; memorials of this are to be found.
5 Sás við lund á landi
Langbarða réð ganga.
He who advanced [lit. did advance] with purpose onto the land of the Langobards.
6 Þjóð veit, at hefr háðar
hvargrimmligar rimmur
(rofizk hafa opt fyr jǫfri)
átján Haraldr (sáttir).
Hǫss arnar rautt hvassar,
hróðigr konungr, blóði
— ímr gat krôs, hvars kómuð —
klœr, áðr hingat fœrir.
People know that Haraldr has fought eighteen most ferocious battles; peace has [lit. treaties have] often been slashed at the hands of the ruler. You reddened the sharp claws of the grey eagle with blood, triumphant king, before you travelled here [to Norway]; the dark wolf got a morsel wherever you went.
7 Stólþengils lét stinga
— styrjǫld vas þá byrjuð —
eyðir augu bæði
út heiðingja sútar.
Lagði allvaldr Egða
austr á bragning hraustan
gráligt mark, en Girkja
gǫtu illa fór stillir.
The destroyer of the care [GLADDENER] of the wolf [lit. heath-goer] [WARRIOR] had both eyes of the emperor stabbed out; war was under way then. The overlord of the Egðir [NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr] placed a hostile mark on the daring prince in the east, and the ruler of the Greeks [= Michael] travelled a dire road.
8 Ok hertoga hneykir
herfingnum lét stinga
— leyfð berk hans — ór hǫfði
haugs skundaði augu.
And the confounder of war-leaders [RULER] had the eyes stabbed out of the head of the war-captured impeller of the mound [GENEROUS RULER]; I proffer a eulogy of him [Haraldr].
9 Reist eikikjǫlr austan
ǫrðigt vatn ór Gǫrðum;
Svíar tœðu þér síðan,
snjallr landreki, allir.
Gekk með golli miklu
— glygg fell ótt of tyggja —
hǫll á hléborð sollin
Haralds skeið und vef breiðum.
The oaken keel clove the mounting water from the east out of Russia (Garðar); all the Swedes supported you after that, valiant land-ruler. Haraldr’s waterlogged warship advanced with much gold, listing to the leeward under her broad sail; a raging storm fell upon the prince.
10 Vatn lézt, vísi, slitna,
víðkunnr, of skǫr þunnri,
(dýr klufu flóð) þars fóruð
(flaust) í Danmǫrk austan.
Bauð hǫlf við sik síðan
sonr Ôleifs þér (hôla
frændr, hykk, at þar fyndisk
fegnir) lǫnd ok þegna.
You caused the water to be parted, wide-famed leader, around the thin planking, as you travelled from the east into Denmark; the splendid ships clove the flood. Then Óláfr’s son [= Magnús] offered you half the lands and retainers with himself; I think that the kinsmen met there most joyfully.
11 Gegn skyli herr, sem hugnar,
hjaldrvitjaðar sitja,
dolgstœranda dýrum,
dróttinvandr ok standa.
Lýtr folkstara feiti
(fátt es til, nema játta
þat, sem þá vill gotnum)
þjóð ǫll (konungr bjóða).
The worthy troop of the battle-frequenter [WARRIOR] must sit and stand lord-loyal, as it pleases the excellent war-sweller [WARRIOR]. The whole people bends to the fattener of the war-starling [RAVEN > WARRIOR]; there is little option except to agree to what the king wants to command men at the time.
12 Frôn hefr sveit við Sveini
sinni skipt, til minna,
dôð ok dróttni góðum;
drengspell es þat lengi.
The splendid troop with Sveinn has exchanged its heroism and worthy lord for the lesser [choice]; that will be a blot on nobility for a long time.
13 Lét vingjafa veitir
varghollr dreka skolla
lystr fyr leiðangrs brjósti
— liðs oddr vas þat — miðju.
The eager, wolf-gracious bestower of friendly gifts [GENEROUS RULER] made the dragon-ship rock at the middle of the forefront of the expeditionary fleet; that was the spearhead of the host.
14 Fast bað fylking hrausta
friðvandr jǫfurr standa;
hamalt sýndisk mér hǫmlur
hildings vinir skilda.
Rammsyndan lauk rǫndum
ráðandi manndáða
nýtr fyr Nizi útan
naðr, svát hver tók aðra.
The peace-concerned ruler ordered the valiant troop to stand firm; I witnessed [lit. it appeared to me that] the friends of the commander setting shields at the rowing-positions, in a wedge-shape. The excellent performer of manly deeds [RULER] enclosed the strong-swimming serpent with shields off the Nissan, so that each one abutted the next.
15 Alm dró upplenzkr hilmir
alla nôtt inn snjalli;
hremsur lét á hvítar
hlífr landreki drífa.
Brynmǫnnum smó benjar
blóðugr oddr, þars stóðu
— flugr óx †fannings† vigra —
Finna gjǫld í skjǫldum.
The valiant Oppland king drew his elm-bow all night long; the land-ruler made shafts pelt onto white shields. The bloody point pierced wounds on the byrnie-men, where the tribute of the Saami [ARROWS] penetrated shields; the flight of †fanning’s† spears increased.
16 Flest vas hirð, sús hraustum
hrafns fœði vel tœði,
dauð, áðr dǫglingr næði,
døkks, á land at støkkva.
Skóp furðu þá skerði
skipun ǫll (vas þá) snjǫllum
hrings (til Heljar genginn
hverr fótr) konungs Jóta.
Most of the troop, who served the bold feeder of the dark raven [WARRIOR = Sveinn] well, was dead by the time the prince managed to leap ashore. The whole company of the king of the Jótar [DANISH KING = Sveinn] performed for the valiant damager of the ring [GENEROUS MAN] a marvel then; every foot had then marched off to death’s realm.
17 Sogns kvôðu gram gegnan
glæst sjau tøgu it fæsta
senn á svipstund einni
Sveins þjóðar skip hrjóða.
They said that the upright lord of Sogn [NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr] cleared adorned ships of Sveinn’s people, at least seventy at once, in a single fleeting time.
18 Sveinn át sigr at launa
sex þeim, es hvǫt vexa,
innan eina gunni,
ǫrleiks, Dana jǫrlum.
Varð, sás vildit forða,
vígbjartr, snǫru hjarta,
í fylkingu fenginn
Fiðr Árnasonr miðri.
Sveinn does not have to reward those six jarls of the Danes for victory in one battle, in whom the incitement of munificence does not swell. Finnr Árnason, who did not want to save his valiant heart, was, battle-bright, captured in the midst of the troop.
19 Nús of verk, þaus vísi,
vandmælt, svát af standisk,
auðan plóg at eiga
Upplendingum kenndi.
Sér hefr svá langs tírar
svinns, at æ mun vinnask,
þríu missari þessi
þengils hǫfuð fengit.
Now it is difficult to speak, so that it is adequate, of the deeds by which the prince taught the Upplendingar to own a barren plough. The head of the prudent lord has won itself such enduring glory these three seasons that it will last for ever.
20 Létu lystir sleitu
landkarlar gram varla
— gerði ǫld á jǫrðu
ódœmi — lǫg sœma.
En, því ráði þjóðar,
þeim brutu troll, es ollu,
hæls í hleypikjóla
hrís andskotum vísa.
The landsmen, eager for strife, hardly allowed the king to honour the law; the people committed outrage in the land. But trolls broke brushwood in the speeding ships of the heel [SHOES] of those adversaries of the prince who directed that action of the people.
21 Tók Holmbúa hneykir
harðan taum við Rauma;
þar hykk fast ins frœkna
fylking Haralds gingu.
Eldr vas gǫrr at gjaldi;
gramr réð, en þá téði
hár í hóf at fœra
hrótgarmr búendr arma.
The confounder of the Island-dwellers [= Haraldr] took a hard rein against the Raumar; there I think the troop of the bold Haraldr advanced strongly. Fire was used in requital; the king had his way, and the towering roof-hound [FIRE] served then to bring the wretched farmers into moderation.
22 Gagn brann greypra þegna;
glóð varð fǫst í tróði;
laust hertoga hristir
Heina illum steini.
Lífs bôðu sér lýðir;
logi þingaði Hringum
nauðgan dóm, áðr næmisk
niðrfall Hôolfs galla.
The assets of bold retainers burned up; embers were lodged in the thatch; the shaker of war-leaders [RULER] struck the Heinir with a dire stone. The people begged for their lives; fire pronounced on the Hringar an enforced verdict, before the cessation of the destruction of Hálfr <legendary king> [FIRE] took place.
23 Fœrði fylkir Hǫrða
— friðr namsk ár it þriðja —
— rendr bitu stôl fyr strǫndu —
starf til króks at hvarfi.
The ruler of the Hǫrðar [NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr] brought the task to completion finally; peace took hold in the third year; steel weapons had bitten shields by the shore.
24 Áræðis naut eyðir
aldyggr Selundbyggva;
hugr ræðr hǫlfum sigri
— Haraldr sannar þat — manna.
The most excellent destroyer of Sjælland-dwellers [= Haraldr] deployed his valour; men’s courage determines half the victory; Haraldr is the proof of that.
25 Refsir reyndan ofsa
ráðgegn Haraldr þegnum;
hykk, at hilmis rekkar
haldi upp, þvís valda.
Sverðs hafa slíkar byrðar
— sanns nýtr hverr við annan —
— Haraldr skiptir svá heiptum —
hljótendr, es sér brjóta.
The purposeful Haraldr punishes his retainers for their proven arrogance; I think the prince’s warriors are paying for what they start. The possessors of the sword [WARRIORS] have such burdens as they break off for themselves; each gains what is right from the other; Haraldr deals out hostility in this way.
26 Mǫrk lét veitt fyr verka
vekjandi mér snekkju
(hann lætr hylli sinnar)
hjaldrs (tilgørðir valda).
The rouser of the warship’s battle [WARRIOR] had me presented with a mark for my poetry; he lets deserving actions determine his favour.
27 Ǫrð sær Yrsu burðar
inndrótt jǫfurr sinni
bjartplógaðan bauga
brattakr vǫluspakra.
Eyss landreki ljósu
lastvarr Kraka barri
á hlæmyldar holdi
hauks kǫlfur mér sjǫlfum.
The prince sows with the grain of the offspring of Yrsa [= Hrólfr kraki > GOLD] the bright-ploughed steep field of joint-calm rings [ARM] of his retinue. The fault-shunning land-ruler sprinkles bright barley of Kraki (‘Pole-ladder’) <legendary king> [GOLD] on my own territories of the hawk [ARMS], warmly soil-covered with flesh.
28 Lét hræteina hveiti
hrynja gramr ór brynju;
vill, at vexti belli
valbygg, Haraldr, Yggjar.
The king caused wheat of carrion-twigs [SPEARS] to pour out of his mail-coat; Haraldr wants the barley of the falcon of Yggr <= Óðinn> [(lit. ‘Yggr’s falcon-barley’) RAVEN > CORPSES] to display increase.
29 Blóðorra lætr barri
bragningr ara fagna;
Gauts berr sigð á sveita
svans ǫrð konungr Hǫrða.
The sovereign lets the blood-grouse [RAVEN] rejoice in the eagle’s barley [CORPSES]; the king of the Hǫrðar [NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr] wields the sickle of Gautr <= Óðinn> [SWORD] on the corn of the swan of blood [RAVEN > CORPSES].
30 Geirs oddum lætr greddir
grunn hvert stika sunnar
hirð, þats hann skal varða,
hrægamms ara sævar.
The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN > WARRIOR] has his retinue barricade with spear points, further south, every shallow [lit. ‘each shallow’] that he has to defend.
31 Gera vas gisting byrjuð
gnóg, en ulf* ór skógi
sonr á sôr at spenja
Sigvorðar kom norðan.
Plentiful hospitality was initiated for Geri <wolf>, and the son of Sigurðr [= Haraldr] came from the north to entice the wolf from the forest onto the wounds.
32 Hár skyli hirðar stjóri
hugreifr sonum leifa
arf ok óðaltorfu
— ósk mín es þat — sína.
The tall, mind-cheerful commander of the retinue [RULER] shall leave his sons his legacy and hereditary turf; that is my wish.
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