Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson (Eyv)

10th century; volume 1; ed. Russell Poole;

1. Hákonarmál (Hák) - 21

Skj info: Eyvindr Finnsson skáldaspillir, Norsk skjald, 10. årh. (d. omkr. 990). (AI, 64-74, BI, 57-65).

Skj poems:
1. Hákonarmál
2. Háleygjatal
3. Lausavísur

Eyvindr (Eyv, c. 915-990) has been called the last important Norwegian skald (Genzmer 1920, 159; also Boyer 1990a, 201). He is listed in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 256, 261, 265-6) among the poets of Hákon góði ‘the Good’ Haraldsson and Hákon jarl Sigurðarson. His maternal grandmother was a daughter of Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’, and he seems to have been close to Haraldr’s son Hákon góði from early on, serving at his court as one of a group of brilliant skalds. After Hákon’s death he resided at the court of Haraldr gráfeldr ‘Grey-cloak’, but relations with Haraldr seem to have soured quickly, as evidenced by his lausavísur. Eyvindr spent the last part of his life with the powerful Hákon jarl Sigurðarson of Hlaðir (Lade), whose family had supported Hákon góði against the sons of Eiríkr blóðøx ‘Blood-axe’. According to Hkr (ÍF 26, 221), in addition to Háleygjatal (Hál), Hákonarmál (Hák) and the lausavísur, Eyvindr composed a poem Íslendingadrápa, but this has not come down to us. The epithet skáldaspillir is usually interpreted to mean ‘Plagiarist’, literally ‘Destroyer (or Despoiler?) of Poets’ in reference to his habit of drawing inspiration from and alluding to earlier compositions, specifically Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) for Hál and Eiríksmál (Anon Eirm), along with several eddic poems, for Hák (see Introductions to Hál and Hák). The alternative interpretation ‘Poem-reciter’ proposed by Wadstein (1895a, 88) is unconvincing; see further Olsen (1962a, 28), and Beck (1994a). For further biographical information, see LH I, 447-9, Holm-Olsen (1953) and Marold (1993a).

Hákonarmál (‘Words about Hákon’) — Eyv HákI

R. D. Fulk 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 171.

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Skj: Eyvindr Finnsson skáldaspillir: 1. Hákonarmál, 961 (AI, 64-8, BI, 57-60)

in texts: Fsk, HákGóð, Hkr, Skm, SnE

SkP info: I, 171

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance references search files

 

-fani (noun m.) ‘[standard, banner]...’fana 2/4

-kyrja (noun f.) ‘[kyries]...’kyrjur 11/2

-týrr (noun m.)týrr 14/2

(non-lexical) (unclassified)* 12/1, * 12/4

af (prep.) ‘from...’ — 11/3

aldr (noun m.) [°aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar] ‘life, age...’ — 19/4, aldrs 19/4

all- ((prefix)) ‘very...’all 13/5

allr (adj.) ‘all...’allir 15/3, 15/3, allra 16/2, ǫll 18/6

alls (conj.) ‘since...’ — 14/4

2an (conj.) ‘than...’ — 4/4

3at (prep.) ‘at, to...’ — 7/4, 16/3, 19/6

4at (conj.) ‘that...’ — 13/5, 14/4

5at (nota) ‘to (with infinitive)...’ — 1/3, 1/6, 13/4, 13/6, 17/6

3auðr (adj.) ‘empty, barren...’auða 20/5

3á (prep.) ‘on, at...’ — 3/1, 3/2, 4/2, 7/6, 10/2, 11/3, 13/6, 20/2, 20/5

áðr (adv.) [°//] ‘before...’ — 4/4, 20/4

1ár (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)] ‘oar...’ — 3/8

2Áss (noun m.) [°áss, dat. ási/ás; ásar] ‘god...’Ôsum 16/3

átta (num. cardinal) ‘eight...’ — 16/6

bak (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘back...’baki 11/3

band (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘band, bond...’bǫnd 10/6

bani (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘death, killer...’ — 3/3

baugr (noun m.) [°dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘ring...’bauga 6/2, bauga 8/4

bági (noun m.) [°-a] ‘adversary...’ — 16/4

beneldr (noun m.) ‘[Wound-fires]...’beneld 7/1, beneldar 7/1, benjeldar 7/1

3bera (verb) [°berr; bar, báru; borinn] ‘bear, carry...’borinn 19/2

biðja (verb) [°biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)] ‘ask for, order, pray...’bôðu 18/4

bíta (verb) [°bítr; beit, bitu; bitinn] ‘bite...’beit 5/1, bitu 7/3

bjóða (verb) [°býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)] ‘offer, order, invite...’boðit 10/6

2Bjǫrn (noun m.) ‘Bjǫrn...’Bjarnar 2/1

2blanda (verb) [°blendr; blett, blendu; blandinn] ‘mix, blend (strong)...’Blendusk 8/1

blóð (noun n.) [°-s] ‘blood...’blóði 6/8, blóðum 7/2

blóðigr (adj.) [°blóðgan/blóðugan (f. dat. sg. bloðre Gulᴵ 82³⁴)] ‘bloody...’blóðgum 7/2

borg (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -; -ir] ‘city, stronghold...’borgir 6/7

bógr (noun m.) [°dat. bǿgi; bǿgir, acc. bógu] ‘shoulder...’bægi 16/4

bóndi (noun m.) [°-a; bǿndr/bǿndir(HkrEirsp 58⁴)/bondr(Nj AM 468 4° 78r⁴), gen. & dat. bónd-/bǿnd-] ‘man, farmer, peasant, landowner...’bœndr 10/6

Bragi (noun m.) [°; bragnar] ‘Bragi...’ — 14/1, 16/6

braka (verb) [°-að-] ‘crash, creak...’Brǫkuðu 5/5

bregða (verb) [°bregðr/brigðr; brá, brugðu; brugðinn/brogðinn] ‘pull, jerk, break; change...’brygði 5/4

2brenna (verb) [°brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn] ‘(strong, intransitive)...’Brunnu 7/1

broddr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of spear or arrow...’broddar 5/5

brotna (verb) [°-að-] ‘break, burst...’brotnuðu 5/6

bróðir (noun m.) [°bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---] ‘brother...’brœðr 16/6, Bróður 2/1

1brynja (noun f.) [°-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur] ‘mailcoat...’brynju 2/2, brynju 4/2, brynju 17/4, brynjur 9/4

danr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ir] ‘Dane...’dana 3/7, dani 3/3

darraðr (noun m.) ‘[banner, standard]...’ — 2/6

1deyja (verb) [°deyr; dó, dó(u); dá(i)nn] ‘die...’ — 21/2, Deyr 21/1

dolgr (noun m.) [°dat. -; -ar] ‘enemy, battle...’dolgar 2/5

dolgrá (noun f.) ‘[Enmity-yard-arms]...’dolgráar 2/5

dreyri (noun m.) [°-a] ‘blood...’dreyra 15/3

2drífa (verb) [°drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn] ‘drive, rush...’drifinn 15/3

drúpa (verb) [°-pð-] ‘droop...’Drúpðu 2/5

dúrr (noun m.) ‘°?drowsiness, nap...’durr 2/6

dœgr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘day and night; 24h period...’dœgri 19/1

dœmi (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘judgement, example...’ — 19/1

dǫglingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’dǫglingar 9/1

dǫrr (noun m.) ‘spear...’darrar 2/6, 2/6

2eiga (verb) [°á/eigr (præs. pl. 3. pers. eigu/eiga); átti, áttu; átt] ‘own, have...’átt 16/5, átti 9/6

einherja (noun f.) ‘[einherjar]...’ — 16/1

2einn (pron.) [°decl. cf. einn num.] ‘one, alone...’ein 3/3

2en (conj.) ‘but, and...’ — 2/6, 12/6

4en (conj.) ‘than...’ — 16/1

2er (conj.) ‘who, which, when...’ — 9/6, es 10/4, es 12/5, es 14/5, es 18/4, es 19/3

1ey (noun f.) [°-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar] ‘island...’ — 3/7, eyju 6/5

2eyða (verb) [°-dd-] ‘destroy...’eyðisk 21/3

eyðir (noun m.) ‘destroyer...’ — 3/7

falla (verb) ‘fall...’fell 7/7

fara (verb) [ferr, fór, fóru, farinn] ‘go, travel...’ — 1/5, 2/2, 20/3, ferr 14/4, fór 3/4, fór 21/4

Fenrisulfr (noun m.) ‘[wolf Fenrir]...’ — 20/3

(noun n.) [°fjár/féar; -] ‘cattle, money...’ — 21/1

2finna (verb) ‘find, meet...’fundu 2/1

firar (noun m.) ‘men...’ — 6/6

1fjara (noun f.) ‘shore, foreshore...’fjǫru 7/8

fjándi (noun m.) [°-a; fjándr/fjándar/fjándir] ‘enemy, devil...’fíandr 12/6

fjándmaðr (noun m.) ‘enemy...’fíandmenn 12/6

fjǫr (noun n.) ‘life...’fjǫrvi 7/4

fleinn (noun m.) [°dat. fleini] ‘spear...’fleina 7/7

fljúga (verb) ‘fly...’flugu 12/6

2flóð (noun n.) ‘flood...’ — 7/7

1fótr (noun m.) ‘foot, leg...’fótum 4/1

frá (prep.) ‘from...’ — 12/3, 15/2

frændi (noun m.) ‘kinsman, male relative...’frændr 21/2

fyr (prep.) ‘for, over, because of, etc....’ — 6/2, 8/8

fyrir (prep.) ‘for, before, because of...’ — 11/6

1gagn (noun n.) ‘victory...’gagns 12/3

2ganga (verb) [geng, gekk, gengu, genginn] ‘walk, go...’gangið 14/3, gengi 10/3

gauti (noun m.) ‘man, Geat...’Gauta 1/2

2gegn (prep.) ‘against...’gǫgn 14/3

geirr (noun m.) ‘spear...’geir 10/2, Geir 12/2, geirs 10/2

gengi (noun n.) ‘support, following...’ — 3/6

2gerð (noun f.) ‘gear...’Gerðar 17/1

2geta (verb) ‘to beget, give birth to, mention, speak ...’getit 19/6, getr 19/3

gjǫfull (adj.) [°gjǫflan; superl. gjǫflastr] ‘munificent...’gjǫfli 3/5

glaðværr (adj.) ‘[cheerful]...’glaðværi 4/7

2glumra (verb) ‘[clattered]...’glumruðu 5/7

glymhringr (noun m.)glymhringar 5/7

glymja (verb) ‘resound...’glumðu 5/7

glymringr (noun m.)glymringar 5/7

goð (noun n.) ‘(pagan) god...’ — 21/5, goða 10/3, goða 13/3, goðum 12/3

gotnar (noun m.) ‘men...’gotna 5/8

góðr (adj.) ‘good...’góði 17/2, Góðu 19/1, góðu 19/6, Gótt 3/5, gótt 17/6

1gramr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’gram 4/7, grami 14/3, 4/7, 19/2

grið (noun n.) ‘truce...’ — 16/1

2grœnn (adj.) [°superl. grǿnastr/grǿnstr] ‘green...’grœna 13/3, grœnna 13/3

gull (noun n.) ‘gold...’goll 4/8, 3/8

gunnr (noun f.) ‘battle, Gunnr...’gunn 2/4, gunni 12/1

Gylfi (noun m.) ‘Gylfi...’ — 4/7

gylfringr (noun m.) ‘[swords]...’gylfringa 5/7, gylfringar 5/7

gymir (noun m.) ‘[sea]...’ — 7/5, gymis 7/5

gær (adv.) ‘[Yesterday]...’ — 12/2

gǫfugr (adj.) [°gǫfgan/gǫfugan; compar. gǫfgari/gǫfugri, superl. gǫfgastr/gǫfugstr/gǫfugastr] ‘noble, glorious...’gǫfgi 3/5

Gǫndul (noun f.) ‘[Gǫndul, Göndul]...’ — 1/1, 10/1

1gǫrr (adj.) ‘ample, perfect...’gǫrs 17/6

hafa (verb) ‘have...’ — 10/4, 16/2, 17/3, hafði 3/5, hafði 18/2, hǫfðusk 11/6

halda (verb) ‘hold, keep...’helt 12/5

hann (pron.) [°gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana] ‘he, she, it, they, them......’ — 13/6, hans 15/6, Hans 19/4, þeir 2/1, þær 2/1

harðfótr (noun m.) ‘[hard feet]...’harðfótum 6/3

hauss (noun m.) [°hauss, dat. hausi/haus; hausar] ‘skull...’hausa 6/4, hausar 6/4, hausum 5/8

haust (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘autumn...’haustum 5/8

Hákon (noun m.) ‘Hákon...’Hákun 12/1

háleygr (noun m.) ‘one of the Háleygir, Háleygjar...’Háleygi 3/1

3hár (adj.) [°-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr] ‘high...’ 10/4, 18/4, 21/4

hefja (verb) ‘lift, start...’hafin 2/7, hafinn 2/7

heiðinn (adj.) ‘heathen...’heiðin 21/5

3heill (adj.) [°heilan; compar. heilli, superl. -astr/-str] ‘healthy, hale, hail...’heilan 18/5

heim (adv.) ‘home, back...’ — 10/6

heimr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘home, abode; world...’heima 13/3

2heita (verb) ‘be called, promise...’Hét 3/1

heldr (adv.) ‘rather...’hellz 12/5, hellzt 12/5

Hermóðr (noun m.) ‘Hermóðr, War-weary ...’ — 14/1

herr (noun m.) [°-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra] ‘army, host...’her 4/1, her 10/5, 9/5

2heyra (verb) ‘hear...’heyrði 11/1

hér (adv.) ‘here...’ — 3/2, 13/5, 16/5

1hildr (noun f.) ‘battle...’ — 2/7

himinn (noun m.) [°himins, dat. himni; himnar] ‘heaven, sky...’himni 8/2

hinnig (adv.) ‘here, hence...’hinig 14/6

hirða (verb) ‘hide, care for...’ — 17/5

hjalmaðr (adj./verb p.p.) ‘helmeted...’hjalmaðar 11/5

1hjalmr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘helmet...’hjalm 17/4, hjalmi 3/8, hjalmi 4/8

hjalt (noun n.) [°; *-] ‘hilt...’hjalta 6/3

hlíf (noun f.) [°-ar; -ar] ‘shield, defence...’hlífar 11/6

hníga (verb) ‘sink, fall...’hné 8/7

holmrygr (noun m.) ‘[Hólmrygir]...’Holmrygi 3/1, Holmrygi 3/2

1hrinda (verb) ‘launch, propell...’hratt 4/2

hrista (verb) ‘shake...’hristisk 2/6

1hrjóða (verb) ‘clear, destroy...’Hrauzk 4/1

hropti (noun m.) [°-a] ‘[Hropta]...’Hropta 14/2

hugr (noun m.) ‘mind, thought, courage...’hugi 15/6, hugum 9/6

hvat (pron.) ‘what...’ — 11/2

hvárr (pron.) ‘who, which, what, whether...’hvarr 1/4

2hverr (pron.) ‘who, whom, each, every...’hverja 16/1, 1/4

hvé (conj.) ‘how...’ — 18/2

hví (adv.) ‘why...’ — 12/1

hyggiliga (adv.) ‘[prudently]...’ — 11/4

1hǫll (noun f.) [°hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir] ‘hall...’hallar 9/7, hallar 14/6, 1/6

hǫnd (noun f.) [°handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)] ‘hand...’hendi 5/2

illúðigr (adj.) ‘[hostile]...’ — 15/4

2inn (art.) ‘the...’in 2/3, in 13/2, inir 3/5, 2/3, 3/5, 4/7, 17/2

2inni (adv.) ‘in, inside, indoors...’ — 16/5

í (prep.) ‘in, into...’ — 1/6, 2/2, 5/2, 5/4, 5/8, 6/5, 6/8, 7/2, 7/8, 8/6, 9/6, 12/2, 14/3, 15/3

jafngóðr (adj.) ‘[so good, as good]...’ — 20/4

jarl (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘poet, earl...’jarla 3/3, Jarla 16/4

jǫtunn (noun m.) [°jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar] ‘giant...’jǫtna 5/8

kalla (verb) ‘call...’kallar 3/2

1kappi (noun m.) [°-a; -ar] ‘champion...’ — 14/5

kjósa (verb) ‘choose...’ — 1/3

koma (verb) [kem, kom/kvam, kominn] ‘come...’ — 13/5, 18/5, komi 20/6, kominn 2/4, kominn 15/2

konungr (noun m.) [°dat. -i, -s; -ar] ‘king...’konung 2/3, konung 20/6, konunga 1/3, konungar 6/6, 14/4, 17/2, 18/2, 20/6

kostsamr (adj.) ‘[admirable]...’kostsama 2/3

kveða (verb) ‘say, recite...’kvað 12/1, kvað 12/4

2kveðja (verb) ‘say, greet...’kvað 13/2, kvað 14/2, kvað 16/6, kvað 17/2

1kyn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘kin...’kon 18/4, kun 21/4, kuni 10/4

kynna (verb) ‘make known, reveal...’kynnðisk 18/1

land (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘land...’ — 4/6, 21/3

langbarðr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘Langobard...’langbarðar 7/3

2láð (noun n.) ‘earth, land...’ — 21/3

láta (verb) ‘let, have sth done...’létu 11/4

3leika (verb) ‘play...’Lék 4/5, léku 8/3

1leikr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -/-i; -ar] ‘sport, play...’leik 4/5

2ljóðr (noun m.) ‘= lýðr, people...’ljóð 4/5

1lúta (verb) ‘(strong)...’lutu 7/3

lýðr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -; -ir] ‘one of the people...’lýða 7/4

maðr (noun m.) ‘man, person...’ — 20/6, manna 3/6, manna 6/4, manna 8/7

2margr (adj.) [°-an] ‘many...’margir 6/6, mart 8/7, mǫrg 21/6

2marr (noun m.) ‘horse...’mars 11/3

með (prep.) ‘with...’ — 1/5, 9/2, 9/3, 10/5, 21/5

mikill (adj.) [°mikinn] ‘great, large...’mikinn 10/5

mjǫk (adv.) ‘very, much...’ — 15/4

munu (verb) ‘will, must...’mun 13/5, mun 19/5, Mun 20/1

mækir (noun m.) ‘sword...’mækis 8/8

1mæla (verb) ‘speak, say...’mælti 10/1, mælti 15/1, mæltu 11/2

2mærr (adj.) ‘famous...’mærar 11/3

mǫgr (noun m.) [°; megir, acc. mǫgu] ‘son, boy...’mǫgu 4/5

nes (noun n.) [°-s; -, gen. -ja] ‘headland...’nesi 7/6

norð- ((prefix)) ‘northern, Norwegian...’Norð 3/6, Norð 6/4

(adv.) ‘now...’ — 10/3, 13/1, 13/5

oddlá (noun f.) ‘[Point-waves]...’oddláar 8/5

oddr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i; -ar] ‘point of weapon...’oddar 5/5

3of (prep.) ‘around, from; too...’ — 1/3, 2/7, 6/2, 8/4, 9/2, 15/6, 18/3

4of (particle) ‘(before verb)...’ — 5/4, 10/6, 19/2, 20/3, 21/6

3ok (conj.) ‘and, but; also...’ — 1/1, 1/6, 6/2, 6/4, 9/4, 9/6, 11/5, 11/6, 13/6, 14/1, 17/4, 18/6, 21/3

orrusta (noun f.) [°-u; -ur] ‘battle...’orrostu 3/4

óbundinn (adj./verb p.p.) ‘[unbound]...’ — 20/1

Óðinn (noun m.) ‘Óðinn...’Óðin 1/5, 15/5, Óðins 8/6, Óðni 1/5, Óðni 13/4

3ór (prep.) ‘out of...’ — 2/2, 4/1, 5/2

ráð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘advice, plan, control, power...’rôð 18/6

regin (noun n.) ‘divine power...’ — 18/6

regn (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘rain...’regni 18/6

1ríða (verb) ‘ride...’ — 13/1

ríkr (adj.) ‘mighty, powerful, rich...’ríka 13/2, ríkja 13/2

rjóða (verb) ‘to redden...’roðnar 8/1, ruðu 6/6

róma (noun f.) ‘battle...’ — 6/5, rómu 15/2

2rœða (verb) ‘utter, speak...’rætt 4/2

ræsir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 15/1

rǫnd (noun f.) [°dat. -/-u; rendr/randir] ‘shield, shield-rim...’randar 8/2

1 (pron.) [°gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---] ‘that (one), those...’ — 3/2, 9/5, 14/5, 18/2, 19/2, þat 10/1, þat 11/1, þat 15/1, þat 18/1, því 12/4

2sár (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘wound...’ — 7/5

2sefi (noun m.) ‘mind...’sefa 19/3

segja (verb) ‘say, tell...’ — 13/4

sem (conj.) ‘as, which...’ — 5/4

sems (conj.) ‘[just as]...’ — 3/2

senda (verb) ‘send...’sendi 1/2, sendir 1/2

setja (verb) ‘place, set, establish...’siti 21/4

sik (pron.) [°gen. sín, dat. sér] ‘(refl. pron.)...’sér 19/3

siklingr (noun m.) [°; -ar] ‘king, ruler...’siklings 5/2

sitja (verb) ‘sit...’Sôtu 9/1

síðan (adv.) ‘later, then...’ — 21/4

síz (conj.) ‘since...’ — 21/4

sjalfr (adj.) ‘self...’sjalfan 13/6, sjalfir 17/3, 13/6, 17/3

1sjá (pron.) [°gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir] ‘this...’ — 15/6

2sjá (verb) ‘see...’séa 13/6

sjór (noun m.) ‘sea...’ — 7/5

sjǫt (noun n.) ‘dwelling...’ — 20/2

skapt (noun m.) [°; *-] ‘°(Fr def. 5 “en af de Stænger hvormed Væ...’skapti 10/2

skara (verb) ‘jut out, poke...’skarða 9/3

skati (noun m.) [°-a; -nar] ‘chieftan, prince...’skatna 6/8

skila (verb)skilir 5/6

skipta (verb) ‘share, divide, exchange...’skiptir 12/2

2skírr (adj.) ‘pure, bright...’skíra 6/7, skírar 6/7

skjóta (verb) ‘shoot...’skotnar 9/4

skjǫldr (noun m.) [°skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu] ‘shield...’skildir 5/6, skjald 6/7, skjǫldu 9/3

skulu (verb) ‘shall, should, must...’skal 17/5, skalt 16/2, skulum 13/1, skyldi 1/5, skyldi 4/6

ský (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘cloud...’ský* 8/4, skýs 8/4

Skǫgul (noun f.) ‘Skǫgul...’Skǫglar 8/3, 1/1, 12/2, 12/4, 13/2

2slíkr (adj.) ‘such...’slíkan 19/3

standa (verb) ‘stand...’stóð 3/8, stóð 4/8, stóð 15/3, stóðu 11/5

3Storð (noun f.) ‘[Stord]...’Storðar 7/8

straumr (noun m.) [°-s, dat. -i/-; -ar] ‘stream, current...’straumi 8/8

2styðja (verb) ‘protect, support...’studdisk 10/2

svá (adv.) ‘so, thus...’ — 5/1, 12/1

sverð (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘sword...’ — 5/1, 9/2, sverða 7/6, sverðum 9/2

sœfa (verb) ‘die, kill...’ — 19/3

2taka (verb) ‘take...’ — 17/6, tœki 4/4

targa (noun f.) [°*-u; *-ur] ‘shield...’tǫrgur 6/1

til (prep.) ‘to...’ — 3/4, 4/4, 9/7, 14/6, 17/6

2tjúga (verb) ‘draw, tug...’togin 9/2

trauðr (adj.) ‘reluctant...’traut 20/5

troða (verb) ‘tread...’Trǫddusk 6/1

trǫð (noun f.) [°traðar; traðir] ‘path...’ — 20/5

Týr (noun m.) ‘Týr...’ — 1/2, 14/2, Týs 6/2

1um (prep.) ‘about, around...’ — 4/8, 15/6

2um (particle) ‘(particle)...’ — 20/3

1und (noun f.) [°; -ir] ‘wound...’undum 7/2

3und (prep.) ‘under, underneath...’ — 2/4, 3/8, 4/8, 8/2

undir (prep.) ‘under...’ — 2/4

upp (adv.) ‘up...’ — 2/7

útan (prep.) ‘outside, without...’úta 20/2

vald (noun n.) [°-s; *-] ‘strength, power...’valdi 6/2

valda (verb) ‘cause...’vǫldum 12/4

valdr (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 13/5

1valr (noun m.) [°dat. -i; -ir] ‘corpse, the slain...’Val 1/6, Val 9/7, val 11/2

vatn (noun n.) [°-s; -*] ‘water, lake...’ — 5/4

vaxa (verb) ‘grow, increase...’Vex 10/3

váð (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘clothes...’váðir 5/3, vôðum 4/1

Váfuðr (noun m.) ‘Váfuðr...’Váfaðar 5/3

várr (pron.) [°f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir] ‘our...’órar 17/1, órum 12/3

2veðr (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘weather, wind, storm...’ — 8/3, veðri 8/6

1vegr (noun m.) [°-s/-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, gen. -a/-na, acc. -a/-i/-u] ‘way, path, side...’vega 9/7

vel (adv.) ‘well, very...’ — 17/5, 18/3

2vera (verb) ‘be, is, was, were, are, am...’es 17/6, es 21/6, séumk 15/6, var 15/6, var 19/2, vas 2/7, vas 15/2, Vasa 9/5, 4/6, vesa 1/6, vesa 15/5, vesa 19/5, voru 17/1

1verða (verb) ‘become, be...’varð 6/5, varð 13/1, verðr 19/2

3verðr (adj.) ‘worth, worthy...’verðir 12/3

verðung (noun f.) ‘troop, retinue...’verðungar 4/3

3verja (verb) ‘defend...’ — 4/6

1 (noun n.) ‘house, sanctuary...’véum 18/3

vér (pron.) [°gen. vár, dat./acc. oss] ‘we, us, our...’oss 15/5, 12/4, 15/6, 17/3

2við (prep.) ‘with, against...’ — 2/4, 4/5, 6/2, 8/1, 8/4

vilja (verb) ‘want, intend...’viljum 17/3

2vit (pron.) ‘we two...’ — 13/1

víg (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘battle...’vígs 4/4

vísi (noun m.) [°-a] ‘leader...’ — 4/3, 11/1

2vísir (noun m.) ‘ruler...’ — 4/3

vǫllr (noun m.) [°vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli] ‘plain, field...’velli 12/5, vǫll 4/2

vǫrðr (noun m.) [°varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu] ‘guardian, defender...’ — 2/6

ymja (verb) ‘howl, resound...’Umðu 8/5

Yngvi (noun m.) ‘Yngvi, prince...’Yngva 1/4

ýtr (noun m.) ‘man; launcher...’ýta 20/2

2þá (adv.) ‘then...’ — 2/7, 5/1, 9/1, 18/1

þiggja (verb) ‘receive, get...’þigg 16/3

þinn (pron.) [°f. þín, n. þitt] ‘your...’þínir 12/6

þjá (verb) ‘enslave, torture...’þéuð 21/6

þjóð (noun f.) [°-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir] ‘people...’ — 21/6

þó (adv.) ‘though...’ — 12/3

þú (pron.) [°gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik] ‘you...’ — 12/1, 12/5, 16/2, 16/3, 16/5

því (adv.) ‘therefore, because...’ — 14/4

2þykkja (verb) ‘seem, think...’þykkir 14/5, þykkir 15/5

þyrma (verb) ‘respect, spare, revere...’þyrmt 18/3

2æ (adv.) ‘always, forever...’ — 19/5

œgir (noun m.) ‘terrifier...’ — 3/7

1ætt (noun f.) [°-ar; -ir] ‘family...’ættar 1/4

ǫl (noun n.) [°-s; -] ‘ale...’ — 16/3

ǫld (noun f.) [°; aldir] ‘people, age...’aldar 19/4

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